Public Law 111-308 – Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act – FBPTA – CORE COMPETENCIES

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In accordance with Public Law 111-308, The Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act, GSA identified the core competencies contained in the attachment for personnel performing building operations and maintenance, energy management,  safety and design functions. The core competencies identified include competencies relating to building operations and maintenance, energy management, sustainability, water efficiency, safety (including electrical safety) and building performance measures. The core competencies will be updated annually per the law.

Congress passed FBPTA to ensure that the Federal building operations workforce is adequately trained, and that Federal buildings are maximally productive and properly serviced to achieve the highest possible return on investment over projected operating life.  The Act requires GSA, in collaboration with the Department of Defense and the Department of Energy, to identify the necessary core competencies for Federal building operations and management personnel, the methods required for demonstrating these core competencies, and a recommended course curriculum for all personnel involved in building operations and management, energy management, sustainability, water efficiency, safety, design, and performance measurement.

…”described by House and Senate Republicans as “green” legislation to create cutting edge energy conservation technology jobs.”

…”the bill is supposed to cut federal government energy costs and train the federal building maintenance work force in the use of high performance technologies for energy conservation in federal buildings.”

Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act

Core Competencies June 2012                                                                                                           

In accordance with the Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act 2010 (FBPTA), the enclosed core competencies are identified for personnel performing building operations and maintenance, energy management, sustainability, water efficiency, safety (including electrical safety), building performance measures and design functions.

Law requires an annual update of this curriculum, allowing it to evolve over time. This release represents the results of significant consultation with representatives from Federal departments and agencies, relevant professional societies, industry associations and apprenticeship training providers, as well as subject matter experts from academic institutions. Our Program to implement the FBPTA will continuously evolve; through lessons learned from this initial release and successive updates, in response to technological breakthroughs and improvements, in order to highlight transformational policies, processes and procedures, and in response to changes in funding and philosophical constraints. We will remain in constant consultation with the stakeholders mentioned above.

Legislative Intent:

Taxpayer investment in Federal facilities must be protected and leveraged through the cost savings involved in maximizing building performance. Achieving this level of performance requires a government-­‐wide program that stresses training and continuing education in the implementation of industry best practices and lifecycle operations and management. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works Report-­‐ paraphrased  

 

Background:

The evolution of the enclosed core competencies began with a Federal listening session and the modification of a Department of Energy

Workforce Standardization Project. We modified the energy job task analyses to include facilities operations and management activities. We also held an additional Federal listening session and an Industry Symposium. The completed Job Task Analyses (JTA) were released for public review and comment. Comments revealed that the JTAs were so comprehensive that no single person could acquire all of the skills and experience captured – even over a lifetime in the profession. This lead to the development of a paired down version of the knowledge, skills and abilities (core competencies) arranged into three levels with associated pay grades and military ranks.

The Facility Manager section was then put out for public comment in the FedBizOpps and sent to more than 200 representatives from government, industry and academia. Comments were transformative in that they made it very clear that a government-­‐wide Program to implement the FBPTA, must be agnostic to GS job series or pay grade. Departments and Agencies across the Federal government have personnel operating and managing facilities from many different job series. Any meaningful organization of core competencies needs to account for the variability of pay grades performing at the same level and with the same basic roles and responsibilities that are department/agency, region and even facility dependent.

john.simpson@gsa.gov                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1

The next significant area of comment centered on how departments and agencies deploy their personnel.

Reviewers admired the system’s three levels of increasing knowledge, skills and abilities as a “concept”, but did not believe it was implementable government-­‐wide. Departments and agencies deploy their personnel according to the scope and scale required by the facilities being operated and managed, and according to their own organizational idiosyncrasies. One agency may have a dedicated facility manager for a large stand-­‐ alone building, while another agency may have a number of individuals whose area of expertise is deployed across numerous facilities coming together in a “department” to accomplish all facilities operations and management tasks.

SystemDesign:

We developed a system that focused on the highest impact core competencies common to every agency -­‐ remaining job series and pay grade

agnostic. This system establishes (7) Core Competency Areas referenced in the law, along with (5) additional Core Competency Areas universally recognized for their impact on facilities operations and management. Further, we introduced an industry standard framework and nomenclature to better align core competencies with existing courses, certifications, degrees, licenses and registrations. It arranges the system into: Core Competency Areas, Core Competencies and Performances. We determined that most functions performed above the Facility/Cantonment Area level differed mainly in scope and scale rather than in content including: program management; policy development and implementation; performance measurement; providing subject matter expertise; budget formulation, advocacy and execution; and funding allocation. While important, these management and support functions are not the focus of the FBPTA and thus, are not the focus of our initial Program release.

The Program/system provides departments and agencies the maximum flexibility to implement the FBPTA according to how they are truly organized and deployed across their portfolios. Inherent to this level of flexibility, is the necessity for interaction between individuals and their supervisors at an operational level. Using the “performances”, individuals and their supervisors will need to determine what core competencies are vital to performing their roles within the organization. A web-­‐tool is being developed with OPM that allows individuals to enter, and choose from a menu of certifications, degrees, licenses and registrations which ones they currently hold. Qualifications will be mapped automatically to the core competencies that they demonstrate. This plus any courses the individual has completed, establishes their baseline. The difference between the individual’s baseline and the core competencies required by the individual will form a “GAP”. This GAP analysis will provide the individual and their supervisor the ability to create development plans and justify funding for training. Unfortunately, the extreme variability across department and agency systems makes it impossible to allow data to be “pushed” into the web-­‐tool.

Opportunity:

The web-­‐tool and this process presents an incredible opportunity to create a one-­‐of-­‐a-­‐kind database that can be used to measure the

effectiveness of our training programs by mapping them to a series of building performance measures that we will be asking for when personnel establish their account, and at the six and twelve month time periods following completed training. We will include inquiry into whether the measures are impacted by any extreme conditions – record hot summer, record cold winter, moving into a 24hr operations posture etc. This

direct and observable correlation of training to building performance will be a powerful vehicle for both public and private facilities operations and management personnel as they make the case for training budgets or as evidence of the efficacy of their products.

Details:

This Program is designed to pursue and present state-­‐of-­‐the-­‐art knowledge and concepts per the law. As such, some of the terms and concepts may not be familiar to all personnel using this document. Where the potential for that exists, the term has been defined and a reference location given. In some cases, knowledge of a term or concept represents a “performance” under a core competency. To receive credit for this performance in the system, an individual will certify that they have reviewed the reference indicated – the honor system applies.

During the development of this Program, the question of how to deal with (On the-­‐Job-­‐Training = OJT) came up frequently. Our intention is to give credit where appropriate. However, the number of personnel that will be seeking OJT and the areas they will be seeking it in, could not be determined prior to the identification of the core competencies. Now that we have the core competencies, the web-­‐tool is being designed to capture OJT requests so that the volume an scope can be analyzed and a program developed to provide vehicles for these organization to ensure their personnel possess the competencies that they are claiming credit for.

Conclusion:

The identification of the enclosed core competencies represents a significant amount of research and has been done in consultation with our industry, government and academic partners. This is a very complex system seeking to implement transformational concepts across the Federal government. We look forward to continuing our work with all the outstanding individuals and organizations that contributed to this effort.

FACILITY/FACILITIES

Competency Area Core Competency Competency Area Core Competency
1. Facilities Operationsand Management o Building Systems o Building Interior o Building ExteriorOther Facility Systems 9. Project Management o Initiate o  Execute o Closeout o Training
2. Facilities Operations,Maintenance and

Engineering

Operating and Maintaining HVAC SystemsOperating and Maintaining Electrical and

Mechanical Systems

o Operating, Maintaining and Testing Life Safety

Systems

o General Building Maintenance

Best Practices and Innovation

10. Business, Budget andContracting Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)Life-­‐Cycle Assessment (LCA)

Contracting

Budget Formulation and Execution

3. Technology Technology SolutionsBuilding Automation Systems (BAS)

Maintenance Management System (MMS)

11. Leadership andInnovation Communication and AdministrationPersonnel

Innovation

Enterprise Knowledge and Strategic

Decision Making

4. Energy Management Systems and Demand ReductionAssess Initial Conditions

Commissioning

Planning, Project and Program Management

Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPC)

o Coordinate with Public Utilities

12. Performance Measures FBPTAAcquiring Data

Establishment and implementation

5. Safety Basic RequirementsInfrastructure

Contract Management

Occupant Interface

6. Design PlanningInfrastructure Systems
7. Sustainability BackgroundRegulations and Requirements Implementation
8. Water Efficiency Regulations, Goals and Best PracticesWater Audit

Large FACILITY/Stand-­‐alone Facility(ies)/Cantonment Area(s)

Core Competency Area: 1. Facilities Operations and Management
Core Competency Performances:
Building Systems 1.   Demonstrate familiarity with Building Systems: HVAC, Electrical (and Standby generators), Lighting,Mechanical/Plumbing (and Fire protection systems), Vertical transportation, Structural, Roofing, Building

Envelope.

2.   Demonstrate ability to work with Facilities team to assess a facility’s need for building systems.

3.   Demonstrate ability to oversee the acquisition, installation, and operation of building systems.

4.   Demonstrate ability to work with Facilities Team to establish practices and procedures.

5.   Demonstrate ability to work with Facilities Team to determine and administer the allocation of building systems’ resources.

6.   Demonstrate ability to monitor and evaluate how well building systems perform.

7.   Demonstrate ability to manage corrective, preventive and predictive maintenance.

8.   Demonstrate ability to work with Facilities Team to develop emergency procedures for building systems.

9.   Demonstrate knowledge of how to implement disaster recovery plans for building systems as required.

Building Interior 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of how to evaluate building structures and permanent interiors.2.   Demonstrate ability to manage the service/repair requests and maintenance and cleaning needs of building structures and permanent interior elements.

3.   Demonstrate ability to evaluate furniture and equipment performance.

4.   Demonstrate ability to manage the maintenance and cleaning of furniture and equipment.

Building Exterior 1.   Demonstrate familiarity with managing grounds and exteriorso     Parking structures

o     Site utilities

o     Landscaping and grounds

o     Exterior envelope (roof, brick, masonry, etc.)

2.   Demonstrate ability to assess the effect of climate and extreme environmental conditions.

3.   Demonstrate ability to evaluate the performance of grounds and exterior elements.

4.   Demonstrate ability to assess the need for alterations in grounds and exterior elements.

5.   Demonstrate ability to manage the maintenance and custodial needs of grounds and exterior elements.

Other Facility Systems 1.   Demonstrate ability to manage vehicles and related equipment as required.
2.   Demonstrate ability to work with Security Personnel as required on:o     Personnel ingress/egress

o     Controlled access systems

o     Backup power requirements

o     Emergency Lighting

3.   Demonstrate ability to manage pest control and waste systems.

4.   Demonstrate ability to work with interior communications (phone, computer, video conferencing)

personnel to ensure facility requirements are met and service interruption procedures are in place.

Core Competency Area: 2. Facilities Operations, Maintenance and Engineering
Core Competency Performances:

Operating and

Maintaining HVAC Systems

1.   Demonstrate ability to collecting Operating Data on system.o     Read required: pressures, temperatures, control panels and other operating parameters as required. (Using gauges, meters and computer systems as necessary)

o     Check oil levels and other required levels

o     Log equipment reading and report any inconsistencies

2.   Demonstrate ability to adjust System Parameters as required.

3.   Demonstrate understanding of indoor air quality – how to test and adjust. (Air pollutant sources, biological contaminants, air sampling, CO2 measurement, mold, control strategies, system balancing, ventilation)

4.   Demonstrate ability to analyze HVAC system performance. (chillers, boilers, ventilation, pressure,

temperature, amperage, voltage, air flow, water flow)

o     Collect trends of operational parameters

o     Conduct performance tests and collect data

o     Compare trends and data

o     Report findings

5.   Demonstrate ability to coordinate HVAC system changes.

6.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to maintain all HVAC Systems (clean, change and perform preventative maintenance…)

7.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to repair all HVAC Systems (calibrate, change, fabricate, recover, replace and trouble shoot as required…)

o     Ability to perform advanced trouble shooting techniques using appropriate tools.

8.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to optimize HVAC controls. (ex calibrated energy savings, reduced

ventilation where possible, hot/cold water resets, economizer control, start/stop timers, demand load shedding)

Operating andMaintaining Electrical and

Mechanical Systems

1.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability with Lighting Systems – trouble shoot lighting systems, adjust lightingprogramming, replace lamps, replace ballasts, maintain lamps and ballast inventory,

2.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to change: electrical fuses, control boards, electrical fixtures, and electrical relays.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to replace electric motors.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to maintain plumbing fixtures, sewage injectors, and water heaters.

5.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to identify irrigation leaks.

6.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to all drains and backflow preventers

7.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to maintain pressure-­‐reducing valves.

8.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to replace water filters.

9.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to winterize irrigation systems if necessary.

Operating, Maintaining

and Testing Life Safety

Systems

1.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to operate Fire Alarm panels and test the entire fire alarm system.2.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to test the emergency generators.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to test fire pumps and sprinkler systems.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to test smoke and heat sensors.

5.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to inspect fire extinguishers.

General BuildingMaintenance 1.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to maintain door hardware.2.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to maintain roof systems.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to maintain ceiling tiles.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to maintain flooring systems.

5.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to maintain window systems.

6.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to perform minor wall repairs.

Best Practices andInnovation 1.     Demonstrate knowledge of the “Ten Steps to Operational Efficiency” – FEMP O&M Best Practices Guide Rev3.0 pg 291. (http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/omguide_complete.pdf)

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of (DOE/PNNL) “Retuning Project” and how it could be applied – (Re-­‐tuning is intended to provide building operators, building managers and energy service providers with the necessary skills to identify no-­‐ and low-­‐cost operational problems that plague commercial buildings and provide the skills necessary to take corrective action.)  http://www.pnnl.gov/buildingretuning/

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of and the ability to perform “predictive maintenance” (Predictive maintenance attempts to detect the onset of a degradation mechanism with the goal of correcting that degradation prior

to significant deterioration in the component or equipment.) FEMP O&M Best Practices Release 3.0 pg 59(http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/omguide_complete.pdf)

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of ALL types of commissioning, and what is required in the Energy Independence and Security Act 2007 (EISA).

5.   Demonstrate knowledge of metering and sub-­‐metering for energy and water and how they contribute to systems optimization.

6.    Demonstrate knowledge of O&M Frontiers like those found in FEMP O&M Best Practices Guide Rev 3.0 pg 287.

(http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/omguide_complete.pdf)

7.   Demonstrate knowledge of advanced trouble-­‐shooting techniques on a systems-­‐wide basis.

Core Competency Area: 3. Technology
Core Competency Performances:
Technology Solutions 1.   Demonstrate ability to monitor information and trends related to facility management technologies.2.   Demonstrate ability to identify and interface with internal and external accountable resources, e.g., external vendors, internal or external IT systems owners.

3.   Demonstrate ability to identify evaluation criteria, evaluate, and recommend facility management

technologies solutions.

4.   Demonstrate ability to assess how changes to facility management technologies will impact current infrastructure, processes, and building systems.

5.   Demonstrate ability to plan for and oversee the acquisition, installation, operation, maintenance, upgrade, and disposition of components supporting facility management technologies.

6.   Demonstrate ability to recommend and communicate policies. Establish practices and procedures.

7.   Demonstrate ability to develop and implement training programs for facilities staff and ancillary resources.

8.   Demonstrate ability to monitor performance of facility management technologies and make appropriate recommendations when modifications are needed.

9.   Demonstrate ability to manage corrective, preventive, and predictive maintenance.

10. Demonstrate ability to develop, test and implement, when necessary, emergency procedures and disaster recovery plans.

Building AutomationSystems (BAS) 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of a Building Automation System (BAS) and Maintenance Management Systems(MMS)

o     How equipment is entered into BAS

o     Participate in the establishment of control strategies

o     Monitor and implement overrides when necessary, alarm procedures

o     Monitor, analyze and report trendso     How BAS and MMS inter-­‐relate for operations and accounting systems

2.   Demonstrate understanding of the bridge between the technical and business aspects of facilities

management.

3.   Demonstrate ability to conduct trouble-­‐shooting procedures at the equipment, system and building levels.

4.   Demonstrate ability to conduct trouble-­‐shooting of critical systems: access control systems, fire alarm and suppression systems, elevator systems, emergency lighting systems, and emergency communication systems.

