DOE Standard 90.1–2010 Said to Provide 18% Energy Savings for Commerical Buildings vs. 2007 Standard

DOE has determined that the quantitative analysis of the energy consumption of buildings built to Standard 90.1–2010,as compared with buildings built to Standard 90.1–2007, indicates national source energy savings of approximately 18.2 percent of commercial building energy consumption. Additionally, DOE has determined site energy savings are estimated to be approximately 18.5 percent.

States are required to certify that they have reviewed the provisions of their commercial building code regarding energy efficiency, and as necessary, updated their code to meet or exceed Standard 90.1–2010.

Certification statements by the States must be provided by October 18, 2013.


DOE Energy Standard

DOE lists the States that have filed certifications and those that have or have not adopted new codes on the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable
Energy Web site at Once a
State has adopted a new commercial code, DOE typically provides software,
training, and support for the new code as long as the new code is based on the national model codes (in this case, ASHRAE Standard 90.1).
Some States develop their own codes that are only loosely related to the
national model codes and DOE does not typically provide technical support for those codes. However, DOE does provide grants to these States through
grant programs administered by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). DOE does not prescribe how each State adopts and enforces its energy codes.

(1) Large amounts of fuel and energy are consumed unnecessarily each year
in heating, cooling, ventilating, and providing domestic hot water for newly
constructed residential and commercial buildings because such buildings lack adequate energy conservation features;
(2) Federal voluntary performance standards for newly constructed buildings can prevent such waste of energy, which the Nation can no longer
afford in view of its current and anticipated energy shortage;
(3) the failure to provide adequate energy conservation measures in newly
constructed buildings increases longterm operating costs that may affect
adversely the repayment of, and security for, loans made, insured, or guaranteed by Federal agencies or made by federally insured or regulated
instrumentalities; and

(4) State and local building codes or similar controls can provide an existing
means by which to assure, in coordination with other building
requirements and with a minimum of Federal interference in State and local
transactions, that newly constructed buildings contain adequate energy
conservation features. (42 U.S.C. 6831)


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Michael Erbesfeld, U.S. Department of
Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and
Renewable Energy, Forrestal Building,
Mail Station EE–2J, 1000 Independence
Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585–
0121, (202) 287–1874, e-mail:

Behind the High-Performance Federal Buildings Act

Reduction of  federal building energy footprint is an important initiative.

Focus must shift to the renovation, repair, and sustainability of existing buildings and associated efficient project delivery methods.   BIM and Cloud computing can integrate the currently disparate processes associated with facility capital planning, management, renovation, and maintenance…. and make enable the widespread use of efficient project delivery methods such as integrated project delivery (IPD) and job order contracting (JOC).
The focus on BIM as 3D visualization and design is a distraction we can no longer afford.


BIM is the life-cycle management of facilities supported by digital technology.  It is the use of robust business processes and standardized taxonomies and metrics.
The tools to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of the built environment are readily available.  Products and services  manufactured here in the United States, the use of which would also help our economy.

The  High-Performance Buildings Caucus was started in 2007 with a goal to make a real difference in our economy and environment. Last year,  the “Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act”  was introduce to piece of legislation ensure that people working on federal buildings are properly trained to do the work their job requires. This bill was signed into law at the end of 2010, however, the   General Administration Services (GSA) is lagging in its proper implementation.  Knowledge of life-cycle facility management is critical to reaching the goals of efficient facility life-cycle management.

The High Performance Federal Buildings Act is intended to require analysis of the full life-cycle costs for buildings.    It also requires regulations for the use of energy and water in federal buildings to reflect the most current codes and standards.   The Act will reduce energy footprint speed compliance with mandated standards.

It is very important to use of life-cycle cost analysis on any construction, alteration or acquisition of a building.  Facility condition assessments and commissioning are also key elements in this regard that must be addressed in a standardized manner.

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Sustainabile Landscapes for Public Institutions – DOD, Higher Education, Federal/State/Local Government

Sustainable Landscapes = Ongoing Cost Reductions, Environmental Responsibility, & Safety

Sustainable landscapes are central to ongoing site cost reductions, environmental responsibly, and meeting anti-terrorism standards.

