|2007||Finland||Requires IFC BIM in its projects and intends to have integrated model-based operation in future||Senate Properties|
|UK||Standard: Collaborative production of architectural, engineering and construction information. Code of Practice.||BS 1192:2007|
|2008||USA||Mandatory BIM for government projects||GSA; USACE|
|2010||Norway||Requires IFC BIM for new buildings||Statsbygg|
|3 BIM pilot projects running||Norwegian Defence Estates Agency|
|Singapore||Establish Centre for construction IT help key agencies and construction firms to kick start BIM||Singapore BIM Roadmap 2012|
|UK||Building Information Management – A Standard Framework and Guide to BS 1192||Joint publication of BS 1192:2007 and BSI/CPI|
|2011||Singapore||Work with key agencies on pilot projects||Singapore BIM Roadmap 2012|
|UK||Creation of the implementation plan and team to deliver||Government Construction Strategy (May)|
|Evaluate trial projects and recommend (ongoing)|
|Standard Due: Library Objects for Architecture, Engineering and Construction. Recommended 2D symbols of building elements for use in building information modelling.||BS 8541-2|
|Standard Due: Library Objects for Architecture, Engineering and Construction: Identification and grouping||BS 8541-1|
|Report/Strategy Paper for the Government Construction Client Group (March)||BIM Industry Working Group|
|2012||Korea||Public Procurement Service to fully adopt IFC-based open BIM|
|Singapore||BIM as part of public sector building project procurement||Singapore BIM Roadmap 2012|
|Work with key agencies to prepare consultants and contractors who undertake the public sector projects to be BIM ready|
|BIM Guide – published||Singapore BIM Guide|
|Finland||Common BIM Requirements – published||buildingSMART Finland|
|UK||Begin phased roll out ot all Government projects (Summer)||Government Construction Strategy|
|Define and mandate expected standard (information set) for Government projects (April)|
|Identify trial projects in multiple departments to achieve delivery via 3D fully collaborative BIM (July)|
|COBie-UK-2012||BIM Task Group|
|Standard due: Library Objects for Architecture, Engineering and Construction: Shape and measurements||BS 8541-3|
|Standard due: Library Objects for Architecture, Engineering and Construction: Attributes for specification and simulation||BS 8541-4|
|Building Information Management Management – Information requirements for the capital delivery phase of construction projects||PAS 1192-2:2012|
|Operational Asset Management – Processes and data for the commissioning, handover, operation and occupation stages||BS 1192-3 (not yet published)|
|2013||Australia||Develop and deliver a BIM awareness and promotion program for key government and broader industry participants (July 1)||Implementation Strategy – National BIM Initiative Report|
|Develop and start delivery of BIM training packages to industry practitioners (July 1)|
|Enable progressive access to an Australian library of generic BIM objects and information for manufactured products that comply with Australian BIM standards (July 1)|
|Singapore||Mandatory Architecture BIM e-Submissions for all new building projects . 20,000 m²||Singapore BIM Roadmap 2012|
|2014||Australia||Develop Australian BIM contracts (July 1)||Implementation Strategy – National BIM Initative Report|
|Encourage the inclusion of BIM as a collaborative technology for both professional education and vocational training in the tertiary sector (July 1)|
|Develop industry protocols for information exchange to underpin BIM and collaborative practice (July 1)|
|Coordinate activity between relevant sectors of the Australian economy to enable integrated access to land, geospatial and building information (July 1)|
|Singapore||Mandatory Engineering BIM e-Submissions for all new building projects . 20,000 m²||Singapore BIM Roadmap 2012|
|2015||Australia||Develop Australian technical codes and standards for BIM (July 1)||Implementation Strategy – National BIM Initative Report|
|Align Australian BIM codes and standards with international equivalents (july 1)|
|Develop a model-based building regulatory compliance process demonstrator (July 1)|
|Develop and implementation plan for the transition of Australian regulatory codes and compliance mechanisms to model-based performance based systems (july 1)|
|Require BIM for Australian Government procurement for built environment projects (July 1)|
|Encourage State and Territory Governments and the private sector to require BIM for procurement for built environment projects (July 1)|
