Energy-Efficiency Standards and Green Building Certification Systems Used by the Department of Defense for Military Construction and Major Renovations -2103

Efficient project delivery methods such as JOC, Job Order Contracting, and SABER are an important element in the renovation, repair and sustainability of facilities.

The incremental costs to design and construct high-performance or green buildings typically range from zero to eight percent higher (0 to 8%) than the costs to design and construct conventional buildings.

The additional incremental costs to design and construct high-performance or green buildings are relatively small when compared to total life-cycle costs.

Effective operation of high-performance buildings requires well-trained facilities managers.

 

Finding 1: The committee did not identify any research studies that conducted a traditional benefit-cost analysis to determine the long-term net present value savings, return on investment, or long-term payback related to the use of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010, ASHRAE Standard 189.1-2011, and the LEED or Green Globes green building certification systems.

 

Finding 2: There is some limited evidence to indicate that provisions within ASHRAE Standard 189.1-2011 may need to be selectively adopted if use of this standard is to be cost effective in the DOD operating environment.

 

Finding 3. Research studies indicate that the incremental costs to design and construct high-performance or green buildings typically range from 0 to 8 percent higher than the costs to design and construct conventional buildings, depending on the methodology used in the study and the type of building analyzed. The additional incremental costs to design and construct high-performance or green buildings are relatively small when compared to total life-cycle costs.

 

Finding 5: The evidence from the literature search indicates that high-performance or green buildings can result in significant reductions in energy use and water use. The cost savings associated with the reductions in energy and water use will vary by geographic region, by climate zone, and by building type.

 

Finding 6: Not every individual high-performance or green building achieved energy or water savings when compared to similar conventional buildings.

 

Finding 9. Effective operation of high-performance buildings requires well-trained facilities managers.

 

Recommended Approach 1. Continue to require that new buildings or major renovations be designed to achieve a LEED-Silver or equivalent rating in order to meet the multiple objectives embedded in laws and mandates related to high-performance buildings.

 

Recommended Approach 3. Put policies and resources in place to measure the actual performance of the Department of Defense’s high-performance, green, and conventional buildings to meet multiple objectives.

Source: Energy-Efficiency Standards and Green Building Certification Systems Used by the Department of Defense for Military Construction and Major Renovations, NRC

via ww.4Clicks.com – Premier technology for cost estimating and efficient project delivery – JOC, Job Order Contracting, SABER, IDIQ, SATOC, MATOC, MACC, BOCA, BOA, BOS… featuring and exclusively enhanced 400,000+ line item RSMeans Cost Data electronic database.

GSA, LEED, USGBC, and Politics

LEED Certification, and LEED in general has been a GREAT marketing tool.  That said, should LEED be a requirement? Is LEED cost effective?  Should LEED be modified?
The below letter clearly states that cost will INCREASE should the GSA move away from LEED?  How can that be?  What costs would increase?  Is there no better way for GSA to meet sustainability requirement than via LEED?

Take a look at the letter and please post you comments.

July 25, 2012

Acting Administrator Daniel Tangherlini
U.S. General Services Administration
One Constitution Square
1275 First Street, NE
Washington, DC 20417

Dear Acting Administrator Tangherlini,

The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) is to be commended for its leadership in improving energy and environmental performance across its federal building portfolio. The recently released sustainability and energy “scorecard” by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) demonstrates just how successful GSA has been at reducing costs, improving efficiency and eliminating waste.

GSA earned the highest rating in all categories in the 2011 sustainability scorecard released from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).

GSA reduced emissions from federal buildings more than 20 percent compared with 2008. That incredible reduction led all federal agencies.
GSA is ahead of schedule in reducing its potable water and electricity use.

These efforts are paying off in real terms. According to the OMB, investments in efficiency over the last four years are expected to save $18 billion in energy costs over the life of the projects.

In an effort to continue this success, GSA is evaluating the building rating tools at its disposal, as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. LEED is the most widely used high‐performance building rating system in the United States. The private sector uses LEED to both verify and communicate the quality of high performance buildings. If GSA, as the “landlord of the federal government,” were to require or use something else, it would add cost to the building and leasing process across the building industry. We are not in favor of adding cost.

Again, we commend your agency for its success in reducing the operating cost and impact of the federal building stock. We support your continuation of the rating tool evaluation process and focus on the usability, market acceptance, and effectiveness of rating tools rather than distractions focused on a single issue.