Maintenance

Management System

(MMS)

1.   Demonstrate knowledge of Maintenance Management Systems -­‐ Computer Assisted Facilities Management(CAFM) AND Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS)

2.   Demonstrate understanding of MMS AND CMMS:

o     Understand how to setup the program and input data on equipment and items to measure

o     Establish baselines with standards and priorities and backup requirements

o     Establish maintenance schedules

o     Setup reports, frequency, levels and user access

o     Establish inter-­‐operability with accounting system

o     Establish inventory thresholds/levels and determine maintenance tasks

o     Determine user roles (access levels) and identify system administrators

o     Establish close-­‐out procedures

o     Process departmental charge-­‐backs

o     Determine costs/pricing structure (labor, materials, overhead, etc.)

o     Ensure system maintenance back up data and develop data archiving strategy

o     Train users, setup dashboard and identify in-­‐house skills inventory

Core Competency Area: 4. Energy Management
Core Competency Performances:
Systems and DemandReduction 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of building systems and how they affect energy use:o     HVAC System

o     Electrical Systems

o     Motors and drives

o     Lighting Systems

o     Building Envelope

o     Fuel Systems -­‐ Fuel Selection

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems and distributed generation.3.   Demonstrate knowledge of Renewable Energy Systems – Solar (Thermal and Photovoltaic), Wind, Biomass, Hydropower.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of Thermal Energy Storage systems – (ex. chilled water storage, ice storage, potential energy storage etc)

5.   Demonstrate knowledge of Building Automation Systems (BAS) and Control Systems.

6.   Demonstrate knowledge of Enhanced Automation (EA) – “the variety of potential strategies to increase the capability of the existing energy or building management systems to control current, and plan for future, building energy costs while maintaining the comfort and productivity of all building occupants.” http://www.energy.ca.gov/enhancedautomation/

7.   Demonstrate knowledge of Energy Management Systems (EMS) and Energy Information Systems (EIS).

8.   Demonstrate knowledge of re-­‐programming current systems and expanding network of sensors and control devices to optimize HVAC, lighting and other automated systems.

9.   Demonstrate knowledge of how to incorporate occupancy sensors, task lighting, thermostatic set-­‐points with weather forecasting and other demand linked strategies to optimize building performance.

Assess Initial Conditions 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of how to perform and Energy Savings Assessment: Examplehttp://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/program/om_wgresources.html

o     Role of Energy Audits

o     Energy Audit – Types I, II, III

o     Utility Bill Analysis

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of laws, regulations and Executive Orders that pertain to energy management,

status of compliance and existing energy management plans. See FEMP website of list of laws and regulations: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/regulations/regulations.html

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of applicable Codes and Standards – (ex. ISO 50001, ASHRAE/IESNA Std 90.1-­‐2010, ASHRAE 62.1-­‐2010, Model Energy Code, ASHRAE Standard 135-­‐2008, ASHRAE Std 189.1-­‐2009 etc)

Commissioning and

Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPC)

1.   Demonstrate knowledge of all types of Commissioning: initial commissioning, retro-­‐commissioning, re-­‐commissioning, Continuous (on-­‐going) Commissioning – the differences, and commissioning requirements in laws and executive orders.

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of commissioning requirements for: measurement and verification, phasing and commission agent duties.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of the Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) procedures and

requirements:

o     Measurement and verificationo     Energy Savings Companies (ESCO)

o     Regulations pertaining to ESPCs

o     Utility Financing

o     Demand side managemento     Savings determination

o     Risk Assessment

o     Loans, Stocks and Bonds

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of Shared Savings Contracts, Power Purchase Agreements (PPA), Utility EnergyService Contracts (UESC) and Enhanced Use Leases (EUL).

Coordinate with Public

Utilities

1.   Demonstrate knowledge of utility service providers for facility (ies).2.   Demonstrate knowledge of utility meters – location, reading and data management.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of utility billing and rate structure.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of local utility programs – special rate programs and incentives.

5.   Demonstrate the ability to work with Facilities team to negotiate rates and discounts.

6.   Demonstrate knowledge of how to work with utility departments to locate lines.

7.   Demonstrate knowledge of utility emergency procedures and contacts.

Planning, Project and

Program Management

1.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to develop an Energy master plan.2.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to develop a metering Program.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to develop energy account database.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to provide planning support for energy budget.

5.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to identify and develop low-­‐cost and no-­‐cost energy efficiency opportunities.

6.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to provide operational support to energy management control systems.

7.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to develop/assist in project identification and justification.

8.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to develop UESC and ESPC projects.

9.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to monitor facility energy projects.

10. Demonstrate knowledge and ability to provide peak load management.

11. Demonstrate knowledge and ability to manage an energy awareness program and establish/support an

awards program recognizing energy efficiency efforts.

12. Demonstrate knowledge and ability to develop and distribute energy articles, newsletters, notices, posters and signs.

13. Demonstrate knowledge and ability to coordinate Energy Awareness Week/Month.

14. Demonstrate the ability to calculate and respond appropriately to established energy metrics such as Power

Utilization Efficiency (PUE).

o     Where and how to take measurements

o     How to interpret the datao     How to explain the results to people in operations and upper management

o     How to develop an improvement strategy

15. Demonstrate the ability to recommend and/or acquire certifications for specific skills

Core Competency Area: 5. Safety
Core Competency Performances:
Basic Requirements 1.   Complete Department/Agency required Safety training that meets or exceeds the requirements of OSHA,General Industry and/or Construction 10 and 30 hr programs.

2.   Complete Electrical Safety course and be familiar with electrical codes and regulations and best practices.

Infrastructure 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of control systems for: mold, asbestos, Histoplasmosis, PCB in transformers.2.   Demonstrate knowledge of proper water treatment to prevent Legionnaire’s Disease.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of ventilation systems and prevention of contaminant introduction and cross contamination.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of fire prevention systems in hazardous locations/operations; food preparation areas; electrical transformers.

5.   Demonstrate the ability to manage compliance with NFPA 70E -­‐2012 for determining incident energy and marking the electrical components for the hazard distance and proper arc rated protective equipment

6.   Demonstrate knowledge of control of electric vehicle battery fires, internal use, occupant use and visitor vehicles.

7.   Demonstrate the ability to ensure that all building confined spaces are evaluated and marked.

8.   Demonstrate the ability to ensure proper maintenance of special purpose, unique design or antiquated fire alarm and suppression systems.

9.   Demonstrate the ability to manage Compliance with elevator inspection requirements.

Contract Management 1.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to protect occupants with signs, barriers, and fencing and allow NOrenovation of occupied space.

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of permit system for hot welding work and for confined space work.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of fall protection of people and tools/materials for contractor and occupants.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of proper disposal of hazardous, toxic and biologic materials.

5.   Demonstrate knowledge of protection of electrical hazards to employees and to building infrastructure; arc rated clothing, lock out/tag out program.

6.   Demonstrate knowledge of compliant protective equipment for contract and sub contract workers

7.   Demonstrate knowledge of adequate fall protection working from ladders/heights8.   Demonstrate knowledge of, and ability to manage compliance with OSHA 1910 and 1926 standards and

Army Corps of Engineers construction safety manual EM 385-­‐1-­‐1.

Occupant Interface 1.   Demonstrate ability to ensure tenant renovations have adequate design, does not interfere with othertenants, local code compliance, high quality of work

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to manage proper storage of hazardous, toxic and biologic materials

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to manage proper disposal of hazardous (such as kitchen grease) and biologic materials (medical or research)

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to manage prohibition of fire hazards.

5.   Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to manage adequate ventilation of work spaces, adequate exhaust and makeup air, no short circuit designs

6.   Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to manage adequate cleanliness of indoor firing ranges-­‐ventilation,

cleanup of lead dust.

7.   Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to manage adequate electric vehicle battery charging stations to prevent fires (as required).

8.   Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to manage prohibition of non UL-­‐rate unsafe electrical equipment.

9.   Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to manage the documentation of occupant safety and health complaints and their resolution.

10. Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to manage/conduct:

o     Creation of fire and life safety plans

o     Fire, HAZMAT and life safety drills

o     Creation and posting of evacuation routes

o     Creation of a personnel accountability system

o     Inspection of all components of the fire and life safety systems – (ex. exit lights, fire extinguishers, fire

suppression systems, incident announcement systems etc)

Core Competency Area: 6. Design
Core Competency Performances:
Planning 1.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability of conduct an assessment of “needs” that will evaluate whether currentfacilities can respond to a new requirement or whether a “project” must be developed to respond to the new requirement.

2.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to utilize Agency/Department planning tools (ex DD form 1391 or

Prospectus) and funding thresholds to define project requirements, propose project site, estimate project

costs, justify need, and develop scope.3.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to perform due diligence analysis regarding:

o     Best site selection according to transportation connectivity

o     Interrelationships between physical, climatic, environmental, economic, political, sustainability, historic

preservation, archeological and social elements

o     Interrelationships between Federal, State and local policies – codes, laws and regulations

o     Long-­‐range vice short-­‐range development plans

4.   Demonstrate understanding of the concept of “Deep Energy Retrofits (DER)” and how and when to initiate.

WorkingConceptDefinition: An integrated team, Implementing a deep energy retrofit should piggyback efficiency improvements on already planned capital improvements and breaks in occupancy, take advantage of advanced energy modeling and life cycle cost analysis methods to identify situations in building’s life cycle that trigger DER design and analysis, verify savings and continuously improve energy performance. http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/femp/training/course_detail_live.cfm/CourseDateId=387

5.   Demonstrate knowledge of certification systems used by the Federal government and industry (ex.

Leadership Energy Environmental Design –LEED, Green Globes etc)

6.   Demonstrate knowledge of the Sustainable Facilities Tool –  www.SFTool.gov

7.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to use Geographic Information System (GIS) and other Dept/Agency software programs in preparation of all required documents.

Infrastructure Systems 1.   Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of Architectural and Engineering Systems:o     Roofing Systems

o     Building Envelope Systems

o     Window Systems

o     HVAC Systems

o     Electrical Systems

o     Telecommunication Systems

o     All Lighting Systems

o     Fire Protection Systems

o     BAS

o     IT Systems – installation arrangement and energy requirements

o     Interior Design

o     Landscape Architectural Systems

o     Plumbing Systems

o     Occupant needs and requirements/controls

o     Resource flows – energy, water and waste
Core Competency Area: 7. Sustainability
Core Competency Performances:
Background The term Sustainability applies within the definition of High Performance Buildings from EISA 07.“A building that integrates and optimizes on a lifecycle basis all major high performance attributes, including

energy [and water] conservation, environment, safety, security, durability, accessibility, cost-­‐benefit, productivity, sustainability, functionality, and operational considerations” (Energy Independence and Security Act 2007 401 PL 110-­‐140).

Within this definition, Sustainability is recognized to mean “development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” -­‐ from the Brundtland Report, Our Common Future (1987). Experts within the Facilities Management industry have used the triple bottom line

-­‐ balancing environmental, economic and social goals (Hodges 2009; Lewis et al 2009) to take the philosophical definition and make it practical.

The nature of “Sustainability” is interdisciplinary and will contain elements from environmental, operations, maintenance, contracting and management etc.

Regulations andRequirements 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of the Guiding Principles for Federal High Performance and Sustainable Buildings.http://www.wbdg.org/references/fhpsb.php and Federal Mandates http://www.wbdg.org/references/federal_mandates.php

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of Dept/Agency Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP).

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of Dept/Agency Resiliency and Adaptation Plan.

Implementation 1.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to develop and/or coordinate:o     A recycling program

o     A HAZMAT reduction program

o     A green purchasing program

o     Alternative transportation and workplace strategies

o     Sustainability audit and inspection programs

o     Universal Waste Audit

o     Water Audit

o     Energy Audit

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of how the above comes together in the “Sustainability Section” of the FacilityMaster Plan.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of the Sustainable Facilities Tool –  www.SFTool.gov

4.   Demonstrate ability to work with subject matter experts to calculate the “qualitative impacts” of sustainability program.

o     Waste reduction

o     Greenhouse Gas reduction

o     Operational impacts

o     Community impacts

5.   Demonstrate knowledge of implementing a “recognition program” for sustainability efforts.

Core Competency Area: 8. Water Efficiency
Core Competency Performances:
Regulations, Goals andBest Practices 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of water efficiency principles that are applicable in both the public and privatearena.

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of Federal water policy and goals found in Laws and Executive Orders:

o     Executive Order 13123, Guidance to Federal Agencies for Determining Baseline Water Usage

(http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/program/waterefficiency_baseline.html)

o     Executive Order 13123, Guidance to Establish Water Efficiency Improvement Goal for Federal Agencies

(http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/program/waterefficiency_goalguidance.html)

o     EO 13423, 13514, Energy Policy Act 2005 and Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA 07).

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of Water Efficiency Goal Guidance for the Federal Government.

(http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/program/waterefficiency_goalguidance.html)

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of current Dept/Agency water guidance – Uniform Facilities Code (UFC), Department or agency guidebooks.

5.   Demonstrate knowledge of how the following affect water use and efficiency and ability to make recommendations based on lifecycle analysis and best practices to facilities team:

o     Distribution System Audits, leak detection and repair

o     Water-­‐efficient landscaping with focus on Xeriscaping -­‐ Defn: landscaping method that employs

drought-­‐resistant plants in an effort to conserve resources, especially water)

o     Toilets and Urinals

o     Showerhead and Faucets

o     Boilers and Steam Systems

o     Single-­‐pass Cooling Equipment

o     Cooling Tower Managemento     Any miscellaneous high water-­‐using processes

o     Water Reuse and Recycling

Water Audit

1.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to conduct both a Top-­‐down and Bottom-­‐up water audit:

o     Top-­‐down:

•    Focus on the total system to set priorities

•    Comprehensive scope

•    Goals, objectives, procedures are then pushed down to the individual parts

o     Bottom-­‐up:

•    Focus on the specifics of each end-­‐use

•    Sum the parts to define the whole

•    Goals, objectives, procedures are developed at the lower levels and pushed upward

Core Competency Area: 9. Project Management
Core Competency Performances:

Initiate

1.   Demonstrate ability to work in integrated project teams (Facility Managers, Building Operating Engineers,Planners, Contracting Officers, Contractors, Occupants etc) to execute, small, medium and large projects.

2.   Demonstrate ability to:

o    Follow Project Management processes and procedures per your organization’s preferred methodology

(ex. ISO 9000, PMI, WBS, in-­‐house system etc)

o    Conduct needs assessment and define project requirements o    Estimate costs and develop Project Plan and Project timeline o    Develop project communications plan

o    Obtain any required project permits

o    Develop project accounting procedures

o    Ensure regulator compliance

3.   If Project will be completed by contractors, demonstrate the ability to:

o    Develop Scope Of Work (SOW) and the Request For Proposal (RFP)

o    Work with procurement team to select contractor

o    Review Contractor Plans

o    Work with Contracting Officer on all contract administration requirements

Execute

1.   Demonstrate ability to:
o     Ensure facility services are maintained during project executiono     Assign project resources

o     Inspect project work

o     Manage impacts of project on existing facility

o     Conduct project meetings

o     Report project progress

o     Monitor project costs

o     Monitor project schedules

2.   If Project will be completed by contractors, demonstrate the ability to:

o     Produce project change orders

o     Attend site reviews

o     If Contracting Officer Representative -­‐ approve project payments/draws

o     Resolve project issues

o     Obtain maintenance contracts

o     Secure project warranties

o     Arrange staff training for new equipment

o     Develop spare parts lists

Closeout 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to:o     Obtain project as-­‐builts

o     Perform project close-­‐outs

o     Create and complete project punch-­‐lists

o     Obtain certificate of occupancy

o     Accept beneficial use

o     Commission the project

o     Review lessons learned

o     Work with contracting personnel to:

•    Obtain lien waivers/release of liens if required

•    Issue final payment

•    Create budget variance report

Training

1.   Demonstrate knowledge of PM software and scheduling software, where to find technical resources on PM.

o     Demonstrate ability to train those junior to you in these PM aspects and on these tools

o     Demonstrate ability to develop and implement a project Quality Assessment (QA) Program to ensure

Initial Costs – Acquisition, Construction etc Residual Values – Resale values, Disposal costs
Fuel Costs Other Costs -­‐ Finance Charges(interest payments) etc
O&M and Repair costs Non-­‐Monetary Benefits or Costs
Replacement Costs
Net Savings (or Net Benefits) Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) or Benefit-­‐Cost Ratio
Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Payback Period
that projects are completed as designed with the specified materials by qualified personnel.
Core Competency Area: 10. Business, Budget and Contracting
Core Competency Performances:

Total Cost of Ownership

(TCO)

1.   Demonstrate knowledge of the mission of the Facilities’ Occupants and how the facilities enhance thatmission.

2.   Demonstrate knowledge that the TCO is best determined through Life-­‐Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) for

Facilities.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of how to find/calculate the basic costs required for an LCCA:

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of additional methods for calculating TCO and other economic analysis can be used if they use the same parameters and time period.

5.   Demonstrate knowledge of available LCCA software.

o     Building Life-­‐Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program -­‐ FEMP

o     ECONPAK – Army Corps of Engineers

o     Energy 10 – has a cost estimating feature

o     SuccessEstimator – from U.S. Cost

Life-­‐Cycle Assessment

(LCA)

1.   Demonstrate knowledge of the difference between a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and an LCCA.2.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to use a LCA to estimate the environmental impacts of a material, product or service through its entire life cycle.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of ISO 14040.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of an ability to use LCA Software:

o     Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES)

o     ATHENA Environmental Impact Estimator

Contracting 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of Contracting Officer Representative (COR) duties, responsibilities, training,certification and maintenance of certification.