|Singapore||Mandatory Architecture & Engineering BIM e-Submissions for all new building projects . 5,000 m²||Singapore BIM Roadmap 2012|
|Target = Singapore Construction Industry to use BIM widely|
|2016||UK||Deliver Level 2 BIM (Collaboration) – Introduce a progressive programme of mandated use of fully collaborative Building Information Modelling for Government projects. Level 2 = Managed 3D environment held in separate discipline “BIM(M)” tools with attached data; Commercial data managed by an ERP; Integration on the basis of proprietary interfaces or bespoke middleware could be regarded as “pBIM” (proprietary); the approach may utilise 4D programme data and 5D cost elements.||UK Government Construction Strategy & BIM BIM Strategy Paper (2011)|
|Source: Susan Keenliside, 2013-email, via http://www.4Clicks.com|
|2020||Singapore||Realise the vision of a highly integrated and technologically advanced construction sector that will be led by progressive firms and supported by a skilled and competent workforce.||Singapore BIM Roadmap 2012|
The primary focus of the NBIMS-US™ is to provide open standards to transform the currently inefficient and ineffective life-cycle management of the built environment… Is this not the same value provided by BIM?
This transformation is accomplished through the creation and exchange of building information modeling (BIM) information and management processes. Elements included include reference standards; outlining classifications of data and processes, data exchange formats, requirements for many different types of information exchanges and practice standards; which outline practices and workflows for data modeling, project execution, and robust feedback on success or failures so that assumptions are quickly improved. The metrics by which these open standards are to be evaluated include: total cost of ownership vs. first costs, impacts upon organizational mission, sustainability, life-safety, utilization, up-time, project timelines, fewer change orders, fewer legal disputes, ….
Goals, Objectives, and Benefits of NBIMS and BIM:
- Reduce the total cost of ownership of the built environment in concert with the mission of an organization and its relationship to the environment via timely, accurate, re-usable information and associated enhanced decision support capability.
- Enable collaboration and information sharing among all shareholders via established products, methods, and information formats.
- Front end information gathering, planning, and decision-making to have the greatest positive impact in the overall design, procurement, construction, operations, and decommissioning process, taking advantage of collaborative, integrated project delivery.
- Information development and sharing via consensus documents that select a common path forward when multiple divergent paths were once available
- Build a growing community of practice which allows progress to be made built upon previous levels of agreement
- Share information with software vendors as well as other product and service providers to build solutions that supports a consensus agreement of practitioners
- Identify specific reference standards that are used for BIM
- Documents “best practices” to potentially become standard practice for creating and managing information be re-used and re-purposed
Building Owner Perspective
- How can I better optimizing building performance to contribute to improving overall performance (e.g. financial, environmental, organizational, operational efficiencies) across the lifespan of my physical assets.
- Where can I find process documentation and contract language to cost-effectively develop and consistently deploy efficient construction delivery methods, enable high quality and quantity work at a reasonable cost.
- An understanding of how to develop long lasting relationships with Owners, AEs, Subs and leverage BIM and associated optimized construction delivery
- How to perform more projects that provide a more predictable revenue stream and a reasonable profit margin.
- Participation in emerging efficient project delivery processes to better acheive design excellence, meeting project schedules and exceeding client service expectations.
- An understanding of how to develop long lasting relationships with Owners, Contractors, BPMs …and leverage BIM and associated optimized construction delivery
- How to perform more projects that provide a more predictable revenue stream and a reasonable profit margin.