Thank you for your consideration of our views.

106 Greenway
2 B Green Profitably
2M Design Consultants, Inc.
32BJ SEIU
360 Architecture
3Degrees
4240 architecture
7group, LLC
Above and Beyond Energy
Abruña & Musgrave, Architects
Ackerstein Sustainability LLC
Acme Paper and Supply Co, Inc.
ActiveWest Builders
ADDS, SRL.
Adomatis Appraisal Service
Advanced Comfort Solutions, Inc.
Advanced Furniture Services
Advanced Home Energy Solutions
Aedify
Aedis Ince
Affiliated Engineers, Inc.
AGR Consulting
AHA Consulting Engineers, Inc.
Ahold USA Retail
Airco Commercial Services, inc.
Airfresh Inc.
Alabama Green Building Solutions & SLS Construction
Alaska Thermal Imaging LLC
Albertin Vernon Architecture LLC
Albuquerque Old School
Alfandre Architecture, PC
Alicia Ravetto Architect PA
All Home & Energy Services LLC
Allcare Maintenance Services
Alliance Corporation
Alliance Environmental & Natural Systems Utilities, LLC
Alliance for Environmental Sustainability
Allied Construction Services LLC
Alpar Architectural Products
Alt Breeding Schwarz Architects
Alterna Corp.
Alternative Energy Systems
Alternative Solutions
AlturaSolutions Communications
Alvin E. Benike, Inc.
Alvin Holm AIA Architects
Balfour Beatty Construction
Banister Homes, Inc.
Bank of America
Barbara A. Campagna/Architecture + Planning PLLC
Barras Architects
Bath Engineering Corporation
Bay City Supply
Benefect Corp
Benefield Richters Company
Benson Woodworking Company, Inc.
Bernardon Haber Holloway Architects PC
Bernards
Berner International Corp.
Better World Group
Big Ass Fans
Big-D Construction Corp
Big-D Signature
Biositu, LLC
Bird & Kamback Architects
Bird Group
BKM Construction LLC
Black United Fund of Illinois
Blackmon Rogers Architects LLC
Blue Camas Consulting Ltd.
Blue Marble LLC
Blue Moon Enterprises
Blue Sea Development Company, LLC
Blue Water Studio
Bluegill Energy
BlueGreen Alliance
Bluestone Building, LLC
BMI Mechanical, Inc.
BNP Media
Boone Gardiner Garden Center
Boreas Arquitectos
Bork Architectural Design, Inc.
Boston Global Investors
Boston Properties
Boston Redevelopment Authority
Brailsford & Dunlavey, Inc.
Brandywine Realty Trust
BRAZEN Architecture INC
BRC Acoustics & Audiovisual Design
Breedlove Land Planning, Inc.
Brewer Ingram Fuller Architects Inc.
Brewery Vivant
Cascadia Green Building Council
Cassidy Turley Commercial Real Estate Services
Catalyst Partners
Catherine Hall Designs, LLC
CBRE Commercial Real Estate Services
CCI Mechanical, Inc.
Celilogardens
Center for Maximum Potential Building Systems
Center for Sustainable Building Research
Cerama-Tech of Southern Nevada
Certified Building Analysis LLC
Chambersburg Waste Paper Co
Chapman Construction / Design
Chartier Redevelopment Group
Chatham County Commission
CHB Industries, Inc.
Chicago Regional Council of Carpenters
Chidester Engineering, PLLC
Choate Construction Company
Christie Development Services
Christine Ervin/Company
Chula Ross Sanchez
Citizens for Pennsylvania’s Future
City of Atlanta, Office of Sustainability
City of Chicago
City of Cincinnati
City of Grand Rapids
City of Philadelphia
City of San Antonio, Office of Environmental Policy
City of San Francisco, Department of the Environment
City of Santa Barbara, Office of the County Architect
City of Santa Monica Green Building Program
City of Tempe
City of Winston-Salem, Office of Sustainability
Clark Nexsen, Architecture and Engineering
Clayco, Inc.
Clean Age, LLC
Clean Energy Coalition
Clean Energy Finance and Investment Authority
Cleaning First Impressions
Clivus Multrum, Inc.
Clothing Matters
CMA Architects & Engineers LLP
Coastal Building Maintenance
Coastal Therapy
Coldwell Banker/Schneidmiller Realty
Dale Corporation
Dale Partners Architects P.A.
Davis Davis Architects