To see current work in this area visit – .

Sustainable Landscape Design



Benefits of these newer approaches include:

– Reduction in Landscape Maintenance Costs
– Improved Safety/Security
– Use of Native Plants
– Reduction of Chemical and Mechanical Inputs
– Invasive Plant Species Mitigation
– Enhanced Landscape Appearance
– Improved Ecological Functioning of Landscape
– Compliance with Anti-Terrorism Standards

GSA Buildings – Test Bed for New ” Green ” Technologies

The Green Proving Ground program utilizes GSA’s real estate portfolio to test and evaluate innovative and underutilized sustainable building technologies and practices.

Findings will be used to support the development of GSA performance specifications and inform decision making within GSA, other federal agencies, and the real estate industry. The Program aims to drive innovation in environmental performance in federal buildings and help lead market transformation through deployment of new technologies.

For FY 2011, the agency will investigate forward leaning and emerging HVAC, lighting, metering, policy, power generation, building envelope, water, and solar water heating systems through enhanced measurement and verification.



GSA Green Technology Testbed


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BIM – Energy Efficiency Tied to Real Estate / Real Property Sales – The Importance of High Performance Buildings vs. ROI

Due diligence relative to the energy efficiency of commercial is not only important relative to building resale and ROI, but is becoming mandated in several states, counties, and cities.   For example, use of the new ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Standard E-2797-11, Standard Practice for Building Energy Performance Assessment for a Building Involved in a Real Estate Transaction, is required in several states and cities and under consideration in a growing number of others. Federal legislation is sure to follow.

Energy-efficient buildings cost less to operate, have higher net operating income (NOI), better asset value, and are more attractive to tenants.   Property owners and lessors can leverage higher performing buildings to attract and retain tenants that recognize that these buildings  have lower utility and operating costs.  In many cases leanders are provided a Pro Forma with a specific aline item for utilities/energy costs as a component of building operating costs.  Savvy buyers will also consider energy usage when comparing similar properties.

The Role of BIM, JOC, and IPD in Sustainability

Creating a baseline energy audit isalso  a “best practice” relative to enabling better short and longer term planning for facility renovation, repair, and maintenance projects.

It is likely that more and more facility condition assessments (FCAs) will include energy audits are a required, standardized component.

 In summary, standards and best practices relative to energy and condition audits are an important component of BIM ( Building Information Modeling ).  Robust practices for collection, assembly, evaluation, and reporting required information are key to BIM as are efficient renovation and repair contstruction methods such as JOC – Job Order Contracting, and IPD – Integrated Project Delivery.

Consistency and transparency in data collection, project evaluation, costing, and project managemetn are requirements in order to efficiently deliver quality  improvement project on time and on budget. 

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NIBS Recommends that Congress Prioritize Building Industry Concerns

While “Government Focus” and/or “Government Priority” may seem to oxymorons to many of us, it is indeed past due that the Federal Government address Sustainability and Productivity issues within the building / AEC sector.

Efficent Construction Delivery Methods - Sustainabilty - Climate Change

The altered economic landscape and the ever ticking global climate change clock require that we address facility renovation, repair, and sustainability immediately.  This will require consistent condition assessment practices and efficient project prioritization mechanisms as well as efficient construction delivery methods such as Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) and Job Order Contracting (JOC).

 May 26, 2011

National Institute of Building Sciences, Leading Organizations Issue Report of Findings

A new report from the National Institute of Building Sciences Consultative Council identifies five primary areas of concern regarding the nation’s buildings and infrastructure, and provides recommendations for action. Topics include: Defining High-Performance and Common Metrics; Energy and Water Efficiency; Codes and Standards Adoption and Enforcement; Sustainability; and Education and Training.

Time for Building Standards and Efficient Project Delivery

The National Institute of Building Sciences enabling legislation established the Consultative Council as an important link among disciplines in the field of building technology. The Council engages the leadership of key organizations with the intent of providing findings and recommendations for the advancement of the built environment. The Council report represents the collective vision of these leading organizations from across the building community.

