Comprehensive Facility Maintenance Plan

Comprehensive Facility Maintenance Plan / CFMP

job order contracting

The cornerstone of any CFMP should be preventive maintenance.  A regularly-scheduled preventive maintenance,  mitigates the frequency of unplanned failures, extends the longevity of building systems beyond industry standards, and best suits organization needs for a safe and functional physical environment.

Commons CFMP objectives include:

  1. Maintenance of the physical environment in support of the organization’s  mission
  2. Extending the lifespan of building systems
  3. Maintaining the asset value of the property
  4. Mitigating catastrophic building system failures, fires, accidents, and other safety hazards.
  5. Providing buildings that function at requisite efficiency
  6. Providing continuous use of facilities without disruptions
  7. Energy conservation
  8. Regulatory compliance

Staffing,  delivery methodology,  standardized and timely information, and supporting technology are core aspects in the execution of;

  1. Scheduled Maintenance – Description of activities that can be forecast and for which expenditures of parts and labor are based on a predictable time table or use schedule. Main components include: Preventive Maintenance, Modifications and Alterations, and Scheduled Replacement.
  2. Unscheduled Maintenance – Description of activities that cannot be programmed or forecast, including emergency repairs and corrections of breakdowns.
  3. Deferred Maintenance – Description of scheduled activities, delayed or postponed for reasons such as lack of funds or personnel, changes in priorities and change of use.

Staffing

Operations and maintenance departments, based upon size, may have multiple departments, each with an area of specialization, or a single department.  Examples of specialized areas include: 1. Environmental, Health, and Safety, 2. Central Maintenance Shops, 3. Cluster Maintenance Program, 4. Custodial Services, and 5. Energy and Recycling.

Tasks

Ongoing tasks associated with operations and maintenance departments vary widely, and may include:

  • Preventive maintenance program execution for all facilities
  • Work order service requests management
  • Regular inspections of equipment and building systems, such as roofs, boilers, chillers, sprinkler systems, fire alarms, elevators, fire extinguishers…
  • Repair services
  • Maintain regulatory compliance for select building systems (e.g., elevators, fire suppression systems, pressure vessels)
  • Computerized maintenance management system software operation.
  • Administration of renovation, repair, and maintenance contracts
  • General –  grounds maintenance program, custodial, etc.
  • Utility-billing data collection and analysis (including electric, natural gas, heating oil, propone, water/sewer, solid waste, and recycling).
  • Procurement of energy and solid waste services.
  • Manage contracts associated with energy and solid waste services.
  • Monitor the energy market to direct procurement decisions.
  • Coordinate with State and local officials on issues associated with energy, water/sewer utilities, and solid waste management.
  • Development and oversee energy reduction programs
  • Manage resource reduction and recycling program
  • Direct capital improvement projects related to lighting retrofits and solar power
  • Provide energy audits

Key Performance Indicators

The typical key performance indicators may include the following:

  • Top ten work order trouble codes
  • Quantity of temperature complaints (“too hot”, “too cold”)
  • Workforce productivity and utilization
  • Preventive maintenance versus corrective (or “reactive”) maintenance
  • Preventive maintenance schedule completion rate
  • Percent of major building systems operating within industry standard lifespan
  • System life-cycle performance
  • Deferred maintenance backlog reduction

Execution

Best value procurement, LEAN collaborative construction delivery methods such as Job Order Contracting, standard terms, definitions, as well as standardized cost and data architectures, and a documented Operations & Maintenance Execution Guide all contribute to maximizing return-on-investment and improving outcomes.