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of rules and requirements for purchasing products and services.

3.   Demonstrate ability to assess technical requirements needed to ensure delivery and quality of services/products.

4.   Demonstrate ability to create an effective Statement Of Work (SOW) for COR or Contracting Officer to ensure proper procurement of a product or service.

5.   Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to effectively govern/oversee a contract to ensure compliance and full value of the service or product being provided.

o    Quality Assurance Audits and Indicators o    Required Measurement and Verification o    Performance Audits and Surveys

o    Customer Satisfaction Surveys

o    Compliance with Federal, State and Local regulations

o    Compliance with all Safety laws and requirements

o    Benchmarking Progress

Budget Formulation andExecution 1.   Demonstrate ability to develop and manage a project/program budget.2.   Demonstrate knowledge of budget submission requirements.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of historical budget records and costs and how to use in forecasting.

4.   Demonstrate ability to quantify potential for cost savings and cost avoidance.

5.   Demonstrate ability to use LCCA in budget preparation.

6.   Demonstrate ability to identify quantitative and qualitative risks.

7.   Demonstrate ability to advocate for funding using economic analysis.

8.   Demonstrate ability to prioritize projects/programs based on funding levels.

9.   Demonstrate ability to manage operating budget and produce required financial reports.

10. Demonstrate knowledge of invoice/expenditure approval processes.

11. Demonstrate ability to recommend/conduct funding reallocation based on changing priorities.

12. Demonstrate ability to conduct periodic financial reviews and produce required reports.

Core Competency Area: 11. Leadership and Innovation
Core Competency Performances:
Communication andAdministration 1.   Demonstrate ability to:o     Write clear, concise, and well organized documents
o     Speak in a clear, concise, and well organized manner (public and interpersonal)o     Listen effectively and communicate understanding

o     Give direction

o     Actively clarify interpretations and confirm understanding

o     Make oral presentations

o     Present information visually

o     Use communication technologies

o     Conduct effective meetings

o     Comprehend written and graphic information

o     Comprehend financial and technical information

o     Negotiate for services, resources, information and commitments

o     Establish personal and professional networks

2.   Demonstrate ability to supervise personnel as required:

o     Plan staffing needs and requirements

o     Hire, contract, reassign, retrain, right-­‐size

o     Coordinate personnel assignments

o     Coordinate work performed as contracted services

o     Evaluate performance

o     Support personnel development

o     Provide leadership

3.   Demonstrate ability to perform administrative duties:

o     Administer policies, procedures and practices

o     Administer the acquisition, distribution and use of material resources

o     Maintain documentation systems

Personnel

1.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to:

o     Evaluate and manage the facility’s support of organizational goals and objectives.

o     Monitor changes in laws and regulations.

o     Assure the facility and its operation complies with laws and regulations

o     Monitor and assure changes in the facility function and services

o     Monitor information and trends about human and environmental concerns

o     Ensure training is conducted to maintain safe and effective use of the facility

o     Conduct due diligence studies

2.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to:o     Develop or participate in the development of emergency plans

o     Assure people are trained in emergency procedures

o     Assure all emergency systems and procedures are tested as planned

o     Assure emergency drills and conducted

o     Develop or participate in the development of recovery plans

Innovation 1.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to investigate ways to improve facility services.2.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to assess risks and opportunities.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to conduct pilot tests when developing new procedures.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of the on-­‐line National Science Foundation library of Federal Facilities related publications – (ex Core Competencies for Federal Facilities Asset Managers Through 2020, Predicting Outcomes of Investment in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities) http://search.nap.edu/napsearch.php?term=Federal+facilities&x=16&y=15

5.   Demonstrate knowledge of Federal government “Knowledge Hubs” – (Whole Building Design Guide, Fed

Center)  www.wbdg.org and  www.fedcenter.gov

6.   Demonstrate knowledge of the offices, programs and National Labs at DOE that drive innovation in Facilities operation and management. [ex Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL)]   http://energy.gov/offices

7.   Demonstrate knowledge of GSA’s Green Proving Ground Program -­‐

http://www.gsa.gov/portal/category/102491

8.   Demonstrate knowledge of the training and certifications provided by Industry Associations and

Professional Societies in Facilities Operations and Management, Energy Management, Sustainability, Project

Management etc.

9.   Demonstrate knowledge of University Facilities Management degrees and certifications.

10. Demonstrate ability to translate innovative ideas into actionable tasks:

o     Work with occupants, and facilities’ team to analyze and ensure alignment of Facilities with the mission of Dept/Agency on a macro level and the specific occupant’s deliverables on a micro level

o     Work with occupants, and facilities’ team to integrate people, places, processes and technologies throughout all interconnected organizations

o     Using knowledge gained from the above sources and ingenuity born from day-­‐to-­‐day in the field operations, find ways to innovate across traditional macro and micro organizational boundaries

Enterprise Knowledge andStrategic Decision Making 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of “continuous retuning” and the potential savings represented by a government-­‐wide shift to this operating mode (ex A 10-­‐30% reduction in electricity use across Federal facilities represents a savings of between $700,000 million and $2.1Billion annual – in 2009 dollars)

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of the National Security role that Federal Facilities play – housing Fed

Dept/Agencies for operations, training, disaster response and energy/resource use.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to drive a “Change Management” process -­‐ a structured approach to shifting/transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations from a current state to a desired future state.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to move from the Operational (the who and when of things getting done) to Tactical (what we do) to the Strategic (why we do what we do).

5.   Demonstrate ability to strategically allocate all forms of “capital” – human(people), physical(facilities), economic(money) and environmental(land and resources).

6.   Demonstrate ability to provide decision makers with better information about the total long-­‐term costs and consequences of a particular course of action.

7.   Demonstrate ability to participate in the organization’s strategic planning at the executive level in order to translate between the organization’s missions and its facilities portfolio and clearly communicate how real estate and facilities can support these missions.

Core Competency Area: 12. Performance Measures
Core Competency Performances:
Federal BuildingsPersonnel Training Act 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of the requirements under the Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act 2010.2.   Demonstrate knowledge of how to use  www.FMI.innovations.gov to view core competencies, methods to demonstrate them, curriculum and to report compliance with the law.
Acquiring Data 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of the differences between quantitative and qualitative data and how togather/calculate each.

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of key building performance measures, where and how to read them, and reporting requirements.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of what data is necessary to enable “continuous retuning.”

4.   Demonstrate ability to determine what records provide the “best fit” data for strategic decision making –

situation and desired outcome dependent.

Establishment andImplementation 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of Performance Measurement concepts (ex. SMART – Specific, Measureable,Actionable, Time-­‐bound)

2.   Demonstrate ability to use measures to inform decision-­‐making and resource allocation.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of cascading Key Performance Indicators (KPI) that can be used to measure how well mission, management, program and individual goals are being met.

4.   Demonstrate ability to establish baselines from which progress toward attainment of goals can be measured.

5.   Demonstrate ability to establish feedback systems to support continuous improvement of an organization’s processes, practices, and results (outcomes).

6.   Demonstrate knowledge of how to combine single building metrics into a system to measure the performance of buildings portfolio in support of the organization’s overall mission.

7.   Demonstrate understanding that investments in training, and in facilities in general, are not often immediately visible or measurable, but that they are manifest over a period of years.

8.   Demonstrate ability to perform a sensitivity analysis on proposed measures to determine the how much

affect various controllable and uncontrollable drivers are:

o     Funding, weather, retirements, individual performance, training etc

9.   Demonstrate knowledge of current portfolio-­‐level performance indicators like the following:

o     Facilities Condition Index or Asset Utilization Index (measures portfolio against mission)

o     Current Replacement Value (total amount of money invested in portfolio)

o     Plant Replacement Value (cost to replace facilities assets in today’s dollars and using today’s methods)

o     Sustainment Rate (adequacy of funding maintenance and repair)

10. Demonstrate ability to understand a base set of key performance indicators for measuring the outcomes of

investments and the data to be provided for:

o     Total number and size of facilities

o     Facility types, age and location

o     Plant Replacement Value (PRV)

o     Facilities Condition Index (FCI)/Installation Readiness Report

o     Deferred Maintenance/Facilities Revitalization Rate

o     Asset Utilization Index

o     Recapitalization Rate

11. Demonstrate ability to understand, provide input for, and use additional (KPI) developed by organization to

measure the qualitative aspects of facilities operations and management:

o     Cost effectiveness

o     Customer satisfaction

o     Process efficiencies

” Evidence-based ” Life-cycle Federal Facility Management, BIM, and the Status Quo – NIBS, FFC

Yesterday (6/19/2012), the National Academies Federal Facility Council hosted a timely, and potentially watermark event “Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities“.

It is my hope that this event and those similar to it  be expanded as much as possible to assist all real property owners, architects, contractors, subcontractors, building product manufactures, oversight groups, and the community truly practice facility life-cycle management, referred to more recently as BIM (building information modeling / management).

Key Topics / Take Aways:

Identify and advance technologies, processes, and management practices that improve the performance of federal facilities over their entire life-cycle, from planning to disposal.

Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair for Federal Facilities
-Facility risks to Organizational Mission
-Potential to quantify
-Ability to predict outcomes vs. investment
-Communication strategies
-The “how” of measuring investment successes

1. You can’t manage what you don’t measure.

2. Requirements for facility life-cycle management, efficient repair/maintenance/sustainability, BIM

3. Inventory of Built Environment

4. Physical and Functional Condition of Assets (Portfolio, Site, Building/Area, System, Sub-system, Component Levels)

5. Expected Life-cycle and Deterioration Rates for Physical Assets

6. Ranking of Facilities/Built Environment relative to Organizational Mission

Mission Criticality / Risk Matrix

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. Associated Capital Reinvestment Requirements and Ability to run multi-year “What-if ” scenario analyses

8. Collaborative, Efficient Project Delivery Methods ( IPD – Integrated Project Delivery, JOC – Job Order Contracting)

 

Strategic approaches for investing in facilities maintenance and repair to achieve beneficial outcomes and to mitigate risks. Such approaches should do the following:

• Identify and prioritize the outcomes to be achieved through maintenance and repair investments and link those outcomes to achievement of agencies’ missions and other public policy objectives.
• Provide a systematic approach to performance measurement, analysis, and feedback.
• Provide for greater transparency and credibility in budget development, decision making, and budget execution.

• Identify and prioritize the beneficial outcomes that are to be achieved through maintenance and repair investments, preferably in the form of a 5- to 10-year plan agreed on by all levels of the organization.
• Establish a risk-based process for prioritizing annual maintenance and repair activities in the field and at the headquarters level.
• Establish standard methods for gathering and updating data to provide credible, empirical information for decision support, to measure outcomes from investments in maintenance and repair, and to track and improve the results.

Vehicles for Change—
• Portfolio-based facilities management (aka asset management)
•Technology (tools, knowledge, risk)
• Recognition of impacts of facilities on people, environment, mission (i.e., prioritizing)
• Changing of the Guard

Best Practices … Partial Listing
• Identification of better performing contractors or service providers
• GIS mapping tools
• Facility condition assessments – surveys, vendors, frequencies, costs
• Maintenance management systems
• Predictive maintenance tools
• Organizational structures
• Budget call process
• Master Planning processes
• Improve relationships with the facility end users and foster a “One Community”
• Energy management

Presentations:

Doug Ellsworth_USACE

DR_Uzarski_CERL

John Yates_DOE

Get Moy_Portfolio Mgmt

Peter Marshall_FFC_Chair

Terms:

Component-section (a.k.a. section): The basic “management unit.” Buildings are a collection of components grouped into systems. Sections define the component by material or equipment type and age.
Condition Survey Inspection (a.k.a. Condition Survey; Inspection): The gathering of data for a given component-section for the primary purpose of condition assessment.
Condition Assessment: The analysis of condition survey inspection data.
Component Section Condition Index (CSCI): An engineering – based condition assessment outcome metric (0 – 100 scale) and part of the Building Condition Index (BCI) series.

Condition Survey Inspection Objectives
1. Determine Condition (i.e. CSCI) of Component-Section
2. Determine Roll-Up Condition of System, Building, etc.
3. Provide a Condition History
4. Compute Deterioration Rates
5. Calibrate/Re-calibrate Condition Prediction Model Curves
6. Compute/Re-compute Remaining Maintenance Life
7. Determine Broad Scope of Work for Planning Purposes
8. Quantify/refine Work Needs (incl root cause analysis, if needed)
9. Establish when Cost Effective to Replace (vs. Repair)
10. Compute/Re-compute Remaining Service Life
11. QC/QA (Post-work Assessment)

Condition Survey Inspection Types
Deficiency: The “traditional” inspection discussed previously.
Distress Survey: The identification of distress types (i.e. crack, damage, etc.), severity (low, medium, high) and density (percentage) present. Data directly used in the calculation of the CSCI. No estimate of cost or priority.
Distress Survey with Quantities: Same as distress survey except that distress quantities are measured or counted. The resulting density is more accurate than a distress survey, thus the CSCI is more precise.
Direct Rating: A one-step process that combines inspection and condition assessment. An alphanumeric rating (three categories, three subcategories each) is assigned to the component-section by the inspector. Rating is directly correlated to a CSCI value, but is less accurate than a CSCI derived from a distress survey. Quick, but no record of what’s wrong.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

About The Federal Facilities Council

The Federal Facilities Council (FFC) was established at the National Academies in 1953 as the Federal Construction Council. The mission of the FFC is to identify and advance technologies, processes, and management practices that improve the performance of federal facilities over their life-cycles, from programming to disposal. The FFC is sponsored and funded by more than 20 federal agencies with responsibilities for and mutual issues related to all aspects of facilities design, construction, operations, renewal, and management.

The FFC fulfills its mission by networking and by sharing information among its sponsoring federal agencies and by leveraging its resources to conduct policy and technical studies, conferences, forums, and workshops on topics of mutual interest. The activities to be undertaken in any given calendar year are approved by a committee composed of senior representatives from each of the sponsor agencies.

Much of the work of the FFC is carried out by its 5 standing committees, each of which meets quarterly. The majority of meetings include presentations by guest speakers from the federal community, academia, and the private sector and these presentations are open to the public. The presentation slides are posted on the Events page of this website. If you would like to automatically receive notices of new reports or upcoming events, please subscribe to the FFC listserv.
Within the National Academies, the FFC operates under the auspices of the Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment (BICE) of the National Research Council. The BICE provides oversight and guidance for FFC activities and serves as a link between the sponsoring federal agencies and other elements of the building community, both national and international.

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BIM and Collaborative Construction Delivery Methods Legislation Proposed

It appears that Capitol Hill is beginning to recognize the linkage between BIM and efficient project delivery methods such as IPD (Integrated Project Delivery) and JOC (Job Order Contracting), the latter a version of IPD targeting facility renovation, repair, and sustainability construction projects.

H.R.3371, introduced by Russ Carnahan (D-M0.) call for the GAO to study BIM and integrated project delivery methods relative to use for Federal Buildings.

Specifically the bill calls for constraints relative BIM and IPD adoption and usage, potential impacts of expanded usage in association with procurement and budgeting, information requirements for life-cycle BIM usage, and the creation of an associated directorship.

BIM-CLOUD Convergence

 

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BIM – Energy Efficiency Tied to Real Estate / Real Property Sales – The Importance of High Performance Buildings vs. ROI

Due diligence relative to the energy efficiency of commercial is not only important relative to building resale and ROI, but is becoming mandated in several states, counties, and cities.   For example, use of the new ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Standard E-2797-11, Standard Practice for Building Energy Performance Assessment for a Building Involved in a Real Estate Transaction, is required in several states and cities and under consideration in a growing number of others. Federal legislation is sure to follow.

Energy-efficient buildings cost less to operate, have higher net operating income (NOI), better asset value, and are more attractive to tenants.   Property owners and lessors can leverage higher performing buildings to attract and retain tenants that recognize that these buildings  have lower utility and operating costs.  In many cases leanders are provided a Pro Forma with a specific aline item for utilities/energy costs as a component of building operating costs.  Savvy buyers will also consider energy usage when comparing similar properties.

The Role of BIM, JOC, and IPD in Sustainability

Creating a baseline energy audit isalso  a “best practice” relative to enabling better short and longer term planning for facility renovation, repair, and maintenance projects.

It is likely that more and more facility condition assessments (FCAs) will include energy audits are a required, standardized component.

 In summary, standards and best practices relative to energy and condition audits are an important component of BIM ( Building Information Modeling ).  Robust practices for collection, assembly, evaluation, and reporting required information are key to BIM as are efficient renovation and repair contstruction methods such as JOC – Job Order Contracting, and IPD – Integrated Project Delivery.

Consistency and transparency in data collection, project evaluation, costing, and project managemetn are requirements in order to efficiently deliver quality  improvement project on time and on budget. 