“Given the many services we ask our buildings and infrastructure to perform, it is essential that the many disciplines and organizations responsible for the design, construction, operations and maintenance of buildings work together to identify overarching needs that can lead to widespread high-performance buildings,” said Ryan Colker, Director of the Consultative Council and Presidential Advisor at the Institute. “The Council’s initial report reflects this collective thinking and has the potential to significantly influence policymakers and the building community.”

The Council recommendations identify cross-cutting issues essential for reaching building industry goals. Specific recommendations include:
o The need to establish common definitions to guide measurement and expression of actual performance;
o Energy codes and standards should shift from prescriptive requirements towards performance-based provisions aimed at ultimately achieving net-zero energy use;
o Investment in energy and water related infrastructure is desperately needed and will vastly improve efficiencies and create jobs;
o Increased participation by federal, state and local government agencies would yield more uniformity and consistently adopted and understood codes, and increase the effectiveness of model building codes;
o At the state and local level, financial and technical resources must be available to ensure code and standard requirements are followed;
o Achieving sustainability requires addressing the triple bottom line of economic growth, environmental stewardship and social progress in all building and infrastructure projects;
o Public construction should address life-cycle costs and benefits, while accounting, financing, insurance and tax policies should facilitate and promote private investments in sustainable buildings and infrastructure;
o Education and training should be aimed at facilitating the entire life-cycle of buildings, from concept to design, construction, commissioning, occupancy, modification/renovation, and deconstruction; and
o Education and training incentive programs should be available to cover all levels and types of businesses and organizations, and should encompass all design, construction, maintenance and operational core competencies.

In 2010, Consultative Council members included: ASTM International; American Institute of Architects; American Society of Civil Engineers; American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers; Associated General Contractors of America; Building Owners and Managers Association, International; Construction Specifications Institute; ESCO Institute; Extruded Polystyrene Foam Association; Illuminating Engineering Society; International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials; International Code Council; National Insulation Association; National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago; and United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipefitting Industry. Joining the Council in 2011 are the Laborers’ International Union of North America and HOK. The summary of recommendations appears in the Institute’s 2010 Annual Report, which is sent to the President of the United States and the U.S. Congress. To download a copy of the complete Consultative Council report, visit

About the National Institute of the Building Sciences
The National Institute of Building Sciences, authorized by public law 93-383 in 1974, is a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization that brings together representatives of government, the professions, industry, labor and consumer interests to identify and resolve building process and facility performance problems. The Institute serves as an authoritative source of advice for both the private and public sectors with respect to the use of building science and technology. For more information, please visit

DOD Sustainability Scorecard – from OMB

The DoD earned 3 out of 7 red lights on its OMB scorecard for failure to sufficiently reduce energy intensity and fleet petroleum use and to green more of its buildings.

Plan to change those red lights to green: 

Energy intensity: The agency achieved an 11.2% reduction on a goal of 15%. Going forward, the $24 billion Military Construction and Facilities Sustainment, Restoration and Modernization budget will be used to fund programs to reduce facility energy use. 

Petroleum: DoD reduced non-tactical vehicle petroleum use by 6.6% on a target of 10%. Future plans include more alternative fuel vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. 

Green buildings: Fewer than 5% of DoD’s buildings greater than 5,000 gsf meet the Guiding Principles for buildings. To improve, DoD will mandate that all new construction and renovations comply with the Guiding Principles and meet LEED Silver standards, with a particular emphasis on energy and water efficiency. DoD will also work to improve reporting systems.

DoD scored a home run on reducing potable water intensity, reducing by 13% from 2007 to 2010 on a target of 6%. Most of the reduction came from an aggressive leak detection and repair program. The agency also got green lights for submitting the GHG inventory for Scopes 1-3. Finally, DoD got a yellow light for falling short of the mandate to increase use of renewable energy as a percent of facility electricity use.


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Sustainability and Energy Scorecards for Federal Buildings

OMB Sustainability and Energy Scorecards

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On April 19, 2011, 24 Federal agencies and departments released, for the first time, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Sustainability and Energy Scorecards. These scorecards enable agencies to target and track the best opportunities to lead by example in clean energy; and to meet a range of energy, water, pollution, and waste reduction targets.

