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Building Information Modeling, BIM, is the life-cycle management of the built environment supported by digital technology. As such, the core requirements of BIM include collaboration, standardized information, multiple domain competencies, and several supporting interoperable technologies.
Let’s face it, BIM continues to languish. Sure a lot of architects use it for pretty pictures to win business, and there are several “case studies” surrounding clash detection, etc. etc. However, life-cycle and/or ongoing facility management using BIM? No so much.
This is not only sad but economically and environmentally imprudent. The efficient life-cycle management of the built environment is critical to both global competitiveness and preserving sustainable resources.
Why is BIM of to a slow start? Too much focus on 3D visualization, too much “reinventing the wheel” trying to fit a square peg in a round hole, and virtually NO EMPHASIS upon the requirements for life-cycle management… associated competencies, domains, technologies, ongoing collaboration, integration, and continuous improvement.
Design-bid-build and “low bid” awards are the downfall of the Architecture, Engineering, Construction, Owner, and Operations sector. The method is antagonistic, wasteful, and typically delivers poor initial and ongoing results.
Focus upon CHANGE MANAGEMENT and building awareness relative to both COLLABORATIVE CONSTRUCTION DELIVERY METHODS AND LIFECYCLE, TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP MANAGMENT is the only thing that will “kick start” BIM.
Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) and Job Order Contracting (JOC) are both collaborative construction delivery methods that have been proven for decades, however, awareness remains low. IPD’s focus is upon major new construction, while JOC focuses upon the numerous renovation, repair, sustainability, and minor new construction projects so critical to efficient use of our current infrastructure.
The below diagram outlines the competencies, technologies, and process required for the lifecycle management of the built environment.
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While articles and discussions continue about Facility Management and BIM, in reality they are virtual synonyms.
Facility management is a profession that encompasses multiple disciplines to ensure functionality of the built environment by integrating people, place, process and technology. – Definition of Facility Management – IFMA
Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. A BIM is a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life-cycle; defined as existing from earliest conception to demolition. – NIBS
In order to achieve either efficiently I argue that Information and Process must be shared in a consistent, mutually understood format among all stakeholders of the built environment: Owners, AEs, Contractors, Sub-contractors, Business Product Manufacturers, Building Users, and Oversight Groups.
The problem remains, however, that many don’t understand the multiple knowledge domains or competencies associated with the life-cycle management of the built environment, nor how to integrated them. What is even worse, is that some of those that do understand are unwilling to share that information due to perceived issues with doing so.
NBIMS and similar efforts are steps in the right direction. NBIMS attempts to consolidate and communicate information requirements, models, and associated usage processes, with an “open industry” approach.
Owners must clearly push for BIM and Life-cycle Facility Management. Why? Simple…they pay the bills and it is in their best interests to optimize their return on investment (ROI). That said, Owners can’t do it alone. By the very nature of the industry, all stakeholders must collaborate. Unlike an airplane, or car… buildings are around for 50-100 years, have multiple uses, and can be adapted to changing situations.. also a far greater number of suppliers and service providers are involved, as well as a virtually infinite number of configurations.
Here’s are quick graphic of just a few of the areas, competencies, and technologies involved:
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By Peter Cholakis
Published in the March 2013 issue of Today’s Facility Manager
Emergent disruptive technologies and construction delivery methods are altering both the culture and day-to-day practices of the construction, renovation, repair, and sustainability of the built environment. Meanwhile, a shifting economic and environmental landscape dictates significantly improved efficiencies relative to these facility related activities. This is especially important to any organization dependent upon its facilities and infrastructure to support and maintain its core mission.
The disruptive digital technologies of building information modeling (BIM) and cloud computing, combined with emergent collaborative construction delivery methods are poised to alter the status quo, ushering in increased levels of collaboration and transparency. A disruptive technology is one that alters the very fabric of a business process or way of life, displacing whatever previously stood in its place. BIM and cloud computing fit the profile of disruptive technologies, individually, and when combined these stand to create a tidal wave of change.