System Life-spans

  • Boilers (Steel, fire-tube) 25 years
  • Boilers (Cast iron) 35 years
  • Chillers (Air-cooled, reciprocating compressor) 20 years
  • Chillers (Water-cooled, screw compressor) 25 years
  • Chillers (Water-cooled, centrifugal compressor) 28 years •
  • HVAC (Rooftop units) 20 years
  • HVAC (Room unit ventilators) 25 years
  • HVAC (Penthouse/Interior mounted air handlers) 40 years
  • Flooring (Carpet) 15 years
  • Roofs (Asphalt Built-Up Roof, sloped) 25 years
  • Roofs (Metal) 30 years
  • Paving 25 years

The Metrics of BIM – The Manage the Built Environment

As the old saying goes…”you can’t manage what you don’t measure”.

 

 

Here’s the beginning of a list of information requirements spanning various domains/competencies, technologies, etc.,
While an important component, the 3D component of BIM has been a very unfortunate distraction.  It appears that many/most have “gone to the weeds” and/or are “recreating the wheel” vs. working on core foundational needs such as the consistent use of appropriate terminology and the establishment of robust, scalable and repeatable business practices, methodologies, standards, metrics and benchmarks for facilities and physical infrastructure management.

It is common terminology that enables effective communication and transparency among the various decision makers, building managers, operators and technicians involved with facilities and physical infrastructure investment and management.

Here are examples of metrics associated with the life-cycle management of the built environment:

Annualized Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) per building per gross area = Rate per square foot

Annualized TCO per building/Current replacement value = Percent of Current Replacement Value (CRV)

Annualized TCO per building/Net assignable square feet = Cost rate per net assignable square feet per building

Annualized TCO per building/Non-assignable square feet = Cost rate per non-assignable square feet per building

Annualized TCO per building/Building Interior square feet = Cost rate per interior square foot per building

Churn Rate

Utilization Rate

AI (Adaptation Index) or PI (Programmatic Index) = PR (Program Requirements) /
CRV (Current Replacement Value)

Uptime or Downtime – Defined in percent, as amount of time asset is suitable for the program(s) served.

Facility Operating Gross Square Foot (GSF) Index (SAM Performance Indicator: APPA 2003)

Custodial Costs per square foot

Grounds Keeping Costs per square foot

Energy Costs per square foot

Energy Usage

Utility Costs per square foot

Waste Removal Costs per square foot

Facility Operating Current Replacement Value (CRV) Index (SAM Performance Indicator: APPA 2003)

Planned/Preventive Maintenance Costs per square foot

Emergency Maintenance Costs as a percentage of Annual Operations Expenditures.

Unscheduled/Unplanned Maintenance Costs as a percentage of Annual Operations Expenditures.

Repair costs (man hours and materials) as a percentage of Annual Operations Expenditures

FCI (Facility Condition Index) = DM (Deferred Maintenance) + CR (Capital Renewal)
/ CRV (Current Replacement Value)

Recapitalization Rate, Reinvestment Rate

Deferred Maintenance Backlog

Facilities Deterioration Rate

FCI (Facility Condition Index) = DM (Deferred Maintenance) + CR (Capital Renewal) /
CRV (Current Replacement Value)

AI (Adaptive Index) or PI (Programmatic Index) = PR (Program Requirements) /
CRV (Current Replacement Value)

FQI (Facility Quality Index) or Quality Index or Index = FCI (Facility Condition Index)+ AI (Adaptive Index)

BIMF - Building Information Management FrameworkVia http://www.4Clicks.com – Premier cost estimating and efficient project delivery software for the built environment – , …

Energy-Efficiency Standards and Green Building Certification Systems Used by the Department of Defense for Military Construction and Major Renovations -2103

Efficient project delivery methods such as JOC, Job Order Contracting, and SABER are an important element in the renovation, repair and sustainability of facilities.

The incremental costs to design and construct high-performance or green buildings typically range from zero to eight percent higher (0 to 8%) than the costs to design and construct conventional buildings.

The additional incremental costs to design and construct high-performance or green buildings are relatively small when compared to total life-cycle costs.

Effective operation of high-performance buildings requires well-trained facilities managers.

