BIM, Building Information Modeling, actually consists of three M’s…. BIM3 if you will… Modeling, Models, and Management.
Since the “accepted” definition of BIM is the life-cycle management of the built environment supported by digital technology, it’s easy to see that BIM is part process and part technology, with the goal of developing and using current, accurate, shared information to optimize proactive decision-making.
Unfortunately the AECO sector (Architecture, Engineering Construction, Operations) sector is currently “silo” and “first cost” centric, not to mention relatively technophobic. Major culture change across all stakeholders must take place before BIM can be understood, let alone practiced, on a widespread basis.
Building Information Modeling: A BUSINESS PROCESS for generating and leveraging building data to design, construct and operate the built environment during its life-cycle. Stakeholders have access to accurate, shared information on demand, enable via interoperability between technology platforms and common terms, definition, metrics and benchmarks.
Building Information Model: The DIGITAL REPRESENTATION of physical and functional characteristics of the built environment. As such it serves as a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility, forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life-cycle from inception onwards.
Building Information Management: The strategic vision for ORGANIZATION, COLLABORATION, andCONTROL of the business process by utilizing principles and guidelines for Information Architecture (i.e.a digital prototype) to effect the sharing of trustworthy information over the entire life-cycle of a physical asset. The benefits include centralized and visual communication, early exploration of options, sustainability, efficient design, integration of disciplines, site control, as-built documentation, etc.– effectively managing the digital decision support model of an asset from conception to retrofitting to final retirement over the course of a century or more.
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1. Robust, collaborative construction delivery methods – IPD, Integrated Project Delivery, JOC – Job Order Contracting, et al . Collaboration in the building industry requires the integration of complex inter-related workflows whereby multitude of stakeholders are incorporated into a common pool of information, decision-support, and activities over an extensive period of time.
4. Life-cycle perspective and management techniques/processes… vs. a “first cost mentality”.
5. Technology focused upon enabling robust processes…vs. current focus upon 3D modeling. Embedding vetted processes with technology enables consistent, scalable deployment.
6. Current examples of “open’ and standardized knowledge domains, processes, terms, and technologies.
Capital planning and management systems (CPMS) – physical and functional condition monitoring and associated capital reinvestment planning. traditionally dealing with expenditures in excess of $10,000.
Computerized Maintenance Management systems (CMMS) – inventory, repair, maintenance of ‘movable equipment’. Typically involving expenditures of $10,000 or less.
Computer-Aid Facility Managements Systems (CAFM) – space planning, move management, space utilization.
Building Automation Systems (BAS) – security, life/safety, access control, environment systems management.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) – computerized location management / positioning.
Create, read, update, delete) operations (CRUD)
Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) – structure enabling native storage of instance models
Simple Object Access Protocol, is a protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of Web Services in computer networks.
Representational State Transfer (REST) is an architectural style for large-scale software design
Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBie) a specification used in the handover of Facility Management information.
OMNICLASS in simple terms, a standard for organizing all construction information. The concept for OmniClass is derived from internationally-accepted standards that have been developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Construction Information Society (ICIS) subcommittees and workgroups from the early-1990s to the present.
ISO Technical Committee 59, Subcommittee 13, Working Group 2 (TC59/SC13/WG2) drafted a standard for a classification framework (ISO 12006-2, more information below) based on traditional classification but also recognized an alternative “object oriented” approach, which had to be explored further.
UniFormat is a standard for classifying building specifications, cost estimating, and cost analysis in the U.S. and Canada.
MasterFormat is a standard for organizing specifications and other written information for commercial and institutional building projects in the U.S. and Canada.
In the long history of humankind, those who learned to collaborate and improvise most effectively have prevailed.
– Charles Darwin
BIM, the life-cycle management of the built environment supported by digital technology, requires a fundamental change in how the construction (Architects, Contractors, Engineers) and facility management (Owners, Service Providers, Building Product Manufactures, Oversight Groups, Building Users) sectors operate on a day-to-day basis.