BIM is the life cycle management of the built environment, supported by digital technology. While a great deal of emphasis has been placed upon 3D visualization, this is just a component of BIM. The shift from a “first cost mentality” to a life cycle cost or total cost of ownership is a huge change for many. Improving decision making practices and applying standardized terms, metrics, and cost data can also prove challenging. An understanding and integration of the associated knowledge domains important to life cycle management is required, resulting in what is now being referred to as “big data.”
Cloud computing is also a disruptive technology, and it’s one that impacts several areas. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) definition of cloud computing is as follows, “Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. The cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.”
It is perhaps helpful to define cloud computing in terms of its benefits. Cloud computing enables far greater levels of collaboration, transparency, and information access previously unavailable by traditional client/server, database, or even prior generation web applications. Multiple users can work on the same data set with anyone, anywhere, anytime, in multicurrency, multilanguage environments. All changes can be tracked to “who did what” within seconds (potentially the best form of security available), and information is never deleted.
The disruptive technologies of BIM and cloud computing will accelerate the adoption of emergent construction delivery methods and foster new frameworks. Design-bid-build, the traditional construction delivery method for decades, is inherently flawed. As a lowest bid deployment it immediately sets up adversarial relationships for involved parties. Owners prepare a solicitation for construction projects based on their understanding of them1, with or without third-party A/E assistance, and in most cases they go out in search of the lowest bidder. Then without a thorough understanding of the owner’s facility, bidders base their responses on the owner’s solicitation, plans, and specifications. Owners typically allow a period of time for bidders’ questions and clarifications; but the quality of this interchange is at best questionable if based solely on a written scope, plans and specifications, and/or a meeting with suppliers.
Design-build, arguably a step in right direction, falls short of bringing all stakeholders together. More responsibility of design and construction is shifted to the contractor and/or A/E. However, the dual level participation structure doesn’t assure the interests of all parties are equally addressed. Furthermore, the design-build process is typically reserved for major new construction projects versus the numerous sustainability, repair, renovation projects, and minor new construction projects typically encountered by facility managers (fms).
Because BIM brings together previously disparate information into a framework that enables decision support, using the technology requires a collaborative construction delivery method. The integration of the domain knowledge and robust processes required to allow fms, A/Es, and other stakeholders to achieve heightened levels of information sharing and collaboration is enabled by methods that include Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) and Job Order Contracting (JOC).
Key characteristics of these emergent construction delivery methods include: choices based on best value; some form of pricing transparency; early and ongoing information sharing among project stakeholders; appropriate distribution of risk; and some form of financial incentive to drive performance.
Both IPD and JOC allow, if not require, owner cost estimators and project managers to “partner” with contractors, subcontractors, and A/Es to conceptualize, create, cost, prioritize, start, and report upon projects—in the very early phases of construction.
IPD, JOC, and Simplified Acquisition of Base Civil Engineering Requirements (SABER)—the U.S. Air Force term for applying JOC practices—are practiced simultaneously by a growing number of organizations and supported by digital technologies. These construction delivery processes are embedded within software to allow for rapid, cost-effective, and consistent deployment as well as the associated level of collaboration and transparency.
BIM and cloud computing are disruptive technologies that will accelerate the adoption of emergent construction delivery methods such as IPD and JOC. Construction delivery methods set the tone and level of interaction among project participants and can be viewed as the management process framework. When supported by BIM and cloud computing, the life cycle management of the built environment, and the associated management of big data, can be expected to become commonplace for many construction projects.
Cholakis is chief marketing officer for 4Clicks Solutions, LLC, a Colorado Springs, CO provider of cost estimating and project management software. With expertise in facilities life cycle costs and total cost of ownership in various market segments, he is involved in numerous industry associations and committees including the American Society of Safety Engineers, Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering, Society of American Military Engineers, BIM Library Committee-National Institute for Building Sciences (NIBS), and National Building Information Model Standard Project Committee.
1 “The Art of Thinking Outside the Box;” Vince Duobinis; 2008.
While at first perhaps a bit intimidating… illustrating the life-cycle management within a BIM context is relatively straightforward.