Through the OMB scorecard process, agencies are assessed on several sustainability areas, including: energy intensity; water intensity; fleet petroleum use; greenhouse gas pollution; green building practices; and, renewable energy use. Agencies are also evaluated on demonstrating continuous progress towards implementing additional statutory or Executive Order targets and goals reflected in their annual Sustainability Plans, such as green purchasing and electronics stewardship. The scorecard employs a simple evaluation system: green for success; yellow for mixed results; and red for unsatisfactory.

Agencies are also evaluated on demonstrating continuous progress towards implementing additional statutory or Executive Order targets and goals reflected in their annual Sustainability Plans, such as fleet management and green buildings. CEQ and OMB will work with agency leadership to craft strategies for improvement and provide agencies with additional support and assistance as agencies begin to develop their Sustainability Plans for next year.  Agency Sustainability Plans, which are required by EO 13514, are due in June, and are posted publicly on agency websites.

Integrated Project Delivery for Facility Renovation, Repair, Sustainability and Minor New Construction

Facility Owners, Contractors, and AE’s are using a “new” integrated project delivery method for renovations, repair, sustainability, and minor new construction – Job Order Contracting – that improves collaboration and effectively addresses project backlog by reducing schedules by as much as sixty percent. Furthermore, JOC dramatically decreases administrative costs by as much as twenty five percent and virtually eliminates change orders.

JOC has been in place since the 1980’s in the military and now rapidly migrating to other markets – non-DOD federal agencies, healthcare systems, colleges & universities, municipals and K-12 school systems.

4Clicks Solutions, LLC and RSMeans Business Solutions offer software technology with the JOC process fully embedded.  RSMeans and other 4Clicks Partners also provide project management services to prepare organizations for JOC delivery methods

JOCWorks™  and Project Estimator™ are comprehensive software tools that complete  estimates in rapid time, as well as incorporate document and project management.  The include the ability to prepare a technical evaluation of the contractor’s price proposal, easily handle multiple co-efficients, and can import drawing files to perform on-screen takeoffs.

Consulting is available from RSMeans and 4Clicks Business Partners to determine organizational readiness for JOC; to develop capability to execute JOC contracts including the purchasing process; to set up policies, procedures and processes; and to research and implement a local customized JOC price book. Training and technical support is available for your staff to enhance professional skills for preparing JOC budgets and cost estimates.

Features of JOCWorks™ and Project Estimator™ software –

  • Enhanced search capability to find RS Means lines using a powerful search engine and customizable Index
  • Contractors can audit the cost estimate history
  • Takeoff formulas and electronic takeoff to increase estimating productivity
  • Non pre-priced items are reported separately from the price book items
  • Project management, document management, management reports
  • Exports to Microsoft™ Excel and Adobe™ PDF files


Job Order Contracting (JOC) is a way for organizations to get numerous, commonly encountered construction projects done quickly and easily through multi-year contracts. JOC reduces unnecessary levels of engineeringdesign, and contract procurement time along withconstruction project procurement costs by awarding long-term contracts for a wide variety of renovation, repair and construction projects.

With an emphasis on partnering and team work between owners and contractors, JOC provides the methodology to execute a wide variety of indefinite delivery, indefinite quantity, fixed price, multiple simultaneous orders for renovation, rehabilitation and repair work for large facilities and infrastructures.

JOC contractors are selected on qualifications and performance at a best value or low price or low bid depending on local, state or federal statutes. JOC is about performance, reliability, dependability and quality. At the same time, JOC is about results and working within budget and time constraints. The JOC contractor provides “on call” construction services from concept to close-out.

JOC today has more than a 25-year record of implementation within the Defense Department. Currently, there are hundreds of successful contracts going by the JOC name or by its counterparts of Delivery Order Contracting (DOC), Task Order Contracting (TOC) and Simplified Acquisition of Base Engineering Requirements (SABER).