BIM, combined and Cloud Computing are game changers. They are disruptive technologies with integral business processes/practices that demand collaboration, transparency, and accurate/current information displayed via common terminology.
There is no escaping the change. Standardized data architectures (Ominclass, COBie, Uniformat, Masterformat) and cost databases (i.e. RSMeans), accesses an localized via cloud computing are even now beginning to be available. While historically, the construction and facility management sectors have lagged their counterparts (automotive, aerospace, medical, …) relative to technology and LEAN business practices, environmental and economic market drivers and government mandates are closing the gap.
The construction and life-cycle management of the built environment requires the integration off several knowledge domains, business “best-practices”, and technologies as portrayed below. The efficient use of this BIG DATA is enabled by the BIM, Cloud Computing, and Integrated Project Delivery methods.
The greatest challenges to these positive changes are the CULTURE of the Construction and the Facility Management Sectors. Also, an embedded first-cost vs. life-cycle or total cost of ownership perspective. An the unfortunate marketing spotlight upon the technology of 3D visualization vs. BIM. Emphasis MUST be place upon the methods of how we work on a daily basis…locally and globally − strategic planning, capitial reinvestment planning, designing collaborating, procuring, constructing, managing and operating. All of these business processes have different impacts upon the “facility” infrastructure and construction supply chain, building Owners, Stakeholders, etc., yet communication terms, definitions, must be transparent and consistently applied in order to gain greater efficiencies.
Some facility life-cycle management are already in place for the federal government facility portfolio and its only a matter of time before these are expanded and extended into all other sectors.
BIM, not 3D visualization, but true BIM or Big BIM, and Cloud Computing will connect information from every discipline together. It will not necessarily be a single combined model. In fact the latter has significant drawbacks. Each knowledge domain has independent areas of expertise and requisite process that would be diluted and marginalized if managed within one model. That said, appropriate “roll-up” information will be available to a higher level model. (The issue of capability and productivity marginalization can be proven by looking a ERP and IWMS systems. Integration of best-in-class technology and business practices is always support to systems that attempt to do everything, yet do not single thing well.)
Fundamental Changes to Project Delivery for Repair, Renovation, Sustainability, and New Construction Projects MUST include:
Qualifications Based or Best Value Selection
Some form of pricing transparency and standardization
Early and ongoing information-sharing among project stakeholders
Appropriate distribution of risk
Some form of financial incentive to drive performance / performance-based relationships
Yesterday (6/19/2012), the National Academies Federal Facility Council hosted a timely, and potentially watermark event “Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities“.
It is my hope that this event and those similar to it be expanded as much as possible to assist all real property owners, architects, contractors, subcontractors, building product manufactures, oversight groups, and the community truly practice facility life-cycle management, referred to more recently as BIM (building information modeling / management).
Key Topics / Take Aways:
Identify and advance technologies, processes, and management practices that improve the performance of federal facilities over their entire life-cycle, from planning to disposal.
Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair for Federal Facilities
-Facility risks to Organizational Mission
-Potential to quantify
-Ability to predict outcomes vs. investment
-The “how” of measuring investment successes
1. You can’t manage what you don’t measure.
2. Requirements for facility life-cycle management, efficient repair/maintenance/sustainability, BIM
3. Inventory of Built Environment
4. Physical and Functional Condition of Assets (Portfolio, Site, Building/Area, System, Sub-system, Component Levels)
5. Expected Life-cycle and Deterioration Rates for Physical Assets
6. Ranking of Facilities/Built Environment relative to Organizational Mission
7. Associated Capital Reinvestment Requirements and Ability to run multi-year “What-if ” scenario analyses
Strategic approaches for investing in facilities maintenance and repair to achieve beneficial outcomes and to mitigate risks. Such approaches should do the following:
• Identify and prioritize the outcomes to be achieved through maintenance and repair investments and link those outcomes to achievement of agencies’ missions and other public policy objectives.
• Provide a systematic approach to performance measurement, analysis, and feedback.
• Provide for greater transparency and credibility in budget development, decision making, and budget execution.