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Obama Missing the Point on Sustainability?

President Obama’s  State of the Union Address calls for 80% clean power by 2035, but…  WHAT ABOUT ENERGY CONSERVATION!!!!

Clean energy is great, but likely a pipe dream.  Furthermore, none of the “renewable” energy sources will meet current demands and/or be deployable by 2035.

We need to get serious about implementing energy conservation measures and associated facility system upgrades.   It is no secret that existing building energy use can be reduced 30% to 50% by upgrading systems and adopting better utilization practices.

The real issues is that appropriate incentives and efficient  transparent project delivery methods are not being used.

The combination of objective facility assessments with efficient project delivery methods such as JOC – Job Order Contracting, and IPD – Integrated Project Design, associated mandates and financial incentives is sorely needed!

Time to stop talking and start acting?

 

 

Green / Sustainability Building Regulations & Laws

CALGREEN

Effective January 1, 2011,  CALGREEN Code is the first state high performance building / green / sustainabilitys building code.

CALGREEN is mandatory and targets new residential, commercial, hospital and school buildings and a  3 million metric tons greenhouse gas reduction by the year 2020.

Designers, contractors, and owners can plan and build to a certifiable green standard without  for third-party certification and requires field inspections using a public service.

Key targets/requirements.

  • 20% indoor water use reduction (voluntary goal standards for 30%, 35% and 40%)
  • Separate water meters for indoor and outdoor water use for commercial buildings
  • Moisture-sensing irrigation systems
  • Reduced land-fill waste
  • Mandatory inspections commercial buildings over 10,000 square feet
  • Use of low VOC materials

 

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Federal Government to Spend $4.5B on Sustainability

$4.5 billion allocated for spending in 2011 for federal green building and renovation projects.  The  goal of the federal government is a 28% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions  2020.

 

“We have an opportunity to be an example for American building, a proving ground for what works,”  – Bob Peck, Commissioner of public buildings, U.S. General Services Administration (GSA)

 

Hopefully New Building Code Revisions will Create More Focus Upon Sustainability

via http://www.4clicks.com – Leading Cost Estimating and Project Management Software for JOC, SABER, SATOC, MATOC, IDIQ, …..

November 2, 2010—Local and state building code officials last week approved a package of revisions to the commercial section of the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) that represent the largest single-step efficiency increase in the history of the national, model energy code. The changes mean that new and renovated buildings constructed in jurisdictions that follow the 2012 IECC will use 30 percent less energy than those built to current standards.

Attendees voted nearly unanimously on a series of proposals to effect the change at the International Code Council’s (ICC) final action hearings held in Charlotte, North Carolina, October 27-31, 2010. The improvements were part of a major comprehensive proposal submitted jointly by New Buildings Institute (NBI), The American Institute of Architects (AIA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that addresses measures such as cooling, lighting, quality assurance and renewable energy standards. Several other key proposals that contribute to the savings were approved independently.

The comprehensive proposal is largely based on NBI’s Core Performance protocol, a direct approach to achieving energy savings in commercial buildings. Utilities and public benefits administrators in six states and two Canadian provinces have adopted Core Performance as part of their voluntary efficiency program offerings.

“Increasing the efficiency of commercial building energy codes provides the best opportunity to bring about significant savings and helps move us along the path toward low-energy commercial buildings,” said Dave Hewitt, NBI executive director.

“The often contentious process of developing codes was largely avoided in this case because of the extensive outreach and collaboration that was undertaken to gain industry support for the proposals. As a result, we were able to successfully resolve differences prior to the hearings and put forward our best option for consideration,” Hewitt said.

“The overwhelming support we saw during the votes tells us the marketplace is ready for these practical, feasible and affordable improvements,” said Jessyca Henderson, AIA, director of sustainability advocacy at the AIA. “The nation’s code officials are to be commended and congratulated for seizing this historic opportunity to move the country toward more efficient buildings and help us build an economy that is less reliant on fossil fuels—now and into the future,” she said.

Computer modeling of the 2012 IECC shows more than 30 percent better energy efficiency on average than the ASHRAE 90.1-2004 model code, and payback periods on the new code measures are estimated at less than seven years depending on climate and building type. The energy savings in the 2012 IECC meet national calls from Congress, the Secretary of Energy and industry leaders to improve the efficiency of commercial buildings by 30 percent. In addition, the 2012 IECC will serve as the baseline standard for the International Green Construction Code (IGCC) currently under development.

The 2012 IECC contains many important, first-ever technical features including a new section on commissioning, pathways to use daylighting, and options for the use of on-site renewable energy. It will be published in April 2011 for adoption by state and local agencies.

New Buildings Institute is a nonprofit organization working collaboratively with commercial building professionals and the energy industry to promote better energy performance in buildings, including advocating for advanced design practices, improved technologies, public policies and programs that improve energy efficiency. Visit www.newbuildings.org.

For over 150 years, members of The American Institute of Architects have worked with each other and their communities to create more valuable, healthy, secure, and sustainable buildings and cityscapes.  By using sustainable design practices, materials, and techniques, AIA architects are uniquely poised to provide the leadership and guidance needed to provide solutions to address climate change. AIA architects walk the walk on sustainable design. Visit www.aia.org.

DOE to Impose Limits Regarding Use of Fossil Fuels – For New Government Buildings

Summary

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is publishing this notice of proposed rulemaking to implement provisions of the Energy Conservation and Production Act, as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 that require DOE to establish revised performance standards for the construction of all new Federal buildings, including commercial buildings, multi-family high-rise residential buildings and low-rise residential buildings. The provisions in this notice of proposed rulemaking specifically address the reduction of fossil fuel-generated energy consumption in new Federal buildings and Federal buildings undergoing major renovations. This proposed rule also addresses how agencies other than the General Services Administration (GSA) may petition DOE for a downward adjustment of the requirements if they believe meeting the full fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction level is technically impracticable in light of the specified functional needs for that building.Show citation box

Unified Agenda

Timeline

1 action from August 2010

  • August 2010
    • NPRM

Table of Contents

Tables

DATES: Back to Top

Public comments on this proposed rule will be accepted until December 14, 2010. DOE will hold a public meeting on Friday, November 12, 2010, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., in Washington, DC. Interested persons who wish to speak at the public meeting should e-mail or phone Ms. Brenda Edwards by 4:30 p.m., Friday, October 29, 2010. DOE must receive a signed original and an electronic copy of statements to be given at the public meeting before 4 p.m., Friday, November 5, 2010. Additionally, DOE plans to conduct the public meeting via webinar. You can attend the public meeting via webinar, and registration information, participant instructions, and information about the capabilities available to webinar participants will be published on the Building Energy Codes Program’s Web site http://www.energycodes.gov/events/doe/fossil_fuels.stm, and/or on the Federal Energy Management Program’s Web site http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/regulations/notices_rules.html. Participants are responsible for ensuring their systems are compatible with the webinar software.Show citation box

DOE will accept comments, data, and information regarding this notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR) before and after the public meeting, but no later than December 14, 2010. If you submit information that you believe to be exempt by law from public disclosure, you should submit one complete copy, as well as one copy from which the information claimed to be exempt by law from public disclosure has been deleted. DOE is responsible for the final determination with regard to disclosure or nondisclosure of the information and for treating it accordingly under the DOE Freedom of Information regulations at 10 CFR 1004.11.Show citation box

ADDRESSES: Back to Top

You may submit comments, identified by any of the following methods:Show citation box

  • Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov. Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Show citation box
  • E-mail: FossilFuelReduct-2010-STD-0031@ee.doe.gov. Include EERE-2010-BT-STD-0031 and/or RIN 1904-AB96 in the subject line of the message. Show citation box
  • Postal Mail: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings EERE-2010-BT-STD-0031 and/or RIN 1904-AB96, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Telephone: (202) 586-9138. Please submit one signed paper original. Due to the potential delays in DOE’s receipt and processing of mail sent through the U.S. Postal Service, DOE encourages respondents to submit comments electronically to ensure timely receipt. Show citation box
  • Hand Delivery/Courier: Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Show citation box

Instructions: All submissions must include the agency name and docket number or Regulatory Information Number (RIN) for this rulemaking.Show citation box

Docket: For access to the docket to read background documents or comments received by DOE, go to the U.S. Department of Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 5E-080 (Resource Room of the Federal Energy Management Program), 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC, (202) 586-9127, between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. Please call Brenda Edwards at (202) 586-2945 for additional information regarding visiting the Resource Room.Show citation box

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Back to Top

Margo Appel, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121, (202) 586-9495, e-mail: margo.appel@hq.doe.gov, or Ami Grace-Tardy, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of the General Counsel, Forrestal Building, GC-71, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585, (202) 586-5709, e-mail: ami.grace-tardy@hq.doe.gov.Show citation box

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Back to Top

Show citation box

I. BackgroundShow citation box

II. Discussion of Proposed RuleShow citation box

III. Reference ResourcesShow citation box

IV. Regulatory ReviewShow citation box

V. Approval by the Office of the SecretaryShow citation box

I. Background Back to Top

Section 305 of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) established energy conservation requirements for Federal buildings (42 U.S.C. 6834). Section 433(a) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Pub. L. 110-140) (EISA) amended section 305 of ECPA and directed that DOE establish regulations that revised Federal building energy efficiency performance standards to require that “[f]or new Federal buildings and Federal buildings undergoing major renovations, with respect to which the Administrator of General Services is required to transmit a prospectus to Congress under section 3307 of Title 40, in the case of public buildings (as defined in section 3301 of Title 40), or of at least $2,500,000 in costs adjusted annually for inflation for other buildings,” the “buildings shall be designed so that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the buildings is reduced as compared with such energy consumption by a similar building in fiscal year 2003 (as measured by Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey or Residential Energy Consumption Survey data from the Energy Information Agency), by” specific graduated percentages ranging from 55 percent to 100 percent over a specified period of time beginning in fiscal year 2010 and ending in fiscal year 2030 (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(I)).Show citation box

In addition, ECPA as amended by EISA permits DOE upon petition by an agency subject to the statutory requirements, to adjust the applicable numeric reduction requirement “downward with respect to a specific building, if the head of the agency designing the building certifies in writing that meeting such requirement would be technically impracticable in light of the agency’s specified functional needs for that building and” DOE concurs with the agency’s conclusion (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(II)). ECPA as amended by EISA further directs that such an adjustment does not apply to GSA (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(II)).Show citation box

Today’s proposed rule on fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction proposes to amend certain portions of 10 CFR parts 433 and 435, the regulations governing energy efficiency in Federal buildings. Additionally, DOE published a proposed rule on sustainable design standards for new Federal buildings on May 28, 2010 (75 FR 29933), which also proposes to amend certain portions of 10 CFR parts 433 and 435. DOE has already addressed some elements of today’s proposed rule in the sustainable design proposed rule. Specifically, overlapping elements of both proposed rules are the definitions of “new Federal building” and “major renovation.” The proposed regulatory text in today’s document would amend the current regulatory text, without consideration of amendments that may result from the sustainable design rulemaking. If and when these two rulemakings are finalized, DOE will coordinate the final regulatory text between the two rulemakings.Show citation box

In addition, there are a number of statutory provisions, regulations, Executive Orders, and memorandums of understanding that govern the construction of new Federal buildings or major renovations to Federal buildings. These include, but are not limited to, Executive Order 13514 (74 FR 52117); sections 323, 433, 434, and 523 of the Energy Independence and Security Act 2007 (Pub. L. 110-140); Executive Order 13423 (72 FR 3919); the Guiding Principles for Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings originally adopted in the Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings MOU; section 109 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. L. 109-58); and 10 CFR parts 433 and 435. If made final, the proposed rule would not supersede other applicable legal requirements for new Federal buildings or major renovations to Federal buildings.Show citation box

II. Discussion of Proposed Rule Back to Top

A. Overview

The proposed rule would establish revised Federal building energy efficiency performance standards for achieving the reductions in fossil fuel-generated energy consumption as listed in ECPA as amended by EISA (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(I)). The proposed rule would also clarify which building types are covered by the standards and which building types are excluded. The proposed rule establishes a methodology for compliance, including calculation of the maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption based on building type, and how fossil fuel consumption resulting from electricity usage should be considered. Today’s proposed rule would also establish procedures for agencies to petition DOE for downward adjustment of the applicable percentage reduction requirement.Show citation box

B. Scope of Proposed Rule

Section 305(a)(3) of ECPA as amended directs DOE to establish regulations that require fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions be applied to a subset of new Federal buildings and Federal buildings undergoing major renovation. (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(I)) A building is in the subset of new Federal buildings and Federal buildings undergoing major renovations if the building is:Show citation box

  • A public building as defined in 40 U.S.C. 3301, [1] for which the Administrator of General Services is required to transmit a prospectus to Congress under U.S.C. Title 40, section 3307, orShow citation box
  • A building and major renovation for which the construction project cost is at least $2,500,000 (in 2007 dollars, adjusted for inflation using U.S. Department of Labor Producer Price Indexes).Show citation box

DOE notes that the definition of “Federal building” was changed in statute, and DOE is addressing that definition and the definition of “new Federal building” in a separate rulemaking. (42 U.S.C. 6832(6)) The statute now defines “Federal building” to mean any building to be constructed by, or for the use of, any Federal agency. In the separate rulemaking DOE is proposing that the term include buildings built for the purpose of being leased by a Federal agency, and privatized military housing.Show citation box

For the purpose of this rulemaking, DOE would consider public buildings to include buildings leased by a Federal agency. DOE recognizes, however, that a Federal agency may not have control over the design of a renovation of a leased building in which the agency is a tenant. For the purpose of this rulemaking, DOE considers major renovations to be limited to those renovations for which a Federal agency has significant control over the renovation design.Show citation box

Additionally, DOE would consider construction project costs to be those costs for which the agency currently has funding. That is, the $2,500,000 threshold would not include renovation activities that potentially could occur in future fiscal years. Generally, construction project costs include design, permitting, construction (materials and labor), and commissioning costs. Land and legal costs would generally not be included. DOE requests comment on this definition of construction costs.Show citation box

DOE is proposing that Federal agencies would be required to comply with the final rule starting one year from the date of the final rule. As proposed, covered buildings for which design for construction begins on or after that effective date must meet the requirements established in this rule. The one year period would provide Federal agencies sufficient time to revise new building designs prior to the start of construction and would be consistent with that the lead time provided for the energy efficiency performance standards for the construction of all new Federal buildings.Show citation box

C. Fiscal Year Percentage Reductions

Section 305 of ECPA as amended by EISA mandates that buildings subject to this proposed rule be designed to reduce fossil fuel-generated energy consumption by 55 percent beginning in fiscal year 2010, 65 percent beginning in fiscal year 2015, 80 percent beginning in fiscal year 2020, 90 percent beginning in fiscal year 2025, and 100 percent beginning in fiscal year 2030 (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(I)). DOE interprets this table in the statute to mean that any building whose design for construction begins in the fiscal year specified in the statute must be designed to achieve the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions for that fiscal year. DOE welcomes comments on this interpretation. DOE interprets the fiscal years listed in the statute as spans of years for which the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions would apply. For instance, the applicable percentage reduction for fiscal year 2010 would apply for the time span of fiscal year 2010 through fiscal year 2014. The applicable percentage reduction for fiscal year 2015 would apply for the time span of fiscal year 2015 through fiscal year 2019, and so on. DOE welcomes comments on this interpretation. Congress directed DOE to establish a rule addressing these fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions beginning in fiscal year 2010. DOE believes that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions do not apply to Federal agencies until the regulations implementing the reductions are finalized. Today’s proposed rule would apply to buildings for which design for construction begins at least one year after the final rule is issued.Show citation box

D. Methodology To Determine Compliance

Section 305 of ECPA as amended by EISA in part requires that the buildings that are the subject of today’s proposed rule be designed so that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the buildings is reduced, as compared with such energy consumption by a similar building in fiscal year 2003 (as measured by Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey or Residential Energy Consumption Survey data from the Energy Information Agency), by the percentages specified in Section 305 of ECPA. (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(I)).Show citation box

Determine Baseline Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption of Similar Building

To determine whether a building meets the numeric fossil fuel reduction requirements specified by ECPA as amended by EISA, it is necessary to establish a baseline against which the reductions can be measured. For purposes of this proposed rulemaking, the statute establishes the baseline to be energy consumption data from Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) for commercial buildings and Residential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for residential buildings. The CBECS and RECS data, which can be found at http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/contents.html and at http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/contents.html, are based on actual reported energy use over a large sample of buildings, normalized for size to thousands of British thermal units per square foot of floor space (kBtu/ft [2] ).Show citation box