The purpose of this Framework is to provide a general guide that your team can quickly customize to your specific requirements. Like a restaurant menu or a travel guide, you can visualize the resources available and decide on an appropriate strategic configuration of options.
Just begin in the Center and work thru this Action Agenda using, when available and appropriate, tested processes and templates. Using these guidelines, set up a BIM Management structure with your stakeholders.
The Building Information Management Framework (BIMF) illustrates a how people, processes, and technology interact to support the built environment throughout its life-cycle. Based upon the associated level of detail, an operating model can be developed to more efficiently identify, prioritize, and meet the current and future needs of built environment stakeholders (Owners, AE’s, Contractors, Occupants, Oversight Groups…)
More specifically, modular, Model View Definitions (MVD), associated exchange specifications and common data architectures [for example: Industry Foundation Class (IFC), OMNICLASS] can help to integrate multi-discipline Architecture, Engineering, Construction (AEC) “activities”, “business processes”, “associated competencies” and “supporting technologies” to meet overall requirements with a goal of continuous improvement.
WORK GROUP FORMATION – Roles and Relationships;
PROCESS MAP – who does what, in which sequence, and why;
EXCHANGE REQUIREMENTS & BASIC BUSINESS RULES – Overall guidelines for information integration
EXCHANGE REQUIREMENT MODELS – Specific information “maps”
GENERIC MODEL VIEW DEFINTION (MVD) – Strategic approach incorporating guidelines for information format, content, and use;
MODEL VIEW DEFINTION & IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS – Specific format, content, and use
PROJECT AGREEMENT REQUIREMENTS – LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT (LOD) – Defined “project” deliverables
(Adapted from: IMPROVING THE ROBUSTNESS OF MODEL EXCHANGES USING PRODUCT MODELING ‘CONCEPTS’ FOR IFC SCHEMA -Manu Venugopal, Charles Eastman, Rafael Sacks, and Jochen Teizer – with ongoing assistance/input from NBIMS3.0 Terminology Subcommittee)
Model View Definitions (MVD) and associated exchange specifications, provide the best benefit if they are modular and reusable and developed from Industry Foundation Class (IFC) Product Modeling Concepts. Model views and overall life-cycle management are similar in this regard.
Building Information Modeling (BIM) tools serving the Architecture, Engineering, Construction (AEC) span multiple “activities”, “business processes”, “associated competencies” and “supporting technologies”, and each may required different internal data model representation to suit each domain. Data exchange is therefore a critical aspect. Inter and intra domain standardized data architectures and associated adoption of matching robust processes are really the first step toward successfully managing the built environment.
Construction Disruption Peter Cholakis
Emergent disruptive technologies and construction delivery methods are altering both the culture and day-to-day practices of the construction, renovation, repair, and sustainability of the built environment.
Both IPD and JOC allow, if not require, owner cost estimators and project managers to “partner” with contractors, subcontractors, and A/Es to conceptualize, create, cost, prioritize, start, and report upon projects—in the very early phases of construction.
Cholakis is chief marketing officer for 4Clicks Solutions, LLC (www.4clicks.com), a Colorado Springs, CO provider of cost estimating and project management software. With expertise in facilities life cycle costs and total cost of ownership in various market segments, he is involved in numerous industry associa- tions and committees including the American Society of Safety Engineers, Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering, Society of American Military Engi- neers, BIM Library Committee-National Institute for Building Sciences (NIBS), and National Building Information Model Standard Project Committee.
BIM requires some form of Integrated Project Delivery… Period. Why you say?
Simple. BIM is the life-cycle management of the built environment supported by digital technology. BIM therefore, requires the integration of multiple knowledge domains, stakeholders and supporting technologies… from strategic and capital planning, through design, construction, operations, utilization, repair, renovation, adaptation, maintenance, and deconstruction.