• Identify and prioritize the beneficial outcomes that are to be achieved through maintenance and repair investments, preferably in the form of a 5- to 10-year plan agreed on by all levels of the organization.
• Establish a risk-based process for prioritizing annual maintenance and repair activities in the field and at the headquarters level.
• Establish standard methods for gathering and updating data to provide credible, empirical information for decision support, to measure outcomes from investments in maintenance and repair, and to track and improve the results.
Vehicles for Change—
• Portfolio-based facilities management (aka asset management)
•Technology (tools, knowledge, risk)
• Recognition of impacts of facilities on people, environment, mission (i.e., prioritizing)
• Changing of the Guard
Best Practices … Partial Listing
• Identification of better performing contractors or service providers
• GIS mapping tools
• Facility condition assessments – surveys, vendors, frequencies, costs
• Maintenance management systems
• Predictive maintenance tools
• Organizational structures
• Budget call process
• Master Planning processes
• Improve relationships with the facility end users and foster a “One Community”
• Energy management
Component-section (a.k.a. section): The basic “management unit.” Buildings are a collection of components grouped into systems. Sections define the component by material or equipment type and age.
Condition Survey Inspection (a.k.a. Condition Survey; Inspection): The gathering of data for a given component-section for the primary purpose of condition assessment.
Condition Assessment: The analysis of condition survey inspection data.
Component Section Condition Index (CSCI): An engineering – based condition assessment outcome metric (0 – 100 scale) and part of the Building Condition Index (BCI) series.
Condition Survey Inspection Objectives
1. Determine Condition (i.e. CSCI) of Component-Section
2. Determine Roll-Up Condition of System, Building, etc.
3. Provide a Condition History
4. Compute Deterioration Rates
5. Calibrate/Re-calibrate Condition Prediction Model Curves
6. Compute/Re-compute Remaining Maintenance Life
7. Determine Broad Scope of Work for Planning Purposes
8. Quantify/refine Work Needs (incl root cause analysis, if needed)
9. Establish when Cost Effective to Replace (vs. Repair)
10. Compute/Re-compute Remaining Service Life
11. QC/QA (Post-work Assessment)
Condition Survey Inspection Types
Deficiency: The “traditional” inspection discussed previously.
Distress Survey: The identification of distress types (i.e. crack, damage, etc.), severity (low, medium, high) and density (percentage) present. Data directly used in the calculation of the CSCI. No estimate of cost or priority.
Distress Survey with Quantities: Same as distress survey except that distress quantities are measured or counted. The resulting density is more accurate than a distress survey, thus the CSCI is more precise.
Direct Rating: A one-step process that combines inspection and condition assessment. An alphanumeric rating (three categories, three subcategories each) is assigned to the component-section by the inspector. Rating is directly correlated to a CSCI value, but is less accurate than a CSCI derived from a distress survey. Quick, but no record of what’s wrong.
About The Federal Facilities Council
The Federal Facilities Council (FFC) was established at the National Academies in 1953 as the Federal Construction Council. The mission of the FFC is to identify and advance technologies, processes, and management practices that improve the performance of federal facilities over their life-cycles, from programming to disposal. The FFC is sponsored and funded by more than 20 federal agencies with responsibilities for and mutual issues related to all aspects of facilities design, construction, operations, renewal, and management.
The FFC fulfills its mission by networking and by sharing information among its sponsoring federal agencies and by leveraging its resources to conduct policy and technical studies, conferences, forums, and workshops on topics of mutual interest. The activities to be undertaken in any given calendar year are approved by a committee composed of senior representatives from each of the sponsor agencies.
Much of the work of the FFC is carried out by its 5 standing committees, each of which meets quarterly. The majority of meetings include presentations by guest speakers from the federal community, academia, and the private sector and these presentations are open to the public. The presentation slides are posted on the Events page of this website. If you would like to automatically receive notices of new reports or upcoming events, please subscribe to the FFC listserv.