JOC deployment hasn’t remained solely federal. The JOC concept and principles have been further embraced in all areas of publicly funded state facilities, universitieshousing authorities, transportation agencies, and school systems. Not only public sector but also private sectorfacility owners are expanding the use and implementation of the JOC procurement system.

A major element of the JOC contracting process is the use of a unit price book (UPB), which provides preset costs for specific construction tasks. The unit price book can cover nearly every construction, repair or maintenance task, whether it’s replacing air filters, installing carpeting, replacing windows or doors, or even painting or it can be limited to specific areas of work or a particular trade. If a task is not in the UPB, it can be negotiated, priced and added at any time to the book.

Contractors can be selected based on best-value or low bid, depending upon the owner’s requirements. As part of its proposal, or bid, the contractor submits a coefficient (a multiplier) to be applied to the preset unit prices appearing in the UPB. The coefficient must include not only the contractor’s overhead and profit, but also any adjustment that may be needed to the UPB prices based on the contractor’s costs in the local area of the contract(which are functions of labor costssubcontractor base, market conditions and client-specific conditions).

After contract award, and during the course of the contract, the coefficient will be used to calculate the price for each project which will be the preset unit prices multiplied by the quantity multiplied by the coefficient.

The partnership aspect of the JOC contracting process is exemplified by the JOC contractor usually establishing a permanent office near the facility’s management staff. This way, the JOC contractor’s project manager can become an essential, hands-on advisor to the owner’s facilities management team.

JOC contracts don’t define actual, individual jobs but normally award a potential maximum amount of work over a year. For example, a contract may have an annual maximum of $5 million or more but only a minimum guaranteed amount such as $35,000. As a result, the JOC contractor is not guaranteed any level of revenue, driving it to generate the best performance possible.

For each project, the owner and the contractor follow the same five steps: (1) Conduct a Joint Scope Meeting at the site to review and discuss the work and the construction schedule; (2) Prepare a Detailed Scope of Work; (3) Contractor prepares a price proposal using unit prices from UPB, quantities, and coefficient, and submits a proposed construction schedule, list of subcontractors and other documents required by owner; (4) Owner reviews price proposal to make sure the right tasks and quantities were used; (5) If Owner is 100% satisfied with price, schedule, subcontractors, etc. owner may issue work order for the project.

This relationship carries with it a strong motivation for the JOC contractor to provide outstanding service and quality work to receive additional work orders, because the amount of work being assigned by the facility owner or manager is based on the JOC contractor’s performance. The agreement should also foster increased communication between the contractor and owner to enhance the partnership aspect of the JOC contract.

Key Elements of a JOC Contract

A JOC contract follows certain procedures leading to an agreement focusing on achieving good work performance and reasonable costs. Among the procedures leading to the formalization of a JOC contract are the following items and provisions:

  • Standard specifications established in a master contract with a summary of work, also including any specific or client-driven conditions.
  • A Unit Price Book containing preset unit prices for construction tasks.
  • Facility owner issues a Request for Qualifications (RFQ), evaluating firms using best-value, performance-based criteria, or an Invitation to Bid awarding to the lowest responsive and responsible bidder.
  • A guarantee of minimum amount of work for the contractor. This is usually a small amount for consideration – a requirement in most states for contracts.
  • Issuance of contractor’s work orders based on owner’s requirements.
  • Costs for individual work orders are calculated by multiplying the preset unit prices by the quantities multiplied by the contractor’s coefficient.
  • Open communication between facilities team and JOC contracting team, including a kick-off partnering session between everyone utilizing the contract.

Advantages of Using a JOC Program

The major advantages of Job Order Contracting include:

  1. Fast and timely delivery of projects.
  2. Low overhead cost of construction procurement and delivery.
  3. Development of a partner relationship based on work performance.
  4. Reduced legal fees.
  5. Elimination of change orders.
  6. Standard pricing and specification utilizing a published unit price book (UPB), resulting in efficient and effective estimating, design, and fixed price construction.