Business Product Manufacturer (BPM) Perspective
1. How can I make my products available to designers and contractors so that they fit in with BIM project delivery processes
2. How should I format my products as BIM objects (e.g. level of graphical detail and business properties) so they are most useful by designers and contractors
3. I am interested in getting designers and contractors to specify and purchase my product
1. How to use BIM for specific construction tasks (e.g. cost estimating, material procurement, digital fabrication, valuation of in-place construction, commissioning and handover, safety management)
2. How to mitigate risk.
3. How to organize my organization and project teams to take advantage of BIM processes and technologies.
4. How to participate in emerging efficient project delivery processes to focus on design excellence, meeting project schedules and exceeding client service expectations.
5. I am interested in optimizing staff resources, project profitability, maintaining relationships with my clients and finding the next job
Ballot Cover Letter Statement:
The National BIM Standard is a consensus document, where many ideas are brought together, presented to a variety of people representing different parts of the industry, discussed, debated, and ultimately subjected to the democratic process to determine which ideas rise to the stature of inclusion.
Related docu,ment – http://fire.nist.gov/bfrlpubs/build04/PDF/b04022.pdf – Cost Analysis of Inadequate Interoperability in the U.S. Capital Facilities Industry Michael P. Gallaher, Alan C. O’Connor, John L. Dettbarn, Jr., and Linda T. Gilday
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A picture paints a thousand words,
but never underestimate the power of text
(Adapted from Source: NBS.com)
Stefan Mordue, Technical Author and Architect
BIM objects are much more than just graphical representations. Using them as placeholder to connect to a wider source of information provides for a powerful and rich source of information.
‘Author it once, and in the right place; report it many times’
Information in the Building Information Model (BIM) comes from a variety of sources, such as 3D visualization tools ( Autodesk Revit or Nemetschek Vectorworks, Archicad, Bentley Systems …) as well as cost estimating, computerized maintenance management systems (CMMS), capital planning and management systems (CPMS), geographical information systems (GIS), building automation systems (GIS), model checkers and specification software.
All BIM objects have properties, and most also have geometries (although some do not, for example a paint finish). To avoid duplication, information should be both structured and coordinated.
Some information is more appropriately located in the ‘geometrical’ part of the BIM object while other information is more suited to the ‘properties’ part, such as the specification. The specification is part of the project BIM, and objects live in the specification. In traditional documentation we would ‘say it once, and in the right place’, however with BIM, we want to ‘author it once, and in the right place, to be able to report it many times’.
Figure 1: Appropriate location of information
‘A picture paints a thousand words, but never underestimate the power of text’
Let’s take an analogy of a BIM object representing a simple cavity wall. The object will tell us the width of the brickwork and height of the wall. However at a certain point in the project cycle it is the written word that is needed to take us to a deeper level of information. It is within a textual context that we describe the length, height and depth of the brick. It is words that are used to describe the mortar joint and wall ties.
BIM objects are as much about the embedded data and information as they are about the spaces and dimensions that they represent graphically.
It is this connection to a wider source of information that really empowers the object, making it a rich source of information. Think of BIM objects if you will as a ‘place holder’ – not only a physical representation of the real life physical properties of the said object but also a home for non-graphical information such as performance criteria, physical and functional condition data, life-cycle data, detailed and current cost data (materials, equipment, and labor), and operational information.
‘A new generation of specifiers is being empowered by BIM. We can begin to specify at a much earlier stage in the process’
Specifications were once undertaken by the specification expert, often once the detail design was completed. A new generation of specifiers is being empowered by BIM. We can begin to specify at a much earlier stage in the process.
In reality “specifiers” are now a team of stakeholders – Owners, Contactors, Subs, AE’s, Oversight Groups ….
By connecting the BIM object to an NBS Create specification, a direct link can be made to NBS technical guidance and standards, at the point where the designer most needs them. For example, if the designer is a subscriber to the Construction Information Service (CIS), then any technical documents cited in the specification that are available can be downloaded instantly.
Figure 2: NBS Revit tool bar
‘We have recently integrated geometric BIM objects with the corresponding NBS Create specification clauses to achieve a greater connection between the two’
BIM and BIM workflows are consistently being refined and updated as they become more commonplace and as standards and protocols emerge. While we can never solve all coordination issues, we hope to improve coordination by linking databases, objects and eventually coordinate key property sets.