 

Finding 1: The committee did not identify any research studies that conducted a traditional benefit-cost analysis to determine the long-term net present value savings, return on investment, or long-term payback related to the use of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010, ASHRAE Standard 189.1-2011, and the LEED or Green Globes green building certification systems.

 

Finding 2: There is some limited evidence to indicate that provisions within ASHRAE Standard 189.1-2011 may need to be selectively adopted if use of this standard is to be cost effective in the DOD operating environment.

 

Finding 3. Research studies indicate that the incremental costs to design and construct high-performance or green buildings typically range from 0 to 8 percent higher than the costs to design and construct conventional buildings, depending on the methodology used in the study and the type of building analyzed. The additional incremental costs to design and construct high-performance or green buildings are relatively small when compared to total life-cycle costs.

 

Finding 5: The evidence from the literature search indicates that high-performance or green buildings can result in significant reductions in energy use and water use. The cost savings associated with the reductions in energy and water use will vary by geographic region, by climate zone, and by building type.

 

Finding 6: Not every individual high-performance or green building achieved energy or water savings when compared to similar conventional buildings.

 

Finding 9. Effective operation of high-performance buildings requires well-trained facilities managers.

 

Recommended Approach 1. Continue to require that new buildings or major renovations be designed to achieve a LEED-Silver or equivalent rating in order to meet the multiple objectives embedded in laws and mandates related to high-performance buildings.

 

Recommended Approach 3. Put policies and resources in place to measure the actual performance of the Department of Defense’s high-performance, green, and conventional buildings to meet multiple objectives.

Source: Energy-Efficiency Standards and Green Building Certification Systems Used by the Department of Defense for Military Construction and Major Renovations, NRC

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NIBS – Building Innovation 2013 Conference

I am writing this from Washington, D.C. while participating in the NIBS Building Innovation 2013 Conference.   The buildingSMART alliance conference is part of this gathering under the title “Integrating BIM: Moving the Industry Forward.”

BIM education and practice requires focus upon process and associated return-on-investment.   Robust communication and adoption of standard and/or “best practice” construction planning and delivery methods specific to efficient life-cycle management of the built environment are sorely needed.

It is amazing that Integrated Project Delivery – IPD, and “IPD-lite”… the latter being Job Order Contracting and SABER which are forms of IPD specifically for renovation, repair, sustainability and minor new construction…  are not being brought to the forefront as critical aspects of BIM.    It is the construction planning and project delivery method that sets the tone of any project and ultimately dictate relationships and associated successes or failures.

Collaboration, transparency, and performance-based win-win relationships are necessary components of a BIM-based philosophy.  Yet, these and other critical aspects; including  defensible, accurate, and transparent cost estimating and standardized construction cost data architectures, are neither in  forefront of current thinking nor receiving an adequate allocation of resources.

 

Far too much emphasis continues to be place on the 3d visualization component aspect of BIM, IFC format pros and cons, and other “technology” areas.

 

Technology is NOT what is holding back BIM, it is the apparent lack of understanding of … and associated failure to adopt … facility life-cycle management processes… combined and what can only be described as a pervasive “not invented here” attitude.

Many of of our peers are reinventing the wheel over and over again at tremendous cost to all stakeholders…Owners, AEs, Contractors, Subs, Oversight Groups, Building Users, Building Product Manufacturers, …not to mention our Economy and our Environment, vs. sharing information and working toward common goals.

Job Order Contracting – JOC – Certificate Program

The Alliance For Construction Excellence

 

 

ACE Job Order Contracting (JOC) Certificate Program

Mondays,  4:30 – 8:00 p.m.