ECPA as amended by EISA requires that the buildings subject to this proposed rule be designed so that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the buildings is reduced as compared with energy consumption data of a similar building in fiscal year 2003 as measured by CBECS or RECS (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(I)). The limited number of buildings surveyed by CBECS and RECS data does not always allow for a direct estimate of building energy use by climate zone and building type because there are only a few surveyed buildings that fit into some building type/climate zone groups. DOE believes, however, that a climate adjustment is necessary to provide reasonable baselines. Therefore, DOE is developing fossil fuel-generated energy requirements based on building type using CBECS or RECS data, and then applying a climate adjustment using the climate zones defined in the baseline energy efficiency standards at 10 CFR parts 433 and 435. This ensures that new Federal buildings will have to achieve reductions commensurate to a baseline appropriate for their respective climate zone, rather than to a national average that does not account for the impacts of the local climate on the energy use of a specific building. DOE solicits comment on the best technique for calculating the climate adjustment for the different building types.Show citation box

Note that ECPA as amended by EISA makes no distinction between fossil fuels such as natural gas, petroleum, and coal for purposes of the required fossil fuel-generated reductions addressed in today’s rule. DOE recognizes that some fossil fuels have higher CO 2 emission factors than other fossil fuels, with coal being the highest and natural gas being the lowest. While the statute does not specifically direct DOE to consider variation in fossil fuels for purposes of this rulemaking, it does not prohibit DOE from doing so. With this in mind, DOE seeks public comment on whether all fossil fuels should be treated equally or whether each should be treated differently based on CO 2 emission factors or some other factor.Show citation box

Commercial Buildings Baseline—CBECS

ECPA as amended by EISA requires that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of new Federal buildings and Federal buildings undergoing major renovations be compared to that of similar buildings in fiscal year 2003 as measured by CBECS or RECS data (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(I)). The most recent available CBECS data is from a CBECS survey that was conducted in 2003.Show citation box

As discussed in the previous section, for purposes of establishing a baseline, DOE is developing a baseline based on building type, as defined by CBECS, with a climate adjustment as discussed previously. In the CBECS data, Column G of the following table, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/2003set9/2003excel/c3.xls, lists the energy use per square foot of various groups of buildings. Note that in CBECS documents, the phrases building type and principal building activity are used interchangeably. For the sake of consistency, this document only uses the phrase building type. Show citation box

It should be noted that DOE has commissioned an analysis of the 2003 CBECS data by building type and climate zone, and the results may be found in the report Methodology for Modeling Building Energy Performance Across the Commercial Sector by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL/TP-550-41956 2008) at http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/commercial_initiative/energy_use_intensity_targets.pdf. Examination of Table 4 in the analysis DOE commissioned indicates the insufficient sample size of the CBECS data when both building type and climate zone are used to characterize building energy consumption. DOE’s analysis produced often erratic and large variation in kBtu/ft [2] by building type across the different climate zones and even across similar climate zones, indicating an insufficient sample size. For this reason, DOE is performing additional analysis and processing of the CBECS data with the goal of producing CBECS-based requirements by building type and climate zone, with the climate zones as defined in the baseline standard for 10 CFR part 433 (ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004).Show citation box

One issue that arises with the use of this CBECS data is what to do with buildings that are split into multiple building types. It is quite common to find buildings that are a combination of warehouse and office, or warehouse and retail, or education and office, or laboratory and office, or some other combination of building types. Today’s proposed rule will offer agencies the option to perform a building area-weighted average in order to determine the appropriate baseline level of fossil fuel-generated energy consumption. This process is described in 10 CFR 433.4(e) of the proposed rule.Show citation box

CBECS does not provide data on total fossil fuel-generated energy consumption in buildings. However, fossil fuel-generated energy consumption can be calculated from CBECS data by using the following equation:Show citation box

Fossil fuel-generated energy consumption = Direct consumption of fossil fuels in the building plus the amount of electrical energy consumption that is generated from fossil fuelsShow citation box

The 2003 CBECS lists direct consumption of fossil fuels in Table C1 (http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/2003set9/2003excel/c1.xls) in columns labeled natural gas and fuel oil. The 2003 CBECS also identifies both the primary electrical energy, which is the total energy used to generate and transmit electricity to a building, and the energy content of the electricity consumed in the building. In CBECS energy consumption data, the primary electrical energy required to generate and transmit electricity to the point of use in a building is roughly three times the energy content of the electricity itself. The fraction of electricity generated from fossil fuels on a nationwide basis, referred to in this document as the fossil fuel generation ratio, is calculated from data in Table 2.1 of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) 2008 Electric Power Annual Report (http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p1.html) by summing the electric generation from coal, petroleum, natural gas, and other gases (derived from fossil fuels) and then dividing by the total electric generation. The fossil fuel generation ratio changes each year. Because ECPA as amended by EISA requires that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption in new buildings and those undergoing major renovations be compared to that of similar buildings in fiscal year 2003, the 2003 fossil fuel generation ratio must be used in order to calculate the baseline fossil fuel-generated energy consumption levels. For 2003, the fossil fuel generation ratio was 0.71, meaning that about 71% of all electricity in the United States is generated from fossil fuels.Show citation box

The approach taken in today’s rulemaking to estimate the fossil fuel consumption associated with electricity consumption applies the national average contribution of fossil fuel to electricity generation. This approach would result in reductions in electricity consumption being treated the same across all geographic areas, and would not reflect regional variations in the contribution of fossil fuels to electricity generation. DOE is considering a regional approach to establishing the average fossil fuel fraction associated with building energy use. Prior to reaching a conclusion regarding the use of national or regional averages of fossil fuel inputs to the electric sector, DOE will evaluate both approaches and both average and marginal factors to determine their likely effects on agency decision-making and their ability to provide an accurate indication of the likely impacts of reductions in Federal agency electricity use on the use of fossil fuels in the electric sector. For example, the use of national average fossil fuel inputs to electric sector (rather than regional averages) may provide a better indication of the actual fossil fuel reductions likely to result from reductions in electricity use. Reductions in future electricity demand are likely to cause electric utilities to reduce the power supplied by those electricity generation units or sources that have the highest marginal costs. Over both the short and long run, the types of power generation that have the highest marginal costs are more likely to be fossil fuel units than those powered by nuclear, hydropower or other renewable energy sources. This is likely to be true in all regions of the country, regardless of their current or projected reliance on fossil fuels to generate electricity. Regional marginal fossil fuel reduction factors may also be appropriate. DOE invites comments on whether it should use a national or regional approach and average or marginal factors to estimate the fossil fuel consumption associated with electricity consumption, taking into consideration the potential implications on agency decision-making and actual fossil fuel use.Show citation box

The fossil fuel-generated energy consumption baseline column in Table 1 below is calculated directly from Table C1 in the 2003 CBECS. For each building type, the primary electrical energy is multiplied by the fossil fuel generation ratio then added to the direct fossil fuel consumption to get the total fossil fuel-generated consumption for that particular building type. The total fossil fuel consumption is then divided by the total floorspace for that building type to get the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption, as reported in Table 1 below. DOE is proposing building type definitions based largely on the CBECS glossary, with some minimal modifications for regulatory clarity. DOE requests comment on the building type definitions.Show citation box

The baselines provided in Table 1 do not currently reflect any adjustment for climate-related variations in building energy use. As discussed elsewhere in this proposed rule, DOE believes a climate adjustment is necessary to provide reasonable baselines, and DOE is seeking comment on this issue. In a final rule, DOE intends to update the values provided in Table 1 for climate.Show citation box

Residential Buildings Baseline—RECS

ECPA as amended by EISA requires that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of new Federal buildings and Federal buildings undergoing major renovations be compared to that of similar buildings in fiscal year 2003 as measured by CBECS or RECS data (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(I)). Residential Energy Consumption Surveys (RECS) were conducted in 2001 and 2005; there is no data for 2003. Because the 2005 RECS data is the most recently available data at the time of this proposed rulemaking, DOE expects to use the 2005 RECS data as a baseline.Show citation box

As with the CBECS data for commercial buildings, the limited number of buildings surveyed by RECS data does not always allow for a direct calculation of building energy use by climate zone and building type without additional analysis. DOE believes, however, that a climate adjustment is necessary to provide more reasonable baselines. DOE, therefore, proposes to establish fossil fuel-generated energy requirements based on building type using RECS data, and then apply a climate adjustment using the climate zones defined in the baseline energy efficiency standard at 10 CFR part 435 (the 2004 IECC). This ensures that new Federal buildings will have to achieve reductions commensurate to a baseline appropriate for their respective climate zone, rather than to a national average baseline that is either too cold or too warm for their particular needs. DOE solicits comment on the best technique for calculating the climate adjustment for the different building types.Show citation box

The 2005 RECS lists direct consumption of fossil fuels by households in Table US9 available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/recs2005/hc2005_tables/c&e/excel/tableus9.xls in columns labeled natural gas, fuel oil, kerosene, and LPG. To calculate the total fossil fuel-generated energy consumption per household for each type of housing unit, the direct fossil fuel consumption per household and fossil fuel consumption for electricity consumption per household are summed, using the same factors to determine the fossil fuel fraction of residential electricity consumption that was used for commercial buildings. The total fossil fuel-generated energy consumption per household is then divided by the average floorspace for each type of housing unit. The average floor space for each type of housing unit can be found at http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/recs2005/c&e/summary/excel/tableus1part1.xls. This calculation produces the fossil fuel use per square foot for each type of housing unit. The results can be found in the baseline column of Table 2 below. DOE is proposing building type definitions based largely on the RECS glossary, with some minimal modifications for regulatory clarity. For example, the 2005 RECS data includes values for “manufactured homes” although the RECS glossary does not define “manufactured homes” but does define “mobile home.” DOE requests comment on the building type definitions.Show citation box

The baselines provided in Table 2 do not currently reflect any adjustment for climate-related variations in building energy use. As discussed elsewhere in this proposed rule, DOE believes a climate adjustment is necessary to provide reasonable baselines, and DOE is seeking comment on this issue. In a final rule, DOE intends to update the values provided in Table 2 for climate.Show citation box

When using Table 2, it is important to note a shortcoming of RECS data for use in performance standards for Federal buildings. The shortcoming is that RECS data is collected on a per household basis and does not include energy use in common areas. As a result, the value for fossil fuel-generated energy consumption per square foot of floorspace shown in Table 2 only accounts for the non-common areas of these buildings. DOE considered accounting for common area energy use in the requirements, but RECS does not collect that data. To resolve this issue, DOE proposes applying the RECS-derived fossil fuel requirements to all applicable floorspace, including common and non-common areas. The benefits of this approach are that it is relatively simple and will not make it more difficult for building designers to show compliance. Because common areas account for a small fraction of floorspace, the effect on the requirement will be minimal. Also, common areas often have a lower energy intensity, so by using only non-common areas the maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy requirement will, if anything, be slightly higher. DOE welcomes comments on this approach or other specific approaches that could be used to develop the RECS-derived requirements.Show citation box

Calculation of Maximum Allowable Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption

Once the baseline fossil fuel-generated energy consumption from the 2003 CBECS and 2005 RECS has been determined, the consumption reduction requirements as specified in ECPA as amended by EISA should be calculated. Again, although the baselines provided in Tables 1 and 2 do not currently reflect any adjustment for climate-related variations in building energy use, DOE is developing fossil fuel-generated energy requirements based on building type using CBECS or RECS data, and then applying a climate adjustment. In a final rule, DOE intends to update the values provided in Tables 1 and 2 for climate.Show citation box

The requirements derived from CBECS, which apply to commercial buildings, are shown in Table 1. The consumption reduction requirements derived from RECS, which apply to both multi-family high-rise residential buildings and low-rise residential buildings, are found in Table 2. In this rulemaking DOE is proposing a revised definition of “Multi-family high-rise residential building,” largely based on the definition at 10 CFR 434.201, although the proposed definition clarifies that multi-family high-rise residential buildings are designed to be four or more stories above grade.Show citation box

As discussed above, Tables 1 and 2 show data only at the national level, with national average values used for the fossil fuel generation ratio of 0.71. As discussed elsewhere in this rule, DOE is considering and invites comments on whether it should use a national or regional approach and average or marginal factors to estimate the fossil fuel consumption associated with electricity consumption.Show citation box

For purposes of simplification, values in these tables have been truncated to the nearest kBtu/ft [2] . In today’s notice, the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption percentage reductions are presented as maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption levels. Because the figures are premised on the proposed baseline values, the percentage reductions equate to the absolute values which are presented as the maximum allowable values. For ease of agency interpretation, the maximum allowable approach was used in today’s notice. Show citation box

Table 1—2003 CBECS Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Baseline and Maximum Allowable Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption by Building Type and Fiscal Year (FY), kBtu/ft 2 Back to Top
Building type Baseline(kBtu/ft2) FY 2012-2014 FY 2015-2019 FY 2020-2024 FY 2025-2029 FY 2030 and beyond
55%reduction (kBtu/ft2) 65%reduction (kBtu/ft2) 80%reduction (kBtu/ft2) 90%reduction (kBtu/ft2) 100%reduction (kBtu/ft2)
Education 126 57 44 25 13 0
Food Sales 387 174 135 77 39 0
Food Service 404 182 141 81 40 0
Health Care (Inpatient) 313 141 109 63 31 0
Health Care (Outpatient) 148 67 52 30 15 0
Lodging 148 67 52 30 15 0
Retail (Other Than Mall) 126 57 44 25 13 0
Office 160 72 56 32 16 0
Public Assembly 125 56 44 25 12 0
Public Order and Safety 146 66 51 29 15 0
Religious Worship 62 28 22 12 6 0
Service 113 51 40 23 11 0
Warehouse and Storage 66 30 23 13 7 0
Table 2—2005 RECS Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Baseline and Maximum Allowable Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption by Type of High-Rise or Low-Rise Housing Unit, kBtu/ft 2 Back to Top
Building type Baseline(kBtu/ft2) FY 2012-2014 FY 2015-2019 FY 2020-2024 FY 2025-2029 FY 2030 and beyond
55%reduction (kBtu/ft2) 65%reduction (kBtu/ft2) 80%reduction (kBtu/ft2) 90%reduction (kBtu/ft2) 100%reduction (kBtu/ft2)
Single-Family Detached 59 27 21 12 6 0
Single-Family Attached 66 30 23 13 7 0
Multi-Family in 2-4 Unit Buildings 105 47 37 21 11 0
Multi-Family in 5 or More Unit Buildings 94 42 33 19 9 0
Manufactured Homes 115 52 40 23 12 0

DOE recognizes that the required reductions identified in the above tables for the years preceding FY 2030 may change based on how climate and fossil fuels are considered and characterized. However, the FY 2030 requirement for buildings to be designed such that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption is zero would remain unchanged.Show citation box

Although ECPA as amended by EISA requires that new Federal buildings and Federal buildings undergoing major renovations be designed so that fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the buildings is reduced as compared with such energy consumption by a similar building in fiscal year 2003 (as measured by CBECS and RECS), there are some building types for which no amount of processing of CBECS and RECS data will yield an appropriate baseline for comparison. Examples might include industrialized or research facilities. For purpose of determining the Maximum Allowable Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption for these buildings not addressed by CBECS or RECS, DOE proposes to use the ASHRAE’s Performance Rating Method to determine the baseline energy consumption for a new Federal commercial or multi-family high-rise residential building, and the IECC’s Simulated Performance Alternative to determine the baseline energy consumption for a new Federal low-rise residential building. DOE welcomes input on this approach.Show citation box

Calculation of Proposed Building Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption

To determine compliance, DOE is proposing that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the proposed new Federal building or Federal building undergoing major renovation should be estimated using the Performance Rating Method found in Appendix G of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 for commercial and multi-family high-rise residential buildings, and the ICC International Energy Conservation Code 2004 Supplement for low-rise residential buildings. These are the same methods already prescribed at 10 CFR parts 433 and 435, respectively. Because of the complexity involved in estimating fossil fuel-generated energy consumption, this compliance requirement effectively requires the use of a whole building simulation tool. Whole building simulations are already performed today for most medium- and large-sized buildings to accurately estimate loads for purposes of sizing HVAC equipment for evaluating buildings under voluntary industry building codes. The outputs from these tools typically include site energy usage for both electricity and fossil fuel.Show citation box

To compare the estimated fossil fuel-generated energy consumption from the whole-building simulation tool to the maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption under the statute, the designer should first calculate the primary electrical energy by multiplying the site electrical energy (from the whole building simulation), including receptacle and process loads, by the electricity source energy factor. The designer then calculates the fossil fuel-generated electrical consumption by multiplying the primary electrical energy by the fossil fuel-generation ratio. Finally, the designer must then sum up the fossil fuel-generated electrical consumption and any non- electrical fossil fuels directly used in the proposed building (such as gas furnaces, gas cooking stoves, gas water heaters, etc.). The sum should be less than or equal to the required fossil fuel-generated energy consumption value for the appropriate building type.Show citation box