Traditionally, a value that was represented on a drawing may not correctly corresponded with the value within the specification simply due to a ‘typo’. An example being where a ’60 minute fire door’ has been recorded on the drawing but has been recorded as ’90 minutes fire rating’ within the specification. Aside from this coordination debate, practices will also need to decide and establish office policies on where information is recorded. While the specification system has detailed guidance and links to standards, regulations and suggested values, geometric BIM software has great visualization analysis and instance scheduling functionality.
Figure 3: Connection to a wider source of information empowers the object
At present, the NBS National BIM Library objects are classified using both the draft Uniclass 2 Work result code and the System name to give a deeper link between the object and specification. The NBS National BIM Library contains a number of objects that connect at a ‘product’ level (e.g. hand driers, baths, individual doorsets) while others work at a ‘system’ level (e.g. cubicle, partition, door and signage systems). Yet other objects are at an ‘element’ level (i.e. made up of a number of systems) such as external walls.
Following a period of industry consultation, Uniclass 2 is now being finalized for publication during 2013. Classification of content in the National BIM Library and NBS Create will then be updated.
National BIM Library Parameters
|NBSReference||NBS section/clause number||45-35-72/334|
|NBSDescription||The full description of an object||Hand driers|
|NBSNote||Where a second system which is related to the BIM object can be described||=[Blank]|
|NBSTypeID||A reference to the object for the user if one or more is used with the project|
|Help||URL of a website where additional help notes are available||http://www.nationalbimlibrary.com/|
|IssueDate||The issue date of the object||2012-12-06|
|Version||The version of the object||1.1|
A hand drier is an example of an object that links nicely to an associated product clause (NBSReference=45-35-72/334). Using tools such as NBS Create and the NBS Revit plug in tool, the corresponding product will automatically be captured; it can then be used to enrich the object with information such as power rating and noise levels.
A doorset is an example of an object that maps beautifully to an NBS Create System outline clause. For example using WR 25-50-20/120 Doorset System, we can then specify system performance, component and accessory products (e.g. glazing type, fasteners and threshold strips) as well as execution.
Certain NBS National BIM Library objects are at an ‘element level’ where they comprise a number of systems. In this situation we give a primary work results classification, the NBSReference. In addition, to help the user, we add the Uniclass 2 element code in an extra parameter field.
The following example is a Unit wall element comprising 100 mm thick stone, 100 mm mineral wool insulation batts and 100 mm concrete block, lined with 12.5 mm gypsum plasterboard on 25 mm dabs.
WR 25-10-55/123 ‘External multiple leaf wall above damp proof course masonry system’ has been used for the primary reference. From this System outline we can specify the stone facing, insulation and concrete block, together with DPC, lintels, mortar, cavity closers (which all in turn have product codes). A further system outline, WR 25-85-45/140 Gypsum board wall lining system, is given, from which the lining can be specified.
‘This year will mark the 40th anniversary of the launch of NBS and we are now seeing project information being coordinated through intelligent objects’
An object could potentially relate to two different systems. An example of this would be a rainscreen cladding object. The following example is an aluminium cassette panel rainscreen system with metal frame, weather barrier, insulation, concrete block and plasterboard lining. This particular system could be either a ‘Drained and back ventilated rain screen cladding system’ 25-80-70/120 or a ‘Pressure equalized rain screen cladding system’ 25-80-70/160. The detail which would differentiate between the two is not shown in the geometric object itself but rather in the detail that would be found within the specification. When used in conjunction with the NBS plug-in tool, you are presented with the option to select the most appropriate system, and then to specify it to the appropriate level of detail.
Figure 4: Technology is enabling better processes and connection
We are now beginning to see project information being coordinated through intelligent objects. The classification system, structure of data and technology are enabling better processes and will allow us to move a step closer towards full collaborative BIM.