 October 29th – March 4th (15 weeks)
Four Monday classes will not be held due to the holidays
Location: To be Confirmed 

The ACE Job Order Contracting (JOC) Certificate Program is an in-person, 56 hour program that will result in attendees receiving their JOC Professional Certification upon completeion of the program and the passing of the Certification exam.
Sessions will cover:

  • Different Project Delivery Methods and their applications
  • Basic elements of JOC
  • Requirements of a Successful JOC Program and is it the right method
  • JOC Operations including how to set up a JOC Program
  • Roles and Responsibilities of those involved
  • Individual Job Order to include Preconstruction Services, Scope of Work, Price schedule and change orders
  • How to manage a JOC Program to include training, reporting, communication tools, relationship building techniques and audits
  • Job Order Pricing
  • JOC Selection Process
  • Legal considerations and contracts which are key to a successful JOC Program
  • JOC Operations Manual
  • Collaborative Thinking to ensure win-win-win results
  • Case Studies weaved throughout the 15 weeks take students into real-life experiences

Instructors to Include:

Gary Aller, Director, Alliance for Construction Excellence

Charlie Bowers, LEED AP, Centennial Contractors Enterprises

Hank Traeger, Retired, Alliance for Construction Excellence

Mark Powell, LEED AP, Kosten Technik International

 

ACE JOCCP is perfect course for:

Developers, Owners, Construction Managers, Project Managers, Architects, Engineers, Contractors, Subcontractors, and Residential, Civil, & Commercial Construction Professionals
There are no prerequisites to enroll in this program, but basic knowledge about the construction process will be assumed. A certificate of completion will be awarded for successful completion of the course and 5.6 noncredit CEU’s will be awarded for those who attend and successfully complete the 56 hours of instruction (3 absences are allowed to receive full CEU’s).

 


 

Registration Fee
ACE Members — $3295    l     Non-Members  — $3635
Register Online:

www.ace4aec.com/course/job-order-contracting-joc-certificate-program-10292012
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If you have any questions, contact the ACE office at 480-965-4246.

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 Definition of JOB ORDER CONTRACTING – JOC

Job order contracting – JOC –  is an innovative procurement technique designed to provide more responsive facility maintenance, repair, sustainability,  and minor construction.  It is intended to significantly reduce engineering and procurement lead-times by awarding a competitively bid, firm-fixed-price, indefinite-quantity, multitask contract (IDIQ)  to a single general contractor. The contract consists of detailed task specifications for a multitude of real property maintenance activities encountered within a specific geographic area.

Use of a job order contract (JOC) avoids separate design, specification, and construction contracting actions. Prepriced units of work are used to help streamline the process. The contracts are awarded by competitive procedures. Upon award, a contractor receives individual task orders, also called delivery orders, based on continued levels of high performance. This incentive mechanism is unique to JOCs.

JOCs are based on a proprietary or commercially available unit price book (UPB) that lists all tasks encompassed by a contract with a corresponding unit price. The vast majority of JOC contracts use RSMeans Cost Data in some manner.  4Clicks Solutions, LLC offers  exclusively enhanced 400,000+ line item RSMeans Cost Data access inclusive of full line item descriptions and modifiers.  This UPB can be localized and supplemented with client specific line items and place within a power, easy-to-use software solution that automates many aspects and helps to assure consistency of JOC implementations.
In making offers on the JOC contract, offerers propose multipliers  or coefficients  for work performed during normal working hours, and for work performed during other than normal hours.
Multiplying the UPBs unit prices by the appropriate coefficient determines the total price. Should the task order include supplemental items that the UPB does not identify, the contractor and the owner jointly determine a fair price for these items. These items are added to the UPB work for a total cost of completing a task order. The items that are not included in the UPB are called either non-prepriced items (NPIs) or non-prepriced work (NPP).

(above adapted from Logistics Management Institute – Improving the Army’s Job Order Contracting Program, via http://www.4Clicks.com)

” Evidence-based ” Life-cycle Federal Facility Management, BIM, and the Status Quo – NIBS, FFC

Yesterday (6/19/2012), the National Academies Federal Facility Council hosted a timely, and potentially watermark event “Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities“.

It is my hope that this event and those similar to it  be expanded as much as possible to assist all real property owners, architects, contractors, subcontractors, building product manufactures, oversight groups, and the community truly practice facility life-cycle management, referred to more recently as BIM (building information modeling / management).