Efficient project delivery methods such as IPD and Job Order Contracting (JOC) are integral components of efficiently managing the built environment over time. The help define the specialized framework needed to enable Owners, AEs, Contractors, Oversight Groups, and other Stakeholders share information and collaborate to enable the appropriate distribution of resources needed to optimize the physical and function conditions of the built environments.
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1. Robust, collaborative construction delivery methods – IPD, Integrated Project Delivery, JOC – Job Order Contracting, et al . Collaboration in the building industry requires the integration of complex inter-related workflows whereby multitude of stakeholders are incorporated into a common pool of information, decision-support, and activities over an extensive period of time.
2. Standardized “Glossary”.. terms, acronyms, definitions.
3. Benchmarks, metrics.
4. Life-cycle perspective and management techniques/processes… vs. a “first cost mentality”.
5. Technology focused upon enabling robust processes…vs. current focus upon 3D modeling. Embedding vetted processes with technology enables consistent, scalable deployment.
6. Current examples of “open’ and standardized knowledge domains, processes, terms, and technologies.
Capital planning and management systems (CPMS) – physical and functional condition monitoring and associated capital reinvestment planning. traditionally dealing with expenditures in excess of $10,000.
Computerized Maintenance Management systems (CMMS) – inventory, repair, maintenance of ‘movable equipment’. Typically involving expenditures of $10,000 or less.
Computer-Aid Facility Managements Systems (CAFM) – space planning, move management, space utilization.
Building Automation Systems (BAS) – security, life/safety, access control, environment systems management.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) – computerized location management / positioning.
Create, read, update, delete) operations (CRUD)
Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) – structure enabling native storage of instance models
Simple Object Access Protocol, is a protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of Web Services in computer networks.
Representational State Transfer (REST) is an architectural style for large-scale software design
Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBie) a specification used in the handover of Facility Management information.
OMNICLASS in simple terms, a standard for organizing all construction information. The concept for OmniClass is derived from internationally-accepted standards that have been developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Construction Information Society (ICIS) subcommittees and workgroups from the early-1990s to the present.
ISO Technical Committee 59, Subcommittee 13, Working Group 2 (TC59/SC13/WG2) drafted a standard for a classification framework (ISO 12006-2, more information below) based on traditional classification but also recognized an alternative “object oriented” approach, which had to be explored further.
UniFormat is a standard for classifying building specifications, cost estimating, and cost analysis in the U.S. and Canada.
MasterFormat is a standard for organizing specifications and other written information for commercial and institutional building projects in the U.S. and Canada.
Reusing existing buildings achieves a 15%+ higher return on investment and 20% reduction in greenhouse gases. It is less costly and more sustainable to reuse existing buildings.
With 345,000 buildings, with over 105,000 buildings more than 50 years old, the importance of efficient renovation, repair, and sustainability of existing buildings is paramount.
DoD Building Treatment Terms
•“Adaptive reuse & rehabilitation” are terms of art outside DoD
•The DoD term for “major rehabilitation” is “modernization”
•Modernization means: “the alteration or replacement of facilities solely to implement new or higher standards to accommodate new functions or to replace a building component that typically lasts more than 50 years.”
•This study compares the costs and GHG of modernization with new construction
•Formulated for measuring baseline energy consumption
Demolition and New Construction
•LEED Silver certifiable construction – 2009 LEED for New Construction and Major Renovations
Full Modernization with Strict Application of Historic Preservation Standards (HPS)
•Full modernization with a strict application of Historic Preservation Standards ( HPS) and other DoD facility design standards
Full Modernization with Strict Application of AT/FP
•Full rehabilitation/modernization but with strict application of Anti-terrorism/ Force Protection requirements through building hardening, seismic and other DoD facility design standards
Applicable design standards include:
- Whole Building Design
- UFC 1-200-01 General Building Requirements
- UFC 4-610-01 Administrative Facilities
- UFC 1-900-01 Selection of Methods for the Reduction, Reuse and Recycling of Demolition Waste
- UFC 3-310-04 Seismic Design for Buildings
- DoD Minimum Antiterrorism Force Protection Standards for Buildings
- Secretary of Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation of Historic Buildings
- DoD’s Pre-War masonry buildings are an underutilized resource for meeting DoD GHG carbon reduction goals
- ATFP and Progressive Collapse requirements tend to be rigidly and prescriptively applied, raising construction costs and introducing additional Scope 3 GHG emissions
- Prior modernization treatments result in loss of original energy saving design features in Pre-War Buildings
- Differences in GHG in alternatives resulted from the amount of new building materials introduced and transportation of demolition debris
- Cost estimates and construction bid requests should include materials quantities in addition to costs to evaluate and validate GHG impacts.