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Building Information Modeling, BIM, is the life-cycle management of the built environment supported by digital technology. As such, the core requirements of BIM include collaboration, standardized information, multiple domain competencies, and several supporting interoperable technologies.
Let’s face it, BIM continues to languish. Sure a lot of architects use it for pretty pictures to win business, and there are several “case studies” surrounding clash detection, etc. etc. However, life-cycle and/or ongoing facility management using BIM? No so much.
This is not only sad but economically and environmentally imprudent. The efficient life-cycle management of the built environment is critical to both global competitiveness and preserving sustainable resources.
Why is BIM of to a slow start? Too much focus on 3D visualization, too much “reinventing the wheel” trying to fit a square peg in a round hole, and virtually NO EMPHASIS upon the requirements for life-cycle management… associated competencies, domains, technologies, ongoing collaboration, integration, and continuous improvement.
Design-bid-build and “low bid” awards are the downfall of the Architecture, Engineering, Construction, Owner, and Operations sector. The method is antagonistic, wasteful, and typically delivers poor initial and ongoing results.
Focus upon CHANGE MANAGEMENT and building awareness relative to both COLLABORATIVE CONSTRUCTION DELIVERY METHODS AND LIFECYCLE, TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP MANAGMENT is the only thing that will “kick start” BIM.
Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) and Job Order Contracting (JOC) are both collaborative construction delivery methods that have been proven for decades, however, awareness remains low. IPD’s focus is upon major new construction, while JOC focuses upon the numerous renovation, repair, sustainability, and minor new construction projects so critical to efficient use of our current infrastructure.
The below diagram outlines the competencies, technologies, and process required for the lifecycle management of the built environment.
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While articles and discussions continue about Facility Management and BIM, in reality they are virtual synonyms.
Facility management is a profession that encompasses multiple disciplines to ensure functionality of the built environment by integrating people, place, process and technology. – Definition of Facility Management – IFMA
Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. A BIM is a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life-cycle; defined as existing from earliest conception to demolition. – NIBS
In order to achieve either efficiently I argue that Information and Process must be shared in a consistent, mutually understood format among all stakeholders of the built environment: Owners, AEs, Contractors, Sub-contractors, Business Product Manufacturers, Building Users, and Oversight Groups.
The problem remains, however, that many don’t understand the multiple knowledge domains or competencies associated with the life-cycle management of the built environment, nor how to integrated them. What is even worse, is that some of those that do understand are unwilling to share that information due to perceived issues with doing so.
NBIMS and similar efforts are steps in the right direction. NBIMS attempts to consolidate and communicate information requirements, models, and associated usage processes, with an “open industry” approach.
Owners must clearly push for BIM and Life-cycle Facility Management. Why? Simple…they pay the bills and it is in their best interests to optimize their return on investment (ROI). That said, Owners can’t do it alone. By the very nature of the industry, all stakeholders must collaborate. Unlike an airplane, or car… buildings are around for 50-100 years, have multiple uses, and can be adapted to changing situations.. also a far greater number of suppliers and service providers are involved, as well as a virtually infinite number of configurations.
Here’s are quick graphic of just a few of the areas, competencies, and technologies involved:
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By Peter Cholakis
Published in the March 2013 issue of Today’s Facility Manager
Emergent disruptive technologies and construction delivery methods are altering both the culture and day-to-day practices of the construction, renovation, repair, and sustainability of the built environment. Meanwhile, a shifting economic and environmental landscape dictates significantly improved efficiencies relative to these facility related activities. This is especially important to any organization dependent upon its facilities and infrastructure to support and maintain its core mission.
The disruptive digital technologies of building information modeling (BIM) and cloud computing, combined with emergent collaborative construction delivery methods are poised to alter the status quo, ushering in increased levels of collaboration and transparency. A disruptive technology is one that alters the very fabric of a business process or way of life, displacing whatever previously stood in its place. BIM and cloud computing fit the profile of disruptive technologies, individually, and when combined these stand to create a tidal wave of change.