Key Topics / Take Aways:

Identify and advance technologies, processes, and management practices that improve the performance of federal facilities over their entire life-cycle, from planning to disposal.

Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair for Federal Facilities
-Facility risks to Organizational Mission
-Potential to quantify
-Ability to predict outcomes vs. investment
-Communication strategies
-The “how” of measuring investment successes

1. You can’t manage what you don’t measure.

2. Requirements for facility life-cycle management, efficient repair/maintenance/sustainability, BIM

3. Inventory of Built Environment

4. Physical and Functional Condition of Assets (Portfolio, Site, Building/Area, System, Sub-system, Component Levels)

5. Expected Life-cycle and Deterioration Rates for Physical Assets

6. Ranking of Facilities/Built Environment relative to Organizational Mission

Mission Criticality / Risk Matrix

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. Associated Capital Reinvestment Requirements and Ability to run multi-year “What-if ” scenario analyses

8. Collaborative, Efficient Project Delivery Methods ( IPD – Integrated Project Delivery, JOC – Job Order Contracting)

 

Strategic approaches for investing in facilities maintenance and repair to achieve beneficial outcomes and to mitigate risks. Such approaches should do the following:

• Identify and prioritize the outcomes to be achieved through maintenance and repair investments and link those outcomes to achievement of agencies’ missions and other public policy objectives.
• Provide a systematic approach to performance measurement, analysis, and feedback.
• Provide for greater transparency and credibility in budget development, decision making, and budget execution.

• Identify and prioritize the beneficial outcomes that are to be achieved through maintenance and repair investments, preferably in the form of a 5- to 10-year plan agreed on by all levels of the organization.
• Establish a risk-based process for prioritizing annual maintenance and repair activities in the field and at the headquarters level.
• Establish standard methods for gathering and updating data to provide credible, empirical information for decision support, to measure outcomes from investments in maintenance and repair, and to track and improve the results.

Vehicles for Change—
• Portfolio-based facilities management (aka asset management)
•Technology (tools, knowledge, risk)
• Recognition of impacts of facilities on people, environment, mission (i.e., prioritizing)
• Changing of the Guard

Best Practices … Partial Listing
• Identification of better performing contractors or service providers
• GIS mapping tools
• Facility condition assessments – surveys, vendors, frequencies, costs
• Maintenance management systems
• Predictive maintenance tools
• Organizational structures
• Budget call process
• Master Planning processes
• Improve relationships with the facility end users and foster a “One Community”
• Energy management

Presentations:

Doug Ellsworth_USACE

DR_Uzarski_CERL

John Yates_DOE

Get Moy_Portfolio Mgmt

Peter Marshall_FFC_Chair

Terms:

Component-section (a.k.a. section): The basic “management unit.” Buildings are a collection of components grouped into systems. Sections define the component by material or equipment type and age.
Condition Survey Inspection (a.k.a. Condition Survey; Inspection): The gathering of data for a given component-section for the primary purpose of condition assessment.
Condition Assessment: The analysis of condition survey inspection data.
Component Section Condition Index (CSCI): An engineering – based condition assessment outcome metric (0 – 100 scale) and part of the Building Condition Index (BCI) series.

Condition Survey Inspection Objectives
1. Determine Condition (i.e. CSCI) of Component-Section
2. Determine Roll-Up Condition of System, Building, etc.
3. Provide a Condition History
4. Compute Deterioration Rates
5. Calibrate/Re-calibrate Condition Prediction Model Curves
6. Compute/Re-compute Remaining Maintenance Life
7. Determine Broad Scope of Work for Planning Purposes
8. Quantify/refine Work Needs (incl root cause analysis, if needed)
9. Establish when Cost Effective to Replace (vs. Repair)
10. Compute/Re-compute Remaining Service Life
11. QC/QA (Post-work Assessment)