Within the National Academies, the FFC operates under the auspices of the Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment (BICE) of the National Research Council. The BICE provides oversight and guidance for FFC activities and serves as a link between the sponsoring federal agencies and other elements of the building community, both national and international.
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The BIM Evolution Continues with OPEN BIM Draft V8 20120131
What is BIM?
BIM is an acronym which represents three separatebut linked functions: Building Information Modelling:
Is a BUSINESS PROCESS for generating and leveraging building data to design, construct and operate the building during its lifecycle.
BIM allows all stakeholders to have access to the same information at the same time through interoperability between technology platforms.
Building Information Model:
Is the DIGITAL REPRESENTATION of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. As such it serves as a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility, forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life-‐cyclefrom inceptiononwards.
Building Information Management:
Is the ORGANIZATION & CONTROL of the business process byutilizing the information in the digital prototype to effect the sharing of information over the entire lifecycle of an asset. The benefits include centralizedand visual communication, early exploration of options, sustainability, efficient design, integration of disciplines, site control, as built documentation, etc. – effectively developing an asset lifecycle process and model from conception to final retirement.
What is OPEN BIM?
OPEN BIM is a universal approach to the collaborative design, realization and operation of buildings based on open standards and workflows.
OPEN BIM is an initiative of buildingSMART International (bSI) and several leading software vendors using the open buildingSMART Data
Model. Why is it important? OPEN BIM supports a transparent, open workflow, allowing project members to participate regardless of the
software tools they use. OPEN BIM creates a common language for
widely referenced processes, allowing industry and governmentto procure projects with transparent commercial engagement,comparable service evaluation and assured data quality. OPEN BIM provides enduring project data for use throughout the asset life-‐cycle, avoiding multiple input of the same data and consequential errors. Small and large (platform) software vendors can participate and compete on system 9ndependent, “best of breed” solutions. OPEN BIM energizes the on-‐line product supply side with more exact user demand searches and delivers the product data directly into the BIM.
The buildingsmart-tech.org website is the international website of two long standing sub-committees of buildingSMART International.
Critical components of CONSTRUCTION PROJECT success include communication, collaboration, a defined mutually agreed upon operating relationship and an associated fully defined project scope of work… all of which are largely determined by the construction delivery method.
A thorough understanding and visualization of a project among Owners, Architects and Engineers, Contractors, and other shareholders defines scope, specifications, and is is the project delivery method that set the overall tone of interrelations ships among the project participants and shapes final outcomes. Field specific variables, such as weather, on-going operations, soils conditions, security, safety, site lay-out, environment protections and other contexts must be considered as well as the means and methods of work execution. These and other variables impact the overall cost, timing, and ultimate success of the project.
Collaboration among all shareholders on the front end, and then throughout the project is the means by which multiple knowledge domains associated with a construction project are brought together to allow for visualizing the building the project prior to construction. For example, estimating a job requires knowledge about about the impact that AE, context, and execution scope have on each unit, assembly, and system level cost.
Construction management is a process! Several exiting as well as newer, disruptive technologies are now enabling the cost-effective development, implementation, and monitoring of collaborative efficient construction management processes in lieu or traditional ad hoc procedures. The later being largely responsible for the decades long declined in productivity within the construction sector throughout America.
While 0ur AECOO (architecture, engineering, construction, operations, owner) sector is resistant to change and relatively adverse to technology, the convergence of worldwide market drivers and the disruptive technologies that will change the very way we do business. However, the issues of (check one, or more) global climate change, dwindling non-renewal energy supplies, and/or the altered economic landscape, are forcing greater efficiencies. And, of course, buildings are a major consumer of petrochemical products… high energy users, and a primary source of green house gas and other emissions. These drivers to reduce environmental impacts as well as improve productivity will force relatively dramatic change.