Davis Energy Group
dbdesign
DCP Marketing Services LLC
DECOLights, Inc
DeFeo Associates
Delaware Valley Green Building Council
Delphi Corporation
DERBIGUM Americas, Inc.
Desert Moon Productions, Inc.
Design AVEnues LLC
designis
Development Center for Appropriate Technology
Development Management Associates, LLC
Devine Brothers Inc
Dewberry Architects Inc.
Diversified Design Group LLC
Diversified Energy Services
DJ Construction Co. Inc.
DNV Business Assurance
Dominican Republic Green Building Council
Donia & Associates, Inc.
Donnelley Energy Solutions
Doo Consulting, llc
Dore Property Ventures LLC
Dover, Kohl & Partners Town Planning
DPR Construction
Drawing Conclusions LLC
Dreyfuss & Blackford Architects
Drysdale Energy
Dunlap & Partners Engineers
Dunlop Development, Inc.
DVA Home Improvement, LLC
DVL Automation
DwellSmart
E.W. Dunn
e2 Homes, Inc.
e3 Bank
E3 Building Sciences
E3 INNOVATE, LLC
E3 Regenesis Solutions, Inc.
e4, Inc.
EA Buildings
Early New England Home Designs
Energy Inspectors Corporation
Energy IQ
Energy Master & Environmental Solutions
Energy Matters
Energy Opportunities, Inc.
Energy Upgrade Services, Inc.
Energy Wise Solutions Inc
EnergyLogic Inc.
Enermodal Engineering
Engineered Representation, Inc.
Engineered Tax Services
Engineering Services
Ennead Architects, LLP
Enovative Group, Inc.
Enterprise Green Communities
Environamics, Inc.
Environmental Concepts Company
Environmental Dynamics, Inc.
Environmental Planning Associates
Envision Design
EnVision Realty Services
ES2, Inc
ETC Group
Ethos Sustainable Finishes
Everblue
Everest Properties
Everyday Green
Evolution Partners Real Estate Advisors
EwingCole
Exact Solar
Excel Dryer Inc.
Exoterra | Architects+Consultants
Exp U.S. Services, Inc.
Facilities Design Group
Farr Associates
Faulhaber Engineering & Sustainability
FBG Service Corp.
Fenestar
Fergus Garber Young Architects
Ferrand ACS
FiberAmerica
FILARSKI/architecture+planning+research
Filmop USA
Final Air Balance Co., Inc.
Fireman’s Fund Insurance Company
First Community Housing, Inc.
Golangco Global
Goodwyn Mills Cawood
GR Planning
Gray Construction
Green Advantage, Inc.
Green and Profitable
Green Building Certification Institute
Green Building Consulting
Green Building Education and Services, LLC
Green Building Education Services
Green Building Pages
Green Building Services Inc.
Green Capital Advisers
Green Chapps, LLC
Green Dinosaur, Inc.
Green Earth PR Network
Green Education Foundation (GEF)
Green Education Inc.
Green Energy Solutions
Green Hive Foundation
Green Ideas, Inc.
Green Innovative Design
Green Insight, LLC
Green Property Funds LLC
Green Schools Inc.
Green Seal, Inc.
Green Stone Consulting
Green Street Development Group
Green Street Properties
Green Works Corp.
Greenbank Associates
GreenBeams
GreenCE, Inc.
GreenDream Enterprises
Greeneconome
Greener Country
Greenform
Greenformation
Greenhut Construction Company
Greenpeace
GreenShape LLC
GreenWizard
Group 70
Group Mackenzie Inc.
Group14 Engineering
Grundfos Pumps
HOK
Holder Construction Company
HOLOS Collaborative
Homage Design
Home Energy Group, LLC
HomeGreen
Horizon Residential Energy Services Maine, LLC
HSB Architects & Engineers
Humann Building Solutions
Hunzinger Construction
Hutton Architecture Studio
HW Davis Construction, Inc.
Hyland Fisher – Architect
IBS Advisors, LLC
IceStone, LLC
ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability USA
iLiv
Imery & Co, LLC
Impact Infrastructure, LLC
In Balance Green Consulting
Incite Directives
Indoor Environmental Testing
Indra USA
Ingenuity LLC
Ingersoll Rand
Inner Space Consultants
Innovative Associates LLC
Innovative Design
Innovative Green Strategies, LLC
Innovink, LLC
InSites PLC
Inspirit-llc
Institute for Market Transformation (IMT)