The electricity source energy factor is the ratio of primary electrical energy consumed to generate and deliver energy to a site to the electrical energy consumed on site. DOE is proposing that the electricity source energy factor would be calculated by dividing the average utility delivery ratio in Table 6.2.4 of the DOE Building Energy Data Book (http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/docs/xls_pdf/6.2.4.xls) by 3412 to convert the value from Btu/kWh to kWh/kWh. The fossil fuel generation ratio would be calculated using the EIA’s latest Electric Power Annual report by summing the electric generation from coal, petroleum, natural gas, and other gases (derived from fossil fuels) and then dividing by the total electric generation.Show citation box

DOE notes that the simulation analysis requirement may be burdensome for designers of some buildings, particularly small buildings. DOE also acknowledges that the Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs) have been completed for a few building types, including the most significant commercial building types and sizes, but the AEDGS are not designed to achieve the reduction levels necessary under this rule. DOE welcomes comments on alternatives to a whole building simulation to demonstrate compliance of these buildings with the requirements of this proposed rulemaking. DOE also welcomes comments on the calculations methods discussed in this section.Show citation box

Plug and Process Energy Consumption

EPACT 2005 as amended by EISA requires that building be designed so that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the buildings is reduced as compared with such energy consumption by a similar building as measured by CBECS and RECS. All building energy consumption, including plug and process energy consumption, is included in baseline CBECS and RECS data, and thus is also factored into the maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary that plug and process loads also be included in the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the new Federal building or Federal building undergoing major renovations. This is consistent with Table G3.1.12 in Appendix G, Performance Rating Method, ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. DOE acknowledges the difficulty of estimating plug and process loads and that their inclusion may make it more difficult to achieve the mandated fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions. DOE welcomes comments on how the proposed rule can be designed such that the assumptions used in the whole building simulations accurately reflect, to the best degree possible, the final building design and the operation of the building, including plug and process loads.Show citation box

Purchase of Offsite Renewable Energy

In order to meet the maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption requirements mandated by ECPA as amended by EISA, fossil fuel-generated energy consumption could be offset with use of energy created from other sources, including renewable energy sources. DOE also recognizes there may be physical limitations to the amount of on-site renewable electricity that can be produced, and it may be more affordable in some cases for an agency to purchase electricity from centralized renewable energy-generation facilities. As an example, ASHRAE Standard 189.1-2009, “The Standard for High-Performance Green Buildings,” has an on-site renewable energy requirement, but allows the use of Renewable Energy Certificates as an alternative to meet the requirement.Show citation box

DOE is concerned however, that purchase of renewable energy-generated electricity via Renewable Energy Certificates or direct Power Purchase Agreements may simply reduce the amount of renewable energy available for purchase by other entities within the U.S. and may not necessarily lead to an overall decrease in domestic fossil fuel-generated energy consumption. In addition, unlike Power Purchase Agreements, the purchase of Renewable Energy Certificates does not involve a long-term binding agreement and can readily be cancelled. It should also be noted that the use of Renewable Energy Certificates is being phased out by January 2012, as a way to meet the renewable energy consumption levels established under section 203 of EPACT 2005 and Executive Order 13423 (see“Renewable Energy Requirement Guidance for EPACT 2005 and Executive Order 13423,” available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/epact05_fedrenewenergyguid.pdf).Show citation box

DOE is leaning toward allowing Power Purchase Agreements with a long-term contract to count toward meeting the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction requirements, but not allowing Renewable Energy Certificates. Under this approach, agencies would be allowed to subtract the annual electricity generated by the renewable energy-generation facility from the building’s annual site electrical energy consumption. The building designer would use this quantity, the net site electrical energy consumption, when calculating the building’s fossil fuel-generated energy consumption. In effect, the Power Purchase Agreements would help agencies meet the fossil fuel consumption requirements. DOE invites comments on how Renewable Energy Certificates and Power Purchase Agreements should be addressed in the context of this rulemaking. DOE also invites comments on the proposed approach with respect to Power Purchase Agreements.Show citation box

Potential Impact on Onsite Electrical Generation From Natural Gas

DOE is interested in the effect of fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction requirements on distributed energy technologies that provide onsite electrical generation from natural gas such as in power plants and combined heat and power (CHP) systems. At power plants and in CHP systems, natural gas is used to generate both heat and electricity. A building with a CHP system could potentially be an all-gas building in terms of utility purchases and would therefore be required to reduce natural gas consumption in accordance with the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction requirements. DOE’s intent is to ensure the rule does not penalize or discourage the use of on-site CHP systems, and invites comments how appropriate credit may be given for CHP systems through the compliance determination methodology.Show citation box

E. Cost Analysis

Given the significant reductions in fossil fuel-generated energy consumption that would be required in today’s proposed rulemaking, one obvious question is how much will compliance with this proposed rule impact the cost of new Federal construction and major renovations. The answer to that question depends both on the building type and type of housing unit being constructed and the level of fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction that is required. DOE commissioned a study by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in 2008 to look at the incremental costs of high performance buildings. Cost data for high performance buildings is fairly rare and many times the costs for achieving high levels of energy efficiency are intermingled with the costs to achieve more sustainable design. That report entitled, “Literature Review of Data on the Incremental Costs to Design and Build Low-Energy Buildings (Hunt, WD, 2008, PNNL-17502 and available at http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-17502.pdf) came to the following key findings as noted in the summary of the document:Show citation box

Key findings of this literature review are as follows:Show citation box

1. Objectively-developed and verifiable data on the cost premium for low-energy (high efficiency) buildings are very limited. Most of the literature focused on green or sustainable buildings, not on low-energy buildings.Show citation box

2. In cases where energy efficiency cost data were available, the cost premiums ranged from 1% to 7%. In most cases, the cost premium was less than 4%.Show citation box

3. Technology solutions are available right now to achieve savings on the order of 30% and more over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004; however, cost-effectiveness of these technology solutions is often not addressed.Show citation box

4. Independent surveys administered to assess the perceptions of building owners and designers regarding the costs to build and operate green/energy-efficient buildings, and the willingness of owners/developers to invest in green/energy-efficient buildings, reveal some interesting common threads.Show citation box

i. There is a perception that energy-efficient/green buildings cost significantly more to design (starting at a 5% premium) and represent a key barrier with decision makers.Show citation box

ii. There seems to be a potential willingness (as implied or measured through survey responses) to build more energy-efficient buildings for cost premiums below 5%.Show citation box

In response to the third key finding listed in the report, DOE began calculating cost impacts for their work associated with AEDGs. Cost impact data are available in the technical support document (TSD) of one published ASHRAE AEDG for small warehouses that are 30% better than Standard 90.1-2004 and four TSDs prepared by DOE for support of future AEDGs that will achieve 50% savings over Standard 90.1-2004. The four TSDs are for medium offices, roadside lodging, general retail, and grocery stores. DOE expects to develop six additional TSDs for small offices, large offices, quick service restaurants, large hospitals, university dormitories, and K-12 schools in FY10. These additional TSDs were not available at the time this notice was prepared.Show citation box

The available TSDs may be found at: Small Warehouse (30% savings)—http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-17056.pdf. General Merchandise (50% savings)—http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/46100.pdf. Grocery Stores (50% savings)—http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/46101.pdf. Highway Lodging Buildings (50% savings)—http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-18773.pdf. Medium Office (50% savings)—http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-19004.pdf.Show citation box

Results from the cost analyses in three of these TSDs—small warehouse, highway lodging, and medium office—are shown below in Table 3. Ranges in the results are a function of climate zone, with buildings in some climates zones costing more or generating less energy savings. Multiple HVAC systems were evaluated for the 50% medium office—a more efficient but more expensive radiant system and a more standard variable air volume (VAV) system. It should be noted that all of the buildings analyzed for the TSDs did have increased first costs, but that the energy savings provided relatively good payback periods.Show citation box

Table 3—Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Highly Energy Efficient Buildings Back to Top
TSD Building square footage Incremental cost ($ per ft2) Incremental cost (percentage increase) Simple payback on energy savings (years)
Warehouse 50,000 ft2 1.88 to 3.56 2.6% to 7% 6.0 to 13.5.
Highway Lodging 43,000 ft2 7.58 to 10.85 8.4% to 8.7% 9.6 to 15.9.
Medium Office 53,600 ft2 5.47 to 9.03 (Radiant) 2.37 to 4.22 (VAV) 5.4% to 7.0% (Radiant) 2.7% to 3.9% (VAV) 5.6 to 11.1 (Radiant) 3.3 to 6.2 (VAV).

Consideration of the graduated levels of fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction listed in the statute (55%, 65%, 80%, 90%, and 100%), coupled with the fact that a percentage reduction is not directly comparable to a 30% or 50% savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004, makes it hard to determine what level of savings is associated with the 1% to 7% cost premiums cited in the PNNL study (“Literature Review of Data on the Incremental Costs to Design and Build Low-Energy Buildings,” Hunt, WD, 2008, PNNL-17502). Converting both the requirements of this proposed rulemaking and the simulated performance of buildings built to 30% better than ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 to a common Energy Use Intensity basis provides a better method of comparison. Also note that the comparison must be made on a similar energy basis. Today’s proposed rulemaking applies to fossil fuel-generated energy consumption, which is close to source energy, while results from the TSDs are typically expressed in site energy.Show citation box

Table 4 shows the comparison of the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions proposed in this rulemaking to the fossil fuel reductions achieved in the simulations associated with two of the TSDs, the medium office and highway lodging.Show citation box

Table 4—Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Proposed in Today’s Rulemaking and Calculated in Selected AEDGs Back to Top
Building type 55% Fossil fuel reduction from CBECS kBtu/ft2 65% Fossil fuel reduction from CBECS kBtu/ft2 80% Fossil fuel reduction from CBECS kBtu/ft2 Fossil fuelreduction calculated in TSD kBtu/ft2 Incremental cost(percentage increase)
Medium Office (Rad) 72 56 32 49.2 5.4% to 7.0%.
Medium Office (VAV) 72 56 32 63.6 2.7% to 3.9%.
Highway Lodging 67 52 30 56.4 8.4% to 8.7%.

Table 4 indicates that the estimated cost savings from the 50% TSDs can be used to support the fact that 55% fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions and perhaps even 65% fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions from CBECS will require cost increases of no more than 8.7%. None of the savings achieved in the 50% TSDs approach the reduction mandated at the 80% fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction level, so the cost estimates for that level of savings and higher levels cannot be estimated.Show citation box

With respect to residential buildings, DOE does not anticipate that there will be many low-rise residential buildings that will fall under today’s proposed rulemaking as most Federal low-rise residential buildings are not likely to be public buildings or buildings for which construction costs are at least $2.5 million in 2007 dollars, which are criteria that determine whether buildings are subject to the requirements in today’s proposed rule. The only low-rise residential buildings that might be considered to fall under today’s proposed rule would be low-rise military barracks, and those barracks are best considered to be similar to the dormitory or lodging building types found in CBECS.Show citation box

Using CBECS and RECS baselines without a climate adjustment puts buildings in colder climate zones at a cost disadvantage because the non-adjusted baseline would be lower than for one adjusted for climate. A non-adjusted baseline for colder climates would require larger, more costly fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions. Conversely, using CBECS and RECS baselines without a climate adjustment provides a cost advantage to buildings in warmer climate zones because the baseline would be greater than for one adjusted for climate. A non-adjusted baseline for warmer climates would require smaller, less costly fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions.Show citation box

However, adjusting for climate in both the baseline and the required reduction level would be expected to eliminate potential regional inequity that could result from climate variation and help ensure that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions are commensurate to the climate zone. Similarly, consideration of regional variations in the fossil fuel contribution to electricity is not expected to result in substantial differences in the compliance burden for buildings across regions so long as regional variations are also reflected in the baseline buildings. If the regional values were used for both the baseline building and the required reduction level, the burden of meeting the percentage reductions would remain roughly the same in all regions (although regions with low fossil fuel use in the electric sector might have to find more savings in non-electric end-uses).Show citation box

DOE is seeking comment on a number of issues related to the cost-effectiveness of today’s proposed rule, especially any construction cost increases for buildings Federal agencies are in the process of designing or have already built. DOE is seeking comment on these cost impacts.Show citation box

F. Agency Petitions for Adjustment to the Percentage Reduction Requirement

ECPA as amended by EISA permits DOE upon petition by an agency subject to the statutory requirements to adjust the applicable numeric fossil fuel-generated energy consumption percentage reduction requirement “downward with respect to a specific building, if the head of the agency designing the building certifies in writing that meeting such requirement would be technically impracticable in light of the agency’s specified functional needs for the building” and DOE concurs with the agency’s conclusion. (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(II)) ECPA as amended by EISA further directs that such an adjustment does not apply to GSA.Show citation box

Today’s action proposes that a petition for downward adjustment of the numeric requirement should include an explanation of what measures would be required to meet the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction requirement, and why those measures would be technically impracticable in light of the agency’s specified functional needs for the building. DOE proposes that the petition should also demonstrate that the adjustment requested by the agency represents the largest feasible reduction in fossil fuel-generated energy consumption that can reasonably be achieved. DOE welcomes comments on that proposal. Although the downward adjustment provision of ECPA as amended by EISA does not expressly include cost considerations, DOE is considering incorporating cost considerations as part of a “technically impracticable” determination. Cost would not be the sole rationale for a determination of “technically impracticable,” but high costs could be part of the evaluation. (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)). DOE also invites comments that would help clarify what kind of technical impracticability would constitute grounds for a petition for downward adjustment.Show citation box

The petition pursuant to ECPA as amended by EISA should also include a written certification statement by the head of the agency designing the building that meeting the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction requirements would be technically impracticable in light of the agency’s specified functional needs for that building. 42 U.S.C. 6834(D)(i)(II).Show citation box

DOE notes that the statute exempts GSA from the option to petition DOE for a downward adjustment of the applicable percentage reduction requirement. However, DOE proposes that a new Federal building or a Federal building undergoing major renovations for which a Federal agency is providing substantive and significant design criteria may be the subject of a petition. Under this approach, a GSA building that is designed to meet the specifications provided by a tenant agency may be considered for a downward adjustment if a petition is submitted by the head of the tenant agency.Show citation box

DOE will review petitions in a timely manner. If the petitioning agency has successfully demonstrated the need for a downward adjustment per the discussion above, DOE will concur with the agency’s conclusion and notify the agency in writing. If DOE does not concur, it will forward its reasons to the petitioning agency with suggestions as to how the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption percentage reduction requirement may be achieved.Show citation box

A petition for downward adjustment of the numeric reduction, including any supporting information, would be addressed to: Margo Appel, Building Technologies Program, U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585.Show citation box

G. Guidance on Measures To Reduce Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption

Building energy efficiency solutions involve advanced technologies, integrated design principles, control strategies and other tools. The appropriate solution and the effectiveness of each solution will vary based on building type, building size, and location. To successfully design a high performance building, Federal agencies must use a reputable, experienced design team. There are an increasing number of firms in all locations that have designed high performance buildings. The key to successful design is identifying firms with the requisite experience and skills, adopting an integrated design process that begins at the first phase of the building project, and providing clear direction and quality control over the firm’s work. DOE invites comment from agencies as to what additional training in this area might be helpful.Show citation box

Numerous tools are available to help Federal agencies achieve the required fossil fuel reductions. DOE, in conjunction with ASHRAE, has developed a series of Advanced Energy Design Guides to achieve 30 percent reductions in energy use for several types of small buildings (small office buildings, small retail buildings, K-12 school buildings, small warehouses and self-storage buildings, highway lodging, and small hospitals and healthcare facilities). DOE and ASHRAE are working on 50 percent reduction guidelines for several building types. Additional tools and resources are available through the EERE Web site. DOE’s Building Technologies Program maintains a database of high-performance buildings (available at http://eere.buildinggreen.com).Show citation box

Other resources include: The National Institute of Building Sciences’Whole Building Design Guide; the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) system; ASHRAE Standard 189.1-2009, Standard for the Design of High Performance Green Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings; and the International Code Council’s International Green Construction Code Public Version 1.0. DOE’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Web site provides access to these and other resources and tools that can help Federal agencies improve the energy efficiency of new and existing buildings (available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/). DOE has also published a cool roof resource guide for Federal agencies, available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/features/cool_roof_resources.html. DOE is also developing additional guidance that provides technical and cost data related to the installation of cool roofs.Show citation box

H. Post-Construction Monitoring and Reporting

ECPA as amended by EISA does not contain any explicit post-construction monitoring and reporting requirements. Federal agencies, however, are reminded of the monitoring, reporting, and benchmarking requirements in section 103 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) and section 432 of EISA. FEMP has issued guidance for the metering requirements in section 103 of EPAct 2005 (available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/adv_metering.pdf). FEMP has also developed guidance for meeting EISA section 432 requirements (available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/eisa_s432_guidelines.pdf). Finally, FEMP has also issued additional guidance on EISA section 432 benchmarking (available at http://www.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/eisa_s432_guidelines.pdf).Show citation box

FEMP has selected the Energy Star Portfolio Manager as the required building energy use benchmarking system for Federal agencies. Additional information on the use of Energy Star Portfolio Manager, energy management, and benchmarking in general may be found on the EPA Energy Star Web site at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=business.bus_index. Show citation box