Relative to technology…. technology’s role in one of supporting processes relative to faster implementation/deployment, and consistent/scalable use. That said, cloud computing not only accomplishes the above more efficiently, but adds previously unattainable levels of collaboration and transparency. A “FACEBOOK for Facilities Construction and Life-cycle Operations” is on the horizon. Just think of the impacts that FACEBOOK and other social media had upon Egypt recently, and the power of cloud computing begins clearer. The next aspect is of course BIM. Once we get beyond the distraction of 3D visualization, BIM, combined with, deployed by, and practiced via cloud computing BIM will become a game changer. BIM definition, from NIBS, and I paraphrase, is the life-cycle management of facilities supported by digital technology. A glimpse of a strategic BIM framework (BIMF) from a process perspective is shown below. The integration of these activities, associated competencies, business processes, and supporting technologies via cloud computing is the foundation of BIM.
Central to the discussion of AEC process change within the scope of this discussion also include:
-Construction Project Delivery Methods for NEW and EXISTING buildings, specifically Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) and Job Order Contracting (JOC) …, as noted above and below….
-Sustainability and the concept of High Performance Buildings
-Higher Level FM Processes – LEAN, TCO / Total Cost of Ownership / Life-cycle Management
-Standards (data formats, lexicon, taxonomies, interoperability, metrics vs. benchmarks)
Job order contracting, known and implemented as SABER in the Air Force, one example of IPD, or integrated project delivery developed over twenty years ago within the DOD sector. It has only recently begun to be adopted and deployed in other sectors in an accelerated manor, including non-DOD federal government, state/county/&local governments, higher educations and large k-12 school districts, hospitals and clinics, as well as airports and transportation authorities.
As an example of productivity improvements afforded by JOC. What typically took over a year to accomplish in months or even weeks. Furthermore quality is improve, change orders are reduced, and lawsuits are virtually eliminated. A comparison of IPD/JOC and tradition delivery methods is shown below.
Thus, in summary, below is road map of where we have been, and where we are going.
Common taxonomy is critical to productivity, transparency, collaboration, and information re-use/management. Within the facility management where process, technology, and productivity lags, common taxonomy must be at the forefront.
Various standards are in place and evolving. Here’s a quick view of FM data standards for Europe.
EN 15221-1: Facility Management – Part 1: Terms and Definitions Version EN 15221-1:2006
This draft European standard gives relevant terms and definitions in the area of Facility Management. It also provides a structure of facility services.
EN 15221-2: Facility Management – Part 2:
Facility Management — Agreements -Guidance on how to prepare Facility Management agreements Version EN 15221-2:2006
This document is a working and standardized tool intended for parties who wish to draw up the Facility Management agreement within the European Common Market. It offers headings, which are not exhaustive. Parties may or may not include, exclude, modify and adapt these headings to their own contracts.
Definition of Facility Management – an integrated process to support and improve the effectiveness of the primary activities of an organization by the management and delivery of agreed support services for the appropriate environment that is needed to achieve its changing objectives.
EN 15221-3: facility management – Part 3:
Guidance how to achieve/ensure quality in facility management
Provides guidance how to measure, achieve and improve quality in FM. It gives complementary guidelines to ISO 9000, ISO 9001 and EN 15221-2 within the framework of EN 15221-1.
Terms and definitions
Basics of quality management
4.1 Importance of quality in FM
4.2 Criteria, background, elements and influences to quality
4.3 Type of characteristics
4.4 Pathway from needs to experiencing Delivery
4.5 Quality management
Process of quality management
5.1 General introduction of the process
5.3 Determining and defining requirements
5.4 Service Level (SL)
5.5 Developing measurement metrics (hierarchy of indicators)
5.6 Quality aspects by organizing delivery of fm products
5.7 Quality aspects by delivering fm products
5.8 General introduction into performance management
5.9 Measurement and calculation
5.10 Analyze deviation
5.11 Actions based on deviation
5.12 Continuous improvement
degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements
need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory
Characteristic: distinguishing feature
A characteristic can be inherent or assigned and can be qualitative or quantitative. There are various classes of characteristics, such as the following:
— physical (e.g. mechanical, electrical, chemical or biological characteristics);
— sensory (e.g. related to smell, touch, taste, sight, hearing);