Institute for Supply Management
Institute for the Built Environment
Integral Group
Integrated Environmental Solutions LLC
InterDesign
Interface
Interior Directions
InteriorDesign-ED
Interiors for Business, Inc.
Interiorscapes, Inc.
International Commissioning Engineers West, Inc.
Intex Solutions Inc.
Iowa-Des Moines Supply
Koch Hazard Architects
Kohler Co.
Komorous-Towey Architects
KONE Inc.
Krafft Cleaning Service, Inc.
Kramer+Marks Architects
Kristina Hahn Atelier
Kruger Bensen Ziemer Architects
Kruger Sustainability Group
Kulka KLC
Kupcha Marketing Services
kW Engineering
KYA Design Group
Lake Affect Design Studio
Lakemary Center
Landis Construction
Lane Transit District
Lapointe Architects
Larsen & Associates
Larson Binkley, Inc.
Larson Darby Group
Law Office of Paul Kaplan
Lawrence Environmental Group
LCA Arquitecta
LDa Architects LLP
LEAP, Inc. (Local Energy Alliance Program)
Leonardo Academy Inc.
Leopardo Companies
Lewis Alan Office Furniture, Inc.
LINAK U.S. Inc.
Little Consulting
Living Machine Systems, L3C
LivingHomes
LoraxPro Software
LORD Green Real Estate Strategies, Inc.
LTLB Envirotecture
Lucas Tax + Energy
Lucile Glessner Design
Lunchbox Consulting Inc.
Luper Neidenthal & Logan
LWPB Architecture
M&E Engineers, Inc.
M. Landman Communications and Consulting
M.E. GROUP, Inc.
M3 Engineering Group PC
Macnet Global, Inc
Mobile Janitorial & Paper Co.
mode associates
Modus Architecture Collaborative
MODUS DEVELOPMENT
Moody Nolan
MOORE Consulting Engineers
Moore Nordell Kroeger Architects, Inc.
Morse & Cleaver Architects
Moseley Architects
Moshier Studio
Multiflow
Multivista IA
Musson General Contracting
N. Barton and Associates
Naomi Mermin Consulting
Nassau County
National Education Association
National Education Association,
Health Information Network
National Facility Solutions, LLC
National Life Group
National Organization of Minority Architects
National School Supply and Equipment Association
National Trust for Historic Preservation
National Wildlife Federation
Native Geothermal LLC
Navarro Lowrey Inc.
NBC Solutions
Neighborhood Energy Connection
NELSON
Neumann/Smith Architecture
Nevada ENERGY STAR Partners
New Axiom, LLC
New Horizons Group
New Leaf Systems, Inc.
New Story Solar
NewCom Real Estate Services, LLC
Newman Consulting Group, LLC
New-Tex Mechanical Reps, Inc.
Nexant, Inc.
Nichols
Nisenson Consulting
NJ Carpenters Apprentice Training and
Educational Fund
North Shore LIJ Health System
Northbay Energy Services, Inc
PGAL
Philip Rosenau Co., Inc.
Philips Electronics North America Corporation
Phillips & Bacon
Pieper Properties, Inc.
Pieri Architects
Pierson Land Works LLC
Pino Diaz Design Partnership
Pirtle Construction Company
PIVOT Architecture
PlanetReuse Marketplace powered by InvenQuery
Planning Resources Inc.
Plant Solutions, Inc.
Platinum Earth
Plumb architecture
Plumbers Local 1 Trade Education Fund
PNC Financial Services Group
Poole Fire Protection
Populus, LLC
PorterWorks, Inc
Post+Beam
Posty Cards
Powers Home Design
PozziDesign
Prairie State General contractors
Praxis, Building Solutions, LLC
Prendergast Laurel Architects
Primary Integration
Primera Engineers, Ltd.
Principal Real Estate Investors
Processes Unlimited International, Inc.
Professional Janitorial Services
Progressive AE
Project Coordinating Services, LLC
Project Resource Group, LLC
Prometric
Prosser Architects
ProTeam
Protect Environmental
PURETI Inc.
Quaintance-Weaver Restaurants & Hotels
R&R JANITORIAL SERVICE INC
R/R Briggs Inc.
Raimi + Associates
Rand Construction Corporation
Re: Vision Architecture
Seabold Architectural Studio
Sears Gerbo Architecture
Seasonal Energy
Sebesta Blomberg & Associates
Sellen Construction
SEQUIL Systems, Inc.
SERA Architects