III. Reference Resources Back to Top

DOE has prepared a list of resources to help Federal agencies address the reduction of fossil fuel-generated energy consumption. The interim final rule on energy efficiency published in the Federal Register on December 4, 2006 (71 FR 70275) contains reference resources for energy efficiency improvement in building design. These resources come in many forms such as design guidance, case studies and in a variety of media such as printed documents or on Web sites. The resources for energy efficiency improvement will also provide guidance for fossil fuel-based energy consumption reduction.Show citation box

IV. Regulatory Review Back to Top

A. Review Under Executive Order 12866

Today’s notice of proposed rulemaking has been determined to be a significant regulatory action under section 3(f)(1) of Executive Order 12866, “Regulatory Planning and Review,” 58 FR 51735 (October 4, 1993). Accordingly, today’s action was reviewed by the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) in the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).Show citation box

B. Review Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act

The Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) requires preparation of an initial regulatory flexibility analysis for any rule that by law must be proposed for public comment, unless the agency certifies that the rule, if promulgated, will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. As required by Executive Order 13272, “Proper Consideration of Small Entities in Agency Rulemaking,” (August 16, 2002), DOE published procedures and policies on February 19, 2003, to ensure that the potential impacts of its rules on small entities are properly considered during the rulemaking process (68 FR 7990). DOE has made its procedures and policies available on the Office of General Counsel’s Web site: http://www.gc.doe.gov. Show citation box

DOE has reviewed today’s proposed rule under the provisions of the Regulatory Flexibility Act and the procedures and policies published on February 19, 2003. Today’s proposed rulemaking applies only to the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of new Federal buildings and Federal buildings undergoing major renovation. As such, the only entities impacted by this rulemaking would be Federal agencies. DOE does not believe that there will be any impacts on small entities such as small businesses, small organizations, or small governmental jurisdictions.Show citation box

On the basis of the foregoing, DOE certifies that this proposed rule would not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. Accordingly, DOE has not prepared a regulatory flexibility analysis for this rulemaking. DOE’s certification and supporting statement of factual basis will be provided to the Chief Counsel for Advocacy of the Small Business Administration pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 605(b).Show citation box

C. Review Under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995

This proposed rule will impose no new information or record keeping requirements. Accordingly, OMB clearance is not required under the Paperwork Reduction Act. (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.)Show citation box

D. Review Under the National Environmental Policy Act

The Department prepared a draft Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1463) pursuant to the Council on Environmental Quality’s (CEQ) Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act (40 CFR parts 1500-1508), the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), and DOE’s NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR part 1021).Show citation box

The draft EA addresses the potential incremental environmental effects attributable to the application of the proposed rules. The draft EA has been added to the docket for this rulemaking.Show citation box

E. Review Under Executive Order 13132

Executive Order 13132, “Federalism,” 64 FR 43255 (August 4, 1999), imposes certain requirements on agencies formulating and implementing policies or regulations that preempt State law or that have federalism implications. The Executive Order requires agencies to examine the constitutional and statutory authority supporting any action that would limit the policymaking discretion of the States and carefully assess the necessity for such actions. DOE has examined the proposed rule and determined that it would not preempt State law and would not have a substantial direct effect on the States, on the relationship between the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of Government. No further action is required by Executive Order 13132.Show citation box

F. Review Under Executive Order 12988

With respect to the review of existing regulations and the promulgation of new regulations, section 3(a) of Executive Order 12988, “Civil Justice Reform,” 61 FR 4729 (February 7, 1996), imposes on Executive agencies the general duty to adhere to the following requirements: (1) Eliminate drafting errors and ambiguity; (2) write regulations to minimize litigation; and (3) provide a clear legal standard for affected conduct, rather than a general standard and promote simplification and burden reduction. With regard to the review required by section 3(a), section 3(b) of Executive Order 12988 specifically requires that Executive agencies make every reasonable effort to ensure that the regulation: (1) Clearly specifies the preemptive effect, if any; (2) clearly specifies any effect on existing Federal law or regulation; (3) provides a clear legal standard for affected conduct, while promoting simplification and burden reduction; (4) specifies the retroactive effect, if any; (5) adequately defines key terms; and (6) addresses other important issues affecting clarity and general draftsmanship under any guidelines issued by the Attorney General. Section 3(c) of Executive Order 12988 requires Executive agencies to review regulations in light of applicable standards in section 3(a) and section 3(b) to determine whether they are met or it is unreasonable to meet one or more of them. DOE has completed the required review and determined that to the extent permitted by law, this proposed rule meets the relevant standards of Executive Order 12988.Show citation box

G. Review Under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995

The Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-4) generally requires Federal agencies to examine closely the impacts of regulatory actions on State, local, and Tribal governments. For a proposed regulatory action likely to result in a rule that may cause the expenditure by State, local, and Tribal governments, in the aggregate, or by the private sector of $100 million or more in any one year (adjusted annually for inflation), section 202 of UMRA requires a Federal agency to publish a written statement that estimates the resulting costs, benefits, and other effects on the national economy. (2 U.S.C. 1532(a) and (b)) The UMRA also requires a Federal agency to develop an effective process to permit timely input by elected officers of State, local, and Tribal governments on a proposed “significant intergovernmental mandate,” and requires an agency plan for giving notice and opportunity for timely input to potentially affected small governments before establishing any requirements that might significantly or uniquely affect small governments. On March 18, 1997, DOE published a statement of policy on its process for intergovernmental consultation under UMRA (62 FR 12820) (also available at http://www.gc.doe.gov). This notice of proposed rulemaking contains neither an intergovernmental mandate nor a mandate that may result in the expenditure of $100 million or more in any year, so these requirements under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act do not apply.Show citation box

H. Review Under the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act, 1999

Section 654 of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act, 1999 (Pub. L. 105-277) requires Federal agencies to issue a Family Policymaking Assessment for any proposed rule that may affect family well-being. This proposed rule would not have any impact on the autonomy or integrity of the family as an institution. Accordingly, DOE has concluded that it is not necessary to prepare a Family Policymaking Assessment.Show citation box

I. Review Under Executive Order 12630

DOE has determined, under Executive Order 12630, “Governmental Actions and Interference with Constitutionally Protected Property Rights,” 53 FR 8859 (March 18, 1988), that this notice of proposed rulemaking would not result in any takings which might require compensation under the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution.Show citation box

J. Review Under the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act, 2001

The Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act, 2001 (44 U.S.C. 3516, note) provides for agencies to review most disseminations of information to the public under guidelines established by each agency pursuant to general guidelines issued by OMB. OMB’s guidelines were published at 67 FR 8452 (February 22, 2002), and DOE’s guidelines were published at 67 FR 62446 (October 7, 2002). DOE has reviewed today’s proposed rule under the OMB and DOE guidelines and has concluded that it is consistent with applicable policies in those guidelines.Show citation box

K. Review Under Executive Order 13211

Executive Order 13211, “Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use,” 66 FR 28355 (May 22, 2001), requires Federal agencies to prepare and submit to OMB a Statement of Energy Effects for any proposed significant energy action. A “significant energy action” is defined as any action by an agency that promulgated or is expected to lead to promulgation of a final rule, and that: (1) Is a significant regulatory action under Executive Order 12866, or any successor order; and (2) is likely to have a significant adverse effect on the supply, distribution, or use of energy, or (3) is designated by the Administrator of OIRA as a significant energy action. For any proposed significant energy action, the agency must give a detailed statement of any adverse effects on energy supply, distribution, or use should the proposal be implemented, and of reasonable alternatives to the action and their expected benefits on energy supply, distribution, and use. Today’s proposed rule would not have a significant adverse effect on the supply, distribution, or use of energy and, therefore, is not a significant energy action. Accordingly, DOE has not prepared a Statement of Energy Effects.Show citation box

V. Approval of the Office of the Secretary Back to Top

The Secretary of Energy has approved publication of today’s notice of proposed rulemaking.Show citation box

List of Subjects in 10 CFR Parts 433 and 435 Back to Top

Buildings and facilities, Energy conservation, Engineers, Federal buildings and facilities, Housing.Show citation box

Issued in Washington, DC, on September 30, 2010.

Cathy Zoi,

Assistant Secretary, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

For the reasons set forth in the preamble, DOE proposes to amend chapter II of title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations as set forth below:Show citation box

PART 433—ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND FOSSIL FUEL-GENERATED ENERGY CONSUMPTION REDUCTION DESIGN STANDARDS FOR NEW AND MAJOR RENOVATIONS TO FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Back to Top

1. The authority citation for part 433 continues to read as follows:Show citation box

Authority: Back to Top

42 U.S.C. 6831-6832, 6834-6835; 42 U.S.C. 7101 et seq. Show citation box

2. The heading for part 433 is revised to read as set forth above.Show citation box

3. Section 433.1 is revised to read as follows:Show citation box

§ 433.1 Purpose and scope.

This part establishes an energy efficiency performance and maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption standard for new Federal commercial and multi-family high-rise residential buildings, for which design for construction began on or after January 3, 2007 (except as otherwise indicated: fossil fuel-generated energy consumption requirements are applicable one year after publication of the final rule), as required by section 305(a) of the Energy Conservation and Production Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)). Additionally, this part establishes certain requirements applicable to major renovations of Federal commercial and multi-family high-rise residential buildings, as indicated. For renovated buildings, those requirements apply only to the portions of the building or building systems that are being renovated and to the extent that the scope of the renovation permits compliance with the applicable requirements in this part. Unaltered portions of the building or building systems are not required to comply with this part.Show citation box

4. Section 433.2 is amended by adding in alphabetical order new definitions for “Direct fossil fuel consumption,” “District Energy System,” “Electricity fossil fuel-generation ratio,” “Electricity source energy factor,” “Fossil fuel,” “Fossil fuel consumption for electricity generation,” “Fossil fuel-generated energy consumption,” “Multi-family high-rise residential building,” and “Primary electrical energy consumption” to read as follows:Show citation box

§ 433.2 Definitions.

* * * * *

Direct fossil fuel consumption means the total fossil fuel consumption in a building excluding fossil fuel consumption for electricity generation. This includes any fossil fuel consumption resulting from a district energy system used in a building.Show citation box

District Energy System means a central energy conversion plant and transmission and distribution system that provides thermal energy to a group of buildings (heating via hot water or steam, and/or cooling via chilled water). This definition includes only thermal energy systems; central energy supply systems that provide only electricity are excluded from this definition.Show citation box

* * * * *

Electricity fossil fuel-generation ratio means the fraction of national U.S. electricity generation from fossil fuel sources as provided by the Energy Information Administration Electric Power Annual report for the appropriate year.Show citation box

Electricity source energy factor is the ratio of primary electrical energy consumed to generate and deliver energy to a site relative to electrical energy consumed on site. The electricity source energy factor may be calculated by dividing the average utility delivery ratio in Table 6.2.4 of the DOE Building Energy Data Book for the appropriate year by 3412 to convert the value from Btu/kWh to kWh/kWh.Show citation box

* * * * *

Fossil fuel means a fuel formed in the earth from plant or animal remains. Fossil fuels include coal, oil, natural gas, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).Show citation box

Fossil fuel consumption for electricity generation means the primary electrical energy consumption in a building supplied from the national power grid multiplied by the electricity fossil fuel-generation ratio. Electricity generated completely from non-fossil fuel sources or from a dedicated source not connected to the national power grid is excluded from this definition.Show citation box

Fossil fuel generated-energy consumption means the sum of direct fossil fuel consumption plus fossil fuel consumption for electricity generation.Show citation box

* * * * *

Multi-family high-rise residential building means a residential building that contains three or more dwelling units and that is designed to be 4 or more stories above grade.Show citation box

* * * * *

Primary electrical energy consumption means the total amount of energy used to generate and deliver electrical energy to a building from the national power grid.Show citation box

* * * * *

5. Section 433.4 is amended by adding new paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) to read as follows:Show citation box

§ 433.4 Energy efficiency performance standard.

* * * * *

(d) All Federal agencies shall design new Federal commercial and multi-family high-rise residential buildings and major renovations to Federal commercial and multi-family high-rise residential buildings, for which design for construction began at least one year after publication of the final rule, to meet the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section if:Show citation box

(1) The subject building is a public building as defined in 40 U.S.C. 3301 and for which transmittal of a prospectus to Congress is required under 40 U.S.C. 3307; orShow citation box

(2) The cost of the building or major renovation is at least $2,500,000 (in 2007 dollars, adjusted for inflation).Show citation box

(e)(1) All Federal agencies shall design new Federal commercial and multi-family high-rise residential buildings and major renovations of Federal commercial and multi-family high-rise residential buildings for which design for construction began at least one year after publication of the final rule and that are classified in paragraph (d) of this section, to meet fossil fuel-generated energy consumption values equal to or lesser than the values shown in Table 1. The maximum allowable fossil fuel generated energy consumption values in Table 1 are a function of building type and fiscal year for which design for construction began.Show citation box

(2) For the purpose of this paragraph (e), the following definitions apply:Show citation box

(i) Education means buildings used for academic or technical classroom instruction, such as elementary, middle, or high schools, and classroom buildings on college or university campuses. Buildings on education campuses for which the main use is not classroom are included in the category relating to their use. For example, administration buildings are part of “Office,” dormitories are “Lodging,” and libraries are “Public Assembly.”Show citation box

(ii) Food sales means buildings used for retail or wholesale of food. For example, grocery stores are “Food Sales.”Show citation box

(iii) Food service means buildings used for preparation and sale of food and beverages for consumption. For example, restaurants are “Food Service.” Show citation box

(iv) Health care (inpatient) means buildings used as diagnostic and treatment facilities for inpatient care.Show citation box

(v) Health care (outpatient) means buildings used as diagnostic and treatment facilities for outpatient care. Medical offices are included here if they use any type of diagnostic medical equipment (if they do not, they are categorized as an office building).Show citation box

(vi) Lodging means buildings used to offer multiple accommodations for short-term or long-term residents, including skilled nursing and other residential care buildings.Show citation box

(vii) Multi-family in 2-4 unit buildings means a unit in a building with two to four housing units—a structure that is divided into living quarters for two, three, or four families or households in which one household lives above or beside another. This category also includes houses originally intended for occupancy by one family (or for some other use) that have since been converted to separate dwellings for two to four families.Show citation box

(viii) Multi-family in 5 or more unit buildings means a unit in a building with five or more housing units—a structure that contains living quarters for five or more households or families and in which one household lives above or beside another.Show citation box

(ix) Public assembly means public or private buildings, or spaces therein, in which people gather for social or recreational activities.Show citation box

(x) Public order and safety means buildings used for the preservation of law and order or public safety.Show citation box

(xi) Religious worship means buildings in which people gather for religious activities, (such as chapels, churches, mosques, synagogues, and temples).Show citation box

(xii) Retail (other than mall) means buildings used for the sale and display of goods other than food.Show citation box

(xiii) Service means buildings in which some type of service is provided, other than food service or retail sales of goods.Show citation box

(xiv) Warehouse and storage means buildings used to store goods, manufactured products, merchandise, raw materials, or personal belongings (such as self-storage).Show citation box

Table 1—Maximum Allowable Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption by Building Type, Commercial Buildings, kBtu/ft 2 Back to Top
Building type kBtu/ft2by fiscal year for which design for construction began
FY 2012-2014 FY 2015-2019 FY 2020-2024 FY 2025-2029 FY 2030 and beyond
Education 57 44 25 13 0
Food Sales 174 135 77 39 0
Food Service 182 141 81 40 0
Health Care (Inpatient) 141 109 63 31 0
Health Care (Outpatient) 67 52 30 15 0
Lodging 67 52 30 15 0
Retail (Other Than Mall) 57 44 25 13 0
Office 72 56 32 16 0
Public Assembly 56 44 25 12 0
Public Order and Safety 66 51 29 15 0
Religious Worship 28 22 12 6 0
Service 51 40 23 11 0
Warehouse and Storage 30 23 13 7 0

(3) For multi-family high-rise residential buildings, the maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption in kBtu per ft [2] is listed in Table 2.Show citation box

Table 2—Maximum Allowable Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption by Building Type, Multi-Family High-Rise Residential Buildings, kBtu/ft 2 Back to Top
Building type kBtu/ft2by fiscal year for which design for construction began
FY 2012-2014 FY 2015-2019 FY 2020-2024 FY 2025-2029 FY 2030 and beyond
Multi-Family in 2-4 Unit Buildings 47 37 21 11 0
Multi-Family in 5 or More Unit Buildings 42 33 19 9 0

(4) For buildings that combine one or more building types within or between Tables 1 and 2, area-weighted fossil fuel-generated energy consumption may be calculated by multiplying the floor area of each building type by the consumption value from the appropriate table for that building type, then dividing by the total floor area of the combined building types.Show citation box

(5) For Federal buildings that do not fit into any of the building type categories listed in Table 1 or Table 2 of § 433.4, a baseline fossil fuel-generated energy consumption shall be calculated using the Performance Rating Method, Appendix G of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004, as outlined in § 433.5. The maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption for the proposed design shall be calculated by using the following formula:Show citation box

Maximum Allowable Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption = ((Baseline Design Electricity Consumption × Electricity Source Energy Factor × Electricity Fossil Fuel-Generation Ratio) + Baseline Design Direct Fossil Fuel Consumption) × Fossil Fuel Reduction MultiplierShow citation box

(6) The fossil fuel reduction multiplier in the formula above shall be taken from Table 3.Show citation box

Table 3—Fossil Fuel Reduction Multiplier by Fiscal Year for Which Design for Construction Began Back to Top
Fiscal year Reduction multiplier
2012-2014 0.45
2015-2019 0.35
2020-2024 0.20
2025-2029 0.10
2030 and beyond 0.00

(7) All building energy usage, including estimated receptacle and plug loads, must be included in the calculation in Table 3 of this section.Show citation box

(f)(1) Upon petition by an agency subject to this section, the Secretary may adjust the applicable numeric requirement in paragraph (e) of this section with respect to a specific building if:Show citation box

(i) The head of the agency designing the building certifies in writing that meeting such requirement would be technically impracticable in light of the agency’s specified functional needs for that building;Show citation box

(ii) The head of the agency designing the building demonstrates that the requested adjustment is the largest feasible reduction in fossil fuel-generated consumption that can reasonably be achieved; andShow citation box

(iii) The Secretary concurs with the agency’s conclusion.Show citation box

(2) This adjustment shall not apply to the General Services Administration.Show citation box

6. Section 433.5 is revised to read as follows:Show citation box

§ 433.5 Performance level determination.