BIM is the life cycle management of the built environment, supported by digital technology. While a great deal of emphasis has been placed upon 3D visualization, this is just a component of BIM. The shift from a “first cost mentality” to a life cycle cost or total cost of ownership is a huge change for many. Improving decision making practices and applying standardized terms, metrics, and cost data can also prove challenging. An understanding and integration of the associated knowledge domains important to life cycle management is required, resulting in what is now being referred to as “big data.”
Cloud computing is also a disruptive technology, and it’s one that impacts several areas. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) definition of cloud computing is as follows, “Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. The cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.”
It is perhaps helpful to define cloud computing in terms of its benefits. Cloud computing enables far greater levels of collaboration, transparency, and information access previously unavailable by traditional client/server, database, or even prior generation web applications. Multiple users can work on the same data set with anyone, anywhere, anytime, in multicurrency, multilanguage environments. All changes can be tracked to “who did what” within seconds (potentially the best form of security available), and information is never deleted.
The disruptive technologies of BIM and cloud computing will accelerate the adoption of emergent construction delivery methods and foster new frameworks. Design-bid-build, the traditional construction delivery method for decades, is inherently flawed. As a lowest bid deployment it immediately sets up adversarial relationships for involved parties. Owners prepare a solicitation for construction projects based on their understanding of them1, with or without third-party A/E assistance, and in most cases they go out in search of the lowest bidder. Then without a thorough understanding of the owner’s facility, bidders base their responses on the owner’s solicitation, plans, and specifications. Owners typically allow a period of time for bidders’ questions and clarifications; but the quality of this interchange is at best questionable if based solely on a written scope, plans and specifications, and/or a meeting with suppliers.
Design-build, arguably a step in right direction, falls short of bringing all stakeholders together. More responsibility of design and construction is shifted to the contractor and/or A/E. However, the dual level participation structure doesn’t assure the interests of all parties are equally addressed. Furthermore, the design-build process is typically reserved for major new construction projects versus the numerous sustainability, repair, renovation projects, and minor new construction projects typically encountered by facility managers (fms).
Because BIM brings together previously disparate information into a framework that enables decision support, using the technology requires a collaborative construction delivery method. The integration of the domain knowledge and robust processes required to allow fms, A/Es, and other stakeholders to achieve heightened levels of information sharing and collaboration is enabled by methods that include Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) and Job Order Contracting (JOC).
Key characteristics of these emergent construction delivery methods include: choices based on best value; some form of pricing transparency; early and ongoing information sharing among project stakeholders; appropriate distribution of risk; and some form of financial incentive to drive performance.
Both IPD and JOC allow, if not require, owner cost estimators and project managers to “partner” with contractors, subcontractors, and A/Es to conceptualize, create, cost, prioritize, start, and report upon projects—in the very early phases of construction.
IPD, JOC, and Simplified Acquisition of Base Civil Engineering Requirements (SABER)—the U.S. Air Force term for applying JOC practices—are practiced simultaneously by a growing number of organizations and supported by digital technologies. These construction delivery processes are embedded within software to allow for rapid, cost-effective, and consistent deployment as well as the associated level of collaboration and transparency.
BIM and cloud computing are disruptive technologies that will accelerate the adoption of emergent construction delivery methods such as IPD and JOC. Construction delivery methods set the tone and level of interaction among project participants and can be viewed as the management process framework. When supported by BIM and cloud computing, the life cycle management of the built environment, and the associated management of big data, can be expected to become commonplace for many construction projects.
Cholakis is chief marketing officer for 4Clicks Solutions, LLC, a Colorado Springs, CO provider of cost estimating and project management software. With expertise in facilities life cycle costs and total cost of ownership in various market segments, he is involved in numerous industry associations and committees including the American Society of Safety Engineers, Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering, Society of American Military Engineers, BIM Library Committee-National Institute for Building Sciences (NIBS), and National Building Information Model Standard Project Committee.