Service Employees International Union
ServiceMaster by Kleidosty
ServiceMax Cleaning Systems
Servicon Systems Inc.
SHARETTE
Shaw Consulting Service
Shaw Industries Group, Inc.
Sheridan Associates
Sherwin Williams Co.
Shive-Hattery, Inc.
Shorenstein Realty Services
Sieben Energy
Siemens Industry, Inc., Building Technologies Division
Sierra Club
Signature Systems of Florida
Simon & Associates, Inc.
Simply Sustainable LLC
Site Based Energy
Site Source, llc.
Site Story
Skanska
Skipping Stone
SKS Investments
Sky Air llc.
SKYed, LLC
Sloan
SMACNA of Southern Nevada
Smart Growth America
SMART Management Consulting, LLC
SMARTBIM LLC
Smith Consulting Architects
SmithGroupJJR
Smithlogic, Inc
Sol Developments
SOL VISTA
Solamente Clay Walls, LLC
Solar Design Studio
SolarCity
Solaris LLC
Sustainable Energy Analytics
Sustainable Engineering Group LLC
Sustainable Furnishings Council
Sustainable Learning Systems LLC
Sustainable Options, LLC
Sustainable Performance Solutions LLC
Sustainable Solutions Corporation
Sustainable Solutions LLC
Sustainable Town Concepts
Sustainable Transitions US
Sustainably Built
Sustainably Verdant
Swanke Hayden Connell Architects
Symbioscity
Synergy Green Building Group, Inc.
Syntax Land Design, LLC
SystemWorks LLC
Taitem Engineering, PC
Talcott & Associates
Tax Analytics Group
TBD+ Architects
TBG Architects + Planners
TDC Pacific Properties
Team Plan, Inc.
Technical Group Services, Inc
Telemark, Inc.
Tellabs, Inc.
Tempo Partners
Terracon Consultants, Inc.
Terrapin / Bright Green, LLC
TerraScapes Environmental
Terrastructure Engineering Corporation
Terrazia PC
Teter, LLP
TexEnergy Solutions, Inc
The Agora Group
The Ashkin Group
The Boudreaux Group
The Brickman Group, Ltd.
The Community College of Baltimore County
The Dinerstein Companies
The EcoLogic Studio
The Energy Doctor
The Energy Studio Inc.
The Epsten Group, Inc.
UA Plumbers Local One Trade Education Fund
Unabridged Architecture
Uncommon LLC
Unico Systems
United States Gypsum
United Supply Group of Companies
University of California, Merced
University of Florida
University of Georgia
University of Louisiana, Lafayette School of Architecture & Design
University of Pennsylvania
University of Southern Maine
Urban Engineers, Inc.
Urban Fabrick Design
Urban Green Council
Urban Green, LLC
UrbanBiology LLC
USG Corporation
USGBC Alabama Chapter
USGBC Arizona Chapter
USGBC Arkansas Chapter
USGBC California Central Coast Chapter
USGBC Caribbean Chapter
USGBC Central California Chapter
USGBC Central Florida Chapter
USGBC Central Ohio Chapter
USGBC Central Pennsylvania Chapter
USGBC Central Plains Chapter
USGBC Central Texas Balcones Chapter
USGBC Charlotte Region Chapter
USGBC Chihuahuan Desert Chapter
USGBC Cincinnati Regional Chapter
USGBC Colorado Chapter
USGBC Detroit Chapter
USGBC East Tennessee Chapter
USGBC Florida Capital Region Chapter
USGBC Florida Gulf Coast Chapter
USGBC Georgia Chapter
USGBC Hawaii Chapter
USGBC Heart of Florida Chapter
USGBC Idaho Chapter
USGBC Illinois Chapter
USGBC Indiana Chapter
USGBC Inland Empire Chapter
USGBC Iowa Chapter
Veliz Construction
Venue Solutions Group
Verdant HFC Sustainability Consulting
verde@ParkerProperties
Verdi Workshop
Verdifica
Verdigris Group
Vermont Green Building Network
Vermont Heating & Ventilating Company Inc
Vertegy, an Alberici Enterprise
VERTEX Companies
Vetrazzo, LLC
Vidas Architecture, LLC
Village Builders VT
Vireo Design
Virgin Islands Energy Office
Virginia Beach City Public School
Viridian
Visual Cue Thermal Imaging
Vital SPEC inc
Vornado Realty TrustW.S. Cumby, Inc.
Wallace Roberts & Todd, LLC
WARM Training Center
Waste Management
Watchman Consulting
Watershed
Watkins Architect LTD
WAXIE Sanitary Supply
WCIT Architecture
Weber Thompson
Well Fed Savannah