(a) For new Federal commercial and multi-family high-rise residential buildings whose design for construction began on or after January 3, 2007, each Federal agency shall determine energy consumption levels for both the baseline and proposed building by using the Performance Rating Method found in Appendix G of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, (incorporated by reference; see§ 433.3), except the formula for calculating the Performance Rating in paragraph G1.2 shall read as follows:Show citation box

Percentage improvement = 100 × (Baseline building consumption−Proposed building consumption)/(Baseline building consumption−Receptacle and process loads)Show citation box

(b) Each Federal agency shall consider laboratory fume hoods and kitchen ventilation systems as part of the ASHRAE-covered HVAC loads subject to the 30 percent savings requirements in this section, rather than as process loads.Show citation box

(c) Subject to § 433.4(d), each Federal agency shall calculate the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of a proposed design by the following formula:Show citation box

Proposed Design Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption = (Proposed Design Electricity Consumption × Electricity Source Energy Factor × Electricity Fossil Fuel-Generation Ratio) + Direct Fossil Fuel Consumption of Proposed DesignShow citation box

(d) Subject to § 433.4(d), if the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the proposed design is equal to or less than the applicable maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption value in § 433.4(e), the proposed design complies with the fossil fuel-generated consumption reduction requirement in § 433.4. If the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the proposed design is greater than the applicable maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption value in § 433.4(e), the proposed design does not comply with the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction requirement in § 433.4, and the agency must either modify the design until the design complies with the requirement, or request and receive approval from the Secretary for a downward adjustment of the requirement.Show citation box

PART 435—ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND FOSSIL FUEL-GENERATED ENERGY CONSUMPTION REDUCTION DESIGN STANDARDS FOR NEW AND MAJOR RENOVATIONS TO FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDNGS Back to Top

7. The authority citation for part 435 continues to read as follows:Show citation box

Authority: Back to Top

42 U.S.C. 6831-6832; 6834-6836; 42 U.S.C. 8253-54; 42 U.S.C. 7101 et seq. Show citation box

Subpart A—Mandatory Energy Efficiency and Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction Design Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings Back to Top

8. The headings for part 435 and subpart A are revised to read as set forth above.Show citation box

9. Section 435.1 is revised to read as follows:Show citation box

§ 435.1 Purpose and scope.

This part establishes an energy efficiency performance and maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption standard for new Federal low-rise residential buildings, for which design for construction began on or after January 3, 2007 (except as otherwise indicated: fossil fuel-generated energy requirements are applicable one year after publication of the final rule, as required by section 305(a) of the Energy Conservation and Production Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)). Additionally, this part establishes certain requirements applicable to major renovations of Federal low-rise buildings, as indicated. For renovated buildings, those requirements apply only to the portions of the building or building systems that are being renovated and to the extent that the scope of the renovation permits compliance with the applicable requirements in this rule. Unaltered portions of the building or building systems are not required to comply with this rule.Show citation box

10. Section 435.2 is amended by adding in alphabetical order new definitions for “Direct fossil fuel consumption,” “District Energy System,” “Electricity fossil fuel-generation ratio,” “Electricity source energy factor,” “Fossil fuel,” “Fossil fuel consumption for electricity generation,” “Fossil fuel-generated energy consumption,” and “Primary electrical energy consumption” to read as follows:Show citation box

§ 435.2 Definitions.

* * * * *

Direct fossil fuel consumption means the total fossil fuel consumption in a building excluding primary electrical energy consumption. This includes any fossil fuel consumption resulting from a district energy system used in a building.Show citation box

District Energy System means a central energy conversion plant and transmission and distribution system that provides thermal energy to a group of buildings (heating via hot water or steam, and/or cooling via chilled water). This definition includes only thermal energy systems; central energy supply systems that provide only electricity are excluded from this definition.Show citation box

* * * * *

Electricity fossil fuel-generation ratio means the fraction of national U.S. electricity generation from fossil fuel as provided by the Energy Information Administration Electric Power report for the appropriate year.Show citation box

Electricity source energy factor is the ratio of primary electrical energy consumed to generate and deliver energy to a site to the electrical energy consumed on site. Electricity source energy factor may be calculated by dividing the average utility delivery ratio in Table 6.2.4 of the DOE Building Energy Data Book for the appropriate year by 3412 to convert the value from Btu/kWh to kWh/kWh.Show citation box

* * * * *

Fossil fuel means a fuel formed in the earth from plant or animal remains. Fossil fuels include coal, oil, natural gas, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).Show citation box

Fossil fuel consumption for electricity generation means the primary electrical energy consumption in a building supplied from the national power grid multiplied by the electricity fossil fuel-generation ratio. Electricity generated completely from non-fossil fuel sources or from a dedicated source not connected to the national power grid is excluded from this definition.Show citation box

Fossil fuel-generated energy consumption means the sum of direct fossil fuel consumption plus fossil fuel consumption for electricity generation.Show citation box

* * * * *

Primary electrical energy consumption means the total amount of energy used to generate and deliver electrical energy to a building from the national power grid.Show citation box

* * * * *

11. Section 435.4 is amended by adding new paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) to read as follows:Show citation box

§ 435.4 Energy efficiency performance standard.

* * * * *

(d) All Federal agencies shall design new Federal low-rise residential buildings and major renovations to Federal low-rise residential buildings, for which design for construction began at least one year after publication of the final rule, to meet the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section if:Show citation box

(1) The subject building is a public building as defined in 40 U.S.C. 3301 and for which transmittal of a prospectus to Congress is required under 40 U.S.C. 3307; orShow citation box

(2) The cost of the building or major renovation is at least $2,500,000 (in 2007 dollars, adjusted for inflation).Show citation box

(e)(1) All Federal agencies shall design new Federal low-rise residential buildings or major renovations of Federal low-rise residential buildings for which design for renovation began at least one year after publication of the final rule and that are classified in paragraph (d) of this section, to meet fossil fuel-generated energy consumption values equal to or lesser than the values shown in Table 1. The maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption values in Table 1 area function of housing type and fiscal year for which design for construction began.Show citation box

(2) For the purpose of this paragraph (e), the following definitions apply:Show citation box

(i) Manufactured home means a housing unit built to the Federal Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards in 24 CFR part 3280, that is built on a permanent chassis and moved to a site. It may be placed on a permanent or temporary foundation and may contain one or more rooms.Show citation box

(ii) Multi-family in 2-4 unit buildings means a unit in a building with two to four housing units—a structure that is divided into living quarters for two, three, or four families or households in which one household lives above or beside another. This category also includes houses originally intended for occupancy by one family (or for some other use) that have since been converted to separate dwellings for two to four families. This includes modular homes but does not include manufactured homes.Show citation box

(iii) Multi-family in 5 or more unit buildings means a unit in a building with five or more housing units—a structure that contains living quarters for five or more households or families and in which one household lives above or beside another. This includes modular homes but does not include manufactured homes.Show citation box

(iv) Single-family attached means a housing unit connected to another housing unit, generally with a shared wall, that provides living space for one household or family. Attached houses are considered single-family houses as long as they are not divided into more than one housing unit and they have an independent outside entrance. A single-family house is contained within walls extending from the basement (or the ground floor, if there is no basement) to the roof. Townhouses, rowhouses, and duplexes are considered single-family attached housing units, as long as there is no household living above another one within the walls extending from the basement to the roof to separate the units. This includes modular homes but does not include manufactured homes.Show citation box

(v) Single-family detached means a separate, unconnected housing unit, not sharing a wall with any other building or housing unit, that provides living space for one household or family. A single-family house is contained within walls extending from the basement (or the ground floor, if there is no basement) to the roof. This includes modular homes but does not include manufactured homes.Show citation box

Table 1—Maximum Allowable Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption by Building Type, Low-Rise Residential Buildings, kBtu/ft 2 Back to Top
Building type kBtu/ft2by Fiscal year for which design for construction began
FY 2012-2014 FY 2015-2019 FY 2020-2024 FY 2025-2029 FY2030 and beyond
Single-Family Detached 27 21 12 6 0
Single-Family Attached 30 23 13 7 0
Multi-Family in 2-4 Unit Buildings 47 37 21 11 0
Multi-Family in 5 or More Unit Buildings 42 33 19 9 0
Manufactured Homes 52 40 23 12 0

(3) For Federal buildings that do not fit into any of the building type categories listed in Table 1 of § 435.4, a baseline fossil fuel-generated energy consumption shall be calculated using the Simulated Performance Alternative outlined in § 435.5. The maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption for the proposed design shall be calculated by using the following formula:Show citation box

Maximum Allowable Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption = ((Baseline Design Electricity Consumption × Electricity Source Energy Factor × Electricity Fossil Fuel-Generation Ratio) + Baseline Design Direct Fossil Fuel Consumption) × Fossil Fuel Reduction MultiplierShow citation box

(4) The fossil fuel reduction multiplier in the formula above shall be taken from Table 2. Show citation box

Table 2—Fossil Fuel Reduction Multiplier by Fiscal Year for which Design for Construction Began Back to Top
Fiscal year Reduction multiplier
2012-2014 0.45
2015-2019 0.35
2020-2024 0.20
2025-2029 0.10
2030 and beyond 0.00

(5) All building energy usage, including estimated receptacle and plug loads, must be included in the calculation in Table 2 of this section.Show citation box

(f)(1) Upon petition by an agency subject to this section, the Secretary may adjust the applicable numeric requirement in paragraph (e) of this section with respect to a specific building, if:Show citation box

(i) The head of the agency designing the building certifies in writing that meeting such requirement would be technically impracticable in light of the agency’s specified functional needs for that building;Show citation box

(ii) The head of the agency designing the building demonstrates that the requested adjustment is the largest feasible reduction in fossil fuel-generated consumption that can reasonably be achieved; andShow citation box

(iii) The Secretary concurs with the agency’s conclusion.Show citation box

(2) This adjustment shall not apply to the General Services Administration.Show citation box

12. Section 435.5 is revised to read as follows:Show citation box

§ 435.5 Performance level determination.

(a) For new Federal low-rise residential buildings whose design for construction started on or after January 3, 2007, each Federal agency shall determine energy consumption levels for both the baseline building and proposed building by using the Simulated Performance Alternative found in section 404 of the ICC International Energy Conservation Code, 2004 Supplement Edition, January 2005 (incorporated by reference; see§ 435.3).Show citation box

(b) Subject to § 435.4(d), each Federal agency shall calculate the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of a proposed design by the following formula:Show citation box

Proposed Design Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption = (Proposed Design Electricity Consumption × Electricity Source Energy Factor × Electricity Fossil Fuel-Generation Ratio) + Direct Fossil Fuel Consumption of Proposed DesignShow citation box

(c) Subject to § 435.4(d), if the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the proposed design is equal to or less than the applicable maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption value in § 435.4(e), the proposed design complies with the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction requirement in § 435.4. If the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the proposed design is greater than the applicable maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption value in § 435.4(e), the building does not comply with the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction requirement in § 435.4, and the agency must either modify the design until the design complies with the requirement, or request and receive approval from the Secretary for a downward adjustment of the requirement.Show citation box

[FR Doc. 2010-25852 Filed 10-14-10; 8:45 am]

Footnotes Back to Top

1. Under 40 U.S.C. 3301(5) “public building” is a building, whether for single or multitenant occupancy, and its grounds, approaches, and appurtenances, which is generally suitable for use as office or storage space or both by one or more Federal agencies or mixed-ownership Government corporations.

“Public building” includes Federal office buildings, post offices, customhouses, courthouses, appraisers stores, border inspection facilities, warehouses, record centers, relocation facilities, telecommuting centers, similar Federal facilities, and any other buildings or construction projects the inclusion of which the President considers to be justified in the public interest.

The definition does not include a building or construction project that is on the public domain (including that reserved for national forests and other purposes); that is on property of the Government in foreign countries; that is on Indian and native Eskimo property held in trust by the Government; that is on land used in connection with Federal programs for agricultural, recreational, and conservation purposes, including research in connection with the programs; that is on or used in connection with river, harbor, flood control, reclamation or power projects, for chemical manufacturing or development projects, or for nuclear production, research, or development projects; that is on or used in connection with housing and residential projects; that is on military installations (including any fort, camp, post, naval training station, airfield, proving ground, military supply depot, military school, or any similar facility of the Department of Defense); that is on installations of the Department of Veterans Affairs used for hospital or domiciliary purposes; or the exclusion of which the President considers to be justified in the public interest.

Sustainability and Federal Government Facilties – A Candid Survey of Federal Executives – GBC and Deloitte – September 2010

Federal agencies and public companies share sustainability challenges, however, JOC / Job Order Contracting provides an efficient Construction Delivery Method to deploy associated renovation, renovation projects for existing buildings.

Unfortunately…

Many respondents believe the level of  effort and resources put towards sustainability by their agency is lacking.  Over half  of  them call the sustainability effort “inadequate.” 

Many of  the roadblocks to sustainability are strategic or cultural.”

A majority (54 percent) of  respondents anticipate the level of  effort put towards sustainability will remain constant.”

www.4clicks.com

 

Executive Summary

 
 Federal executives surveyed have taken significant steps to “go green” in their personal lives.  A strong majority (81percent) say they now turn off  lights when not in use.  Almost as many print less, turn off  electronics, use more energy efficient products, or recycle. 
 Federal executives believe they have a responsibility to promote sustainability in their agency as well.  Nine in ten of  those surveyed agree with the idea that they have such a responsibility.  Nearly as many of  them say that they have personally taken action to promote sustainability. 
 Respondents almost universally agree that it is important that their agency implements sustainable practices.  Over 95 percent call it very or somewhat important.  When presented with a list of  three elements of  sustainability and asked to rank their importance, most viewed all three as critical.
 While a “sense of  obligation” is the top reason for going green on a personal level, it ranks fourth among reasons agencies make changes.  Agencies’ moves towards sustainability tend to result from different motivators including fulfilling a mandate or reducing costs.
 Almost all respondents believe it is important to increase sustainability, but most report their agency has taken few actions
to do so.  In fact, on average, those surveyed know of  less than three things their agency has done
Many respondents believe the level of  effort and resources put towards sustainability by their agency is lacking.  Over half 
of  them call the sustainability effort “inadequate.”
  In contrast, four percent say the effort has been “excessive.”  
 Many of  the roadblocks to sustainability are strategic or cultural.  Over a quarter say that sustainability is not an agency
priority, or that there is a lack of  coordination.  Almost as many claim there is a lack of  involvement, enthusiasm, and engagement in “going green” among agency employees.
 Respondents recognize ways in which their agencies could become more sustainable.  Almost 60 percent say that better
education, training, and engagement can help their agency implement more sustainable practices.
A majority (54 percent) of  respondents anticipate the level of  effort put towards sustainability will remain constant.  A significant portion (39 percent) anticipate their agency will be more dedicated to sustainability in the future, while almost
none expect that their agency will be less committed to it.  
 Almost all federal executives (86 percent) say that a primary force driving them to be more sustainable is a sense of 
obligation.  Many also behave more sustainably to save money, while far fewer do so to follow a trend, or because of  social
pressure.

REPORT

Reasons for Agency Action to Increase Sustainability

Executive Order 13514

Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans

Most Important Sustainability Related Goals