Top performing JOC contractors achieve a high percentage rate for completion of projects on time and on budget. Also, the JOC process provides for a single contract to be used for the delivery of multiple or repeated work orders without having to re-bid the same work as required in other commonly used delivery systems. It allows for back and forth communication and development efforts throughout a project. This differs greatly from the one way efforts of Design-Bid-Build. JOC provides the greatest advantage in situations involving recurring work when delivery times, type of work and quantity of work are indefinite. While JOC is not used for major new construction, it is best for minor construction, adjustments, renovation, repair and maintenance of facilities.

Other advantages include:

  • Partnering and performance incentives result in high-quality construction and service and enhanced quality control. Quality JOC contractors have reduced and even eliminated punch lists.
  • Simplified design documents and acquisition processes negate the need for complicated and repetitive contract documents and reduce contract administrative costs.
  • The speed of JOC contracting ranges from 10 days to 21 days from request to construction start, since JOC projects don’t demand soliciting and acquiring a contract along with detailed plans and specifications.
  • Facility owners do not have to provide a complete design, but rather rely on the JOC contractor to produce any essential drawings for the design.
  • Employment of smaller subcontractors in the area to perform the work, allowing for the majority of the project funds to be spent locally.
  • Minimal risk for the owner in the event of problems with the contractor because the owner can stop using the contract at any time. If a performance-based system is also used, the JOC contractor can be terminated for lack of performance.
  • A win-win attitude or motivation for both the contractor and the facility owner produced by and through the long-term relationship.

Use of Federal Funds

It is legal to use Job Order Contracting when a project is funded, in whole or in part, with Federal Funds. This is also true for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. The federal government uses the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to regulate acquisitions. Job Order Contracting is covered in the FAR in three key areas:

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, in section 1554, states that:

To the maximum extent possible, contracts funded under this Act shall be awarded as fixed-price contracts through the use of competitive procedures. A summary of any contract awarded with such funds that is not fixed-price and not awarded using competitive procedures shall be posted in a special section of the website established in section 1526.

JOC is a Firm-Fixed-Price, Indefinite Quantity Contract that is competitively procured. JOC is ideally suited to accomplish work with stimulus funds because it expedites the procurement process, saves money and is completely transparent.


High Performance Buildings – Energy Management Systems

Building Efficiency:
Building-wide, Proactive Energy Management Systems for High-Performance Buildings

machine learning

Achieving and sustaining energy savings depends on advances in energy management (EM)–for example, the ability to exploit occupancy, energy prices, and weather trends when optimizing building system performance. Reducing the computational complexity of building-wide EM systems will make them more desirable.

Working with BuildingIQ, an Australian building automation start-up firm, Argonne is developing a proactive EM system to address these challenges. While building operations are inherently dynamic, with changes occurring quickly in external conditions, building systems respond slowly to these changes and provide an opportunity to optimize energy use, occupant comfort, and system responsiveness. To capture that opportunity, Argonne’s system will use adaptive building-wide predictive models that account for zone topology, energy and mass balances, HVAC systems, real-time occupancy, energy prices, and weather forecast information.

EM systems rely on iterative solutions of complex optimization problems, which need to be solved quickly and reliably to ensure appropriate real-time performance. Fast optimization algorithms also enable implementation with inexpensive, commodity hardware, thereby enabling widespread deployment. The research team is leveraging Argonne’s expertise in numerical optimization to deploy state-of-the-art and open-source optimization functionality and developing model reformulations and warm-starting strategies. These capabilities will enable set-point updates in a few minutes for large and highly detailed building models and long forecast horizons, enhancing system responsiveness and robustness.

The algorithms are being implemented in BuildingIQ’s system, which uses building models constructed automatically from sensor data and machine learning techniques. This approach avoids the need for expensive model development tasks and simulation engines that limit deployment.

A proactive EM system is currently in use in the Theory and Computational Science Building on the Argonne campus. A new generation of occupancy sensors, developed by global technology innovator Johnson Controls, will be field-tested as part of this demonstration project. Argonne and BuildingIQ will add new data mining capabilities to allow for association of occupancy patterns with building zones or other items of interest, while maintaining confidentiality of occupant identities.

This project is being funded by U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Program.


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