Always Peachy Clean, Cleaning Services
Ambient Energy
American Architectural Foundation
American Federation of Teachers
American Ground Water Trust
American Lung Association
American Maintenance
American Paper and Supply Company
American Standard Brands
American Sustainable Business Council
Ames + Gough
Ampajen Solutions, LLC
Amvic Inc
AndersonPacific, LLC
Andersson Architecture + Design
Annadel Building Solutions LLC
Antony Stefan Architect, PLLC
Applied Aesthetics Painting Studio
Applied Green Consulting
Applied Solar Energy / SOLEX
Applied Solutions
Arcadia Studio
Architects Hawaii Ltd
Architects, Hanna Gabriel Wells
Architectural Fusion, LLC
Architectural Resources
Arcus Design Group
Armstrong Commercial Ceilings
Arrowstreet
ArtHaus, LLC
Arup
ASERusa
ASP Enterprises, Inc.
Assa Abloy Door Security Solutions
Association of American Geographers
Atelier Ten USA LLC
Atkin Olshin Schade Architects
Atlantic Energy Concepts
Atlantic Irrigation
Atlas Project Support
Autodesk, Inc.
Axiom Sustainable Consulting, LLC
Aye Partners LLC
Aztec Products, Inc.
B Lab
Bachmann Construction
Bridging The Gap
Bright Green Strategies, Inc.
BrightKey Inc.
BrightLine Construction, Inc.
Brightworks Sustainability Advisors
Brion Jeannette Architecture
BriteSol
Brodie & Associates PLLC
Brownstone’s Green Services, Inc.
Brumbaugh & Associates
Brummitt Energy Associates, Inc.
Bruner/Cott & Associates
Building Green Generations
Building Ideas, LLC
Building Knowledge Inc.
BuildingGreen, Inc.
BuildingWise, LLC
BuildingWrx
Bullock Tice Associates, Inc.
Bunker Hill Community College
Bureau Veritas
Burgess Green Facililities Service
Burns & McDonnell Engineering
Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturers
Association (BIFMA)
BWZ Architects
Byrne Electrical Specialists
C.T. Haydock, Landscape Architecture, P.C.
C.W. Brown Inc.
Cadmus Group
Caesars Entertainment Corporation
Cagle Design, Inc.
CalAg LLC
Caldwell Constructors, Inc.
California Polytechnic State University
CALMAC Manufacturing Company
Cameron McCarthy Landscape Architecture & Planning
Campaign for Environmental Literacy
Campbell Coyle Holdings, LLC
Cannon Design
Caragreen
Carbon-Key LLC
Care Design Group, LLC
Career and Technology Education Centers
Carlson Studio Architecture
Carroll Construction
Collaborative Project Consulting
Colliers International
Columbia Forest Products
Columbus Property Management & Development, Inc
Commercial Flooring Distributors
Commissioning & Green Building Solutions, Inc
Commissioning WorCx
Community Design + Architecture
Community Environmental Council
Complete Resources Building & Repair Inc
Composite Wall Systems, LLC
Concept 22 Inc.
Connecticut Green Building Council
ConservAction
Conservation Services Group
Consilience LLC
Construction Specialties, Inc.
Contects LLC
Control Service Company, Inc
Control Technologies, Inc.
Controlled Air Inc
Cooke Douglass Farr Lemons
Cope Architecture Inc.
Corcoran Expositions, Inc.
Cornerstone Design
Corporate Floors Inc
Corporate Image Maintenance
Corporate Sustainability Communications
Corvarys Group
Costa and Rihl Mechanical Contractors
Council of Educational Facility Planners International (CEFPI)
County Line Nurseries, Inc
Courchesne and Associates inc.
Covertech
Craig Kneeland Consulting
Creative Contractors Inc.
Critical Energy Solutions
CrossOver Recruiting
Crossville Incorporated
Crozier Architecture
Cuningham Group Architecture, Inc,
Cushman & Wakefield
