History of Job Order Contracting – JOC, The LEAN Collaborative Construction Delivery Method

Early 1980’s – U.S. Military Academy, West Point, facility engineers realized the disadvantages of the design-bid-build construction delivery system, and implemented an a new indefinite delivery- indefinite quantity (IDIQ) facility maintenance contract which was first used by the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) in Belgium.

West Point managed to accomplish the following:

  1. Minimized the response time for facility construction.
  2. Reduced the workload on in-house design staff.
  3. Enhanced quality control.
  4. Lowered the contract administration costs.
  5. Reduced construction costs.
  6. Reduced the backlog of maintenance and repair.

[1999, Journal of Construction Education, Development of the Job Order Contracting (JOC) Process for the 21st Century, Dean T. Kashiwagi and Ziad Al Sharmani, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona]

Timeline (please comment/suggest additions and/or modifications)

1981  -“ Existing in federal procurement since 1981, and only recently making its way down to state and municipal levels, Indefinite Delivery (ID) contracting is a procurement mechanism designed to streamline the competitive bidding process for governmental owners. Invented by the Department of Defense for use by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, ID contracts have been used routinely and effectively by the DOD for installation maintenance, minor repair, and construction projects since its inception in 1981.” “Whether classified as an ID, JOC, or TOC contract, each shares certain similarities.” (2006, IDIQ Contracts, Denise Farris | March 30, 2006 | Construction)

1985 – West Point Academy

1986 – Air Force bases – SABER

1987 – Navy JOC

1988 – JOC  Implemented Army-wide (1997 – Improving the Army’s Job Order Contracting ProgramCE704R1, September 1997, Jordan W. Cassell, Linda T. Gilday)

1988 – When job order contracting was first developed in 1988, MCACES was the only estimating system available to JOC users. Since that time, the JOC concept has changed somewhat; contracting officers now have a choice of estimating systems. Current Army policy requires that all Army installations use the MCACES UPB as the estimating system under JOC. The Air Force uses the R.S. Means estimating system. The Navy uses both the R.S. Means and the MCACES UPB estimating systems.  (Improving the Army’s Job Order Contracting Program CE704R1 September 1997)

1990 – U.S. Navy publishes Job Order Contracting P068B, September 1990

1992 – Assistant Secretary of the Army for Installations, Logistics, and Environment, and the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research, Development, and Acquisition establish a Job Order Contracting Steering Committee to develop recommendations for policies, guidance, procedures, and training for the U.S . Army JOC Program

1995 – Army’s JOC policy manual, Job Order Contracting Guide, is published.

1996 – U.S. Army’s Center for Public Works (USACPW) Humphreys Engineer Center published the Job Order Contracting Directory (October 1996), and  supports a telephone hotline for JOC installations through a private contractor, U.S. Cost, Inc., and publishes a newsletter called “JOCkey”.

The History of Job Order Contracting

The History of Job Order Contracting

Job order contracting, an innovative construction delivery method/procurement technique was originally developed to provide more responsive facility maintenance and repair and minor construction.

It initial benefit was seen as significantly reducing engineering and procurement lead-times by awarding a competitively bid, firm-fixed-price, indefinite-quantity, multitask contract to a single general contractor.

job order contracting history

The contract consists of detailed task descriptions for a multitude of real property renovation, repair, and maintenance activities encountered within a specified
geographic area.

Job order contracting was first implemented Army-wide in 1988, and it has since proved a
responsive and efficient method for accomplishing quality project work, on-time and on-budget.

Since that time,  JOC programs have been implemented across most DOD and non-DOD federal department/agencies, state, and local governments, as well as by educational, healthcare, utility, and transportation institutions.