Condition Survey Inspection Types
Deficiency: The “traditional” inspection discussed previously.
Distress Survey: The identification of distress types (i.e. crack, damage, etc.), severity (low, medium, high) and density (percentage) present. Data directly used in the calculation of the CSCI. No estimate of cost or priority.
Distress Survey with Quantities: Same as distress survey except that distress quantities are measured or counted. The resulting density is more accurate than a distress survey, thus the CSCI is more precise.
Direct Rating: A one-step process that combines inspection and condition assessment. An alphanumeric rating (three categories, three subcategories each) is assigned to the component-section by the inspector. Rating is directly correlated to a CSCI value, but is less accurate than a CSCI derived from a distress survey. Quick, but no record of what’s wrong.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

About The Federal Facilities Council

The Federal Facilities Council (FFC) was established at the National Academies in 1953 as the Federal Construction Council. The mission of the FFC is to identify and advance technologies, processes, and management practices that improve the performance of federal facilities over their life-cycles, from programming to disposal. The FFC is sponsored and funded by more than 20 federal agencies with responsibilities for and mutual issues related to all aspects of facilities design, construction, operations, renewal, and management.

The FFC fulfills its mission by networking and by sharing information among its sponsoring federal agencies and by leveraging its resources to conduct policy and technical studies, conferences, forums, and workshops on topics of mutual interest. The activities to be undertaken in any given calendar year are approved by a committee composed of senior representatives from each of the sponsor agencies.

Much of the work of the FFC is carried out by its 5 standing committees, each of which meets quarterly. The majority of meetings include presentations by guest speakers from the federal community, academia, and the private sector and these presentations are open to the public. The presentation slides are posted on the Events page of this website. If you would like to automatically receive notices of new reports or upcoming events, please subscribe to the FFC listserv.
Within the National Academies, the FFC operates under the auspices of the Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment (BICE) of the National Research Council. The BICE provides oversight and guidance for FFC activities and serves as a link between the sponsoring federal agencies and other elements of the building community, both national and international.

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BIM Collaboration – Fact or Fiction?

BIM Collaboration – Fact or Fiction

As members of the AECOO1 Community and stewards of the build environment, it is our obligation to collaboratively address our industry-specific productivity and business process issues as well as the our lack of significant progress relative to addressing environmental impacts.

Truth be told, there is only one significant barrier to efficient AECOO practices and it is our existing culture of mistrust, lack of open communication, and reliance upon antagonistic construction delivery methods.

The design-bid-build construction delivery method and associated practices such of awarding contracts to the lowest bidder do little more than a fuel to the fires of waste, protracted project timelines, change orders, and legal disputes.

Also, focus upon symptoms such as lack of effective technology usage and associated interoperability issues, have done little to drive change.  That said, it may be technology that is the acts as the catalyst to tear down the walls of mistrust and silos of independent groups and activities.

Cloud computing and associated social networking have already begun to dramatically alter the world and stand ready to forcefully impact the AECOO community.

A simplified, however, powerful definition of BIM is “the efficient life-cycle management of the built environment supported by digital technology”.   Achievement of this goal requires the integration of multiple knowledge domains and associated processes, procedures, and activities, which to date have been managed in isolation.   While detailed knowledge of each domain will remain a challenge, sharing of critical information with multi-disciplinary impact can be achieved if communication barriers are removed.   Cloud computing, social networking, and the associated use of integrated project delivery methods2 will provide the basic foundation upon with BIM will be enabled.  An an actionable framework for professional AECOO collaboration, and increased productivity is on the horizon.   The timing and success, however, is totally dependent upon transformational changes regarding the ways in which AECOO professionals communicate and deliver their services.

 

1-Architerture, Engineering, Construction, Owners, Operations

2-Current examples include integrated project delivery (IPD) for new construction and job order contracting (JOC).  The latter is a form of IPD specifically targeting renovation, repair, sustainability, and minor new construction.

 

 

 

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