- Design professionals with practical experience with archaic building materials and systems are critical to the development of accurate planning level specifications
- GHG emission tradeoffs of proposed new materials and building options should be evaluated early in the conceptual design process
- Incorporate life-cycle GHG emissions analysis into DoD MILCON and SRM programs
- Invest in formulation of carbon calculator system
- Place more emphasis on existing buildings as viable project alternatives to meet mission requirements
- Identify characteristic strengths and vulnerabilities by class of building
Place more emphasis on existing buildings to meet DoD energy reduction goals
- Avoid modernization treatments that result in loss of original energy saving design features in Pre-War Buildings
Efficient project delivery methods are of critical importance to the task of sustainability and life-cycle management of the built environment. Job Order Contracting ( JOC ), and SABER are proven project delivery methods for renovation, repair, sustainability, and minor new construction. JOC and SABER are a form of Integrated Project Delivery for existing buildings and infrastructure.
JOC and SABER provide the following advantages to building portfolio Owners:•Fast and timely delivery of projects.•Consolidation of procurement – lower overhead cost and procurement cost.•Contractor and owner efficiencies in prosecution of the work. Development of a partner relationship based on work performance.•Virtual elimination of legal disputes, claims and mitigation of change orders.•Standard pricing and specification utilizing a published unit price book (UPB), typcially RSMeans-based, resulting in efficient and effective estimating, design, and fixed price construction.A bit more about JOC -
- “IPD Lite” for Existing Buildings.
- Consolidates procurement to shorten Project Timelines and reduce procurement costs.
- Transparency of pricing and procurement compliance through Unit Price Book. Owner creates internal estimating (IGE)
- Long Term Facility Relationship increases productivity and enables reiterative process improvements.
- Quality and performance incentivized through IDIQ form of contract with minimal guarantee and clear maximum volume.
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- Automated Technical Evaluations
- Contract, Project, Estimating, Document Management
- Visual Estimating
Legal and Policy Framework
•National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 ( Amended)
•Energy Policy Act of 2005
•Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007
•Executive Order 13423: Federal Environment, Energy, and Transportation Management (2007)
•Executive Order 13514: Federal Leadership in Environment, Energy, Economic Performance (2009)
Webinar: Job Order Contracting
Job Order Contracting (JOC) is an innovative delivery method focused on the renovation and repair of large facility infrastructure under a long-term contract. JOC has been around for a long time but is experiencing an upswing in an era of limited capital dollars and greater efficiency. Like IPD, JOC focuses on relational contracting, an integrated team, and performance incentives, but JOC is unique in its unit-price structure and repetitive delivery order process. This webinar will demystify unit pricing, coefficient development, job order scoping and estimating process, and skillsets needed to succeed in JOC. The current JOC market will be framed, with an emphasis on serving owners throughout the building life-cycle.
During this webinar, participants will learn about:
- Compare Job Order Contracting (JOC) to other well-known delivery methods.
- Describe the pricing structure of JOC, identify strategies for developing a coefficient, and understand the basics of line item estimating.
- Discuss the JOC delivery order process, including scoping, proposal preparation, and execution.
- Identify current JOC market opportunities and dynamics, including market segments, contract structure, unit price books, consultants, etc.
- Determine skillsets and culture to be a successful JOC contractor..
Consultant, LEED AP
Vice-President of Airport Development and Engineering, DFW Airport
Vice-President of Job Order Contracting Division, F.H. Paschen
Any questions or changes to your registration should be made via email to email@example.com.
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