1 “The Art of Thinking Outside the Box;” Vince Duobinis; 2008.
While at first perhaps a bit intimidating… illustrating the life-cycle management within a BIM context is relatively straightforward.
The purpose of this Framework is to provide a general guide that your team can quickly customize to your specific requirements. Like a restaurant menu or a travel guide, you can visualize the resources available and decide on an appropriate strategic configuration of options.
Just begin in the Center and work thru this Action Agenda using, when available and appropriate, tested processes and templates. Using these guidelines, set up a BIM Management structure with your stakeholders.
The Building Information Management Framework (BIMF) illustrates a how people, processes, and technology interact to support the built environment throughout its life-cycle. Based upon the associated level of detail, an operating model can be developed to more efficiently identify, prioritize, and meet the current and future needs of built environment stakeholders (Owners, AE’s, Contractors, Occupants, Oversight Groups…)
More specifically, modular, Model View Definitions (MVD), associated exchange specifications and common data architectures [for example: Industry Foundation Class (IFC), OMNICLASS] can help to integrate multi-discipline Architecture, Engineering, Construction (AEC) “activities”, “business processes”, “associated competencies” and “supporting technologies” to meet overall requirements with a goal of continuous improvement.
WORK GROUP FORMATION – Roles and Relationships;
PROCESS MAP – who does what, in which sequence, and why;
EXCHANGE REQUIREMENTS & BASIC BUSINESS RULES – Overall guidelines for information integration
EXCHANGE REQUIREMENT MODELS – Specific information “maps”
GENERIC MODEL VIEW DEFINTION (MVD) – Strategic approach incorporating guidelines for information format, content, and use;
MODEL VIEW DEFINTION & IMPLEMENTATION SPECIFICATIONS – Specific format, content, and use
PROJECT AGREEMENT REQUIREMENTS – LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT (LOD) – Defined “project” deliverables
(Adapted from: IMPROVING THE ROBUSTNESS OF MODEL EXCHANGES USING PRODUCT MODELING ‘CONCEPTS’ FOR IFC SCHEMA –Manu Venugopal, Charles Eastman, Rafael Sacks, and Jochen Teizer – with ongoing assistance/input from NBIMS3.0 Terminology Subcommittee)
Model View Definitions (MVD) and associated exchange specifications, provide the best benefit if they are modular and reusable and developed from Industry Foundation Class (IFC) Product Modeling Concepts. Model views and overall life-cycle management are similar in this regard.
Building Information Modeling (BIM) tools serving the Architecture, Engineering, Construction (AEC) span multiple “activities”, “business processes”, “associated competencies” and “supporting technologies”, and each may required different internal data model representation to suit each domain. Data exchange is therefore a critical aspect. Inter and intra domain standardized data architectures and associated adoption of matching robust processes are really the first step toward successfully managing the built environment.
Results from the 2012 BIM Maturity (BIMM) Study, Purdue University
The 4 (4) dimensions of BIM are: Process, Information, People, and Technology
The dimension of technology is the least concern to all the global experts, compared with the other three dimensions
The USA experts focus more on information and training, while non-USA experts emphasize more on process and team structure.
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BIM requires some form of Integrated Project Delivery… Period. Why you say?
Simple. BIM is the life-cycle management of the built environment supported by digital technology. BIM therefore, requires the integration of multiple knowledge domains, stakeholders and supporting technologies… from strategic and capital planning, through design, construction, operations, utilization, repair, renovation, adaptation, maintenance, and deconstruction.
Efficient project delivery methods such as IPD and Job Order Contracting (JOC) are integral components of efficiently managing the built environment over time. The help define the specialized framework needed to enable Owners, AEs, Contractors, Oversight Groups, and other Stakeholders share information and collaborate to enable the appropriate distribution of resources needed to optimize the physical and function conditions of the built environments.
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