Cx Associates, LLC
Cypress Creek Design Inc.
D. Gordon Consulting, Inc.
D.R. Wastchak, LLC
Earth Advantage, Inc
Earth Day New York, Inc.
Earth Design
Earth Ethics, Inc
EarthCraft
EarthSTEPS, LLC
Eastern Air Balance Corporation
Eastham & Associates
Easy to be Green
EBS Consultants
Eco Fundraisers
Eco Interiors
eco7
EcoEnergy Consulting and Supply Corp.
EcoLogic Life
EcoPotential
Ecos Materials and Services
Ecosmith Architecture + Consulting, LLC
Ecosouth Green Building Services
EcoStudio
EcoTech International
EcoUrban Construction
Ecoworks Studio
EDC magazine
Edifice Rx
Edmar
EEA Consulting Engineers
Efficient Energy Advisors, LLC
EHDD Architecture
Ekistics
Elevate
elg Design
Elite Solar Services
Elizabeth Eason Architecture, LLC
Ellen S. Light, AIA
Emerald Cities Collaborative
EMerge Alliance
emersion DESIGN, LLC
Emmer Management Corp
Empower Design Studio
Encore Recycled Granite LLC
Energy & Environmental Solutions
Energy and Sustainable Design Consultants, Inc.
Energy Center of Wisconsin
Energy Coordinating Agency
Energy Efficient Services
Fishbeck, Thompson, Carr & Huber, Inc
Fisher Town Design, Inc.
Fitzmartin Consulting Company
Fletcher-Thompson, Inc.
Flintco, LLC
Fluor
FM Solutions Inc.
Focal Point Communications, Inc
Foliage Design Systems
Forbo Flooring Systems
Forest Stewardship Council US
ForestEthics
Forum Architects, LLC
Forward Thinking Consultants, LLC
Foundation Communities
Frederic H. Dean Architect
Frederick Ward Associates
Freedman Engineering Group
Freeman French Freeman, Inc
Fremont County BOCES
Freshwater Farms, LLC
Frontline Copy
Full Spectrum of New York LLC
Future Engineering & Management, P.C.
FXFOWLE
G2 Gordon + Gordon Architecture LLC
Gaia Development LLC
Garner Development Services
Garrett Smith Ltd
Gary E. Hanes & Associates, LLC
Gavo Communications
GBRI
Generation 3 Development Company, Inc.
Gensler
GHA/Geoffrey Holton and Associates
GHD
Gibbs, Giden, Locher, Turner, & Senet LLP
Gibson Landscape Services, LLC
Global Green USA
Global Platinum Sustainability Consultants, LLC
GMK Associates
Go Germ Free
Go Green Investments
Goby LLC
Goetz Printing Company
GoGreen Buildings
GSD Contracting LLC
Guaranteed Watt Saver Systems, Inc.
Guidon Design
Gulf Geoexchange & Consulting Services, Inc.
GWB Consulting, LLC
H Design Group
H2 Ecodesign
Habitat for Humanity of Ohio
Habitat for Humanity of Sacramento
Habitat for Humanity of the Greater Teton Area
Habitat Studio Architecture
Habitat Studios
Halcom Consulting LLC
Hampton Roads Green Building Council
Hannon Armstrong
Harley Ellis Deveraeux
Harvard University
HAStudio
Haworth, Inc.
Hawtin Jorgensen Architects
HD Supply Inc.
HDR
Healthy Building Network
Healthy Buildings Solutions, LLC
Healthy Schools Campaign
Heapy Engineering
Heffernan Holland Morgan Architecture, P.A.
Heinze Energy and Environmental Management
Helix Architecture + Design
Hellmuth + Bicknese Architects, L.L.C.
Hempfully Green
Henderson Engineers
Hepper Olson Architects
Herman Miller
HGA
HGBC
Higgins Horticultural Services, LLC C
High Plains Architects
Hines
Historic Green
HITT Contracting Inc
HJKessler Associates
HKS Architects
HNTB Architecture
Hoboken Quality of Life Coaltion, Inc.
ISSA
Ithaca College
J M Smith Corp
J T Turner Construction
J W Crouse, Inc.
Jackson Architecture & Consultancy Firm
JAG Engineering Services Inc.
James River Green Building Council
JB Architecture Group
JDM/Structural Engineering, PSC
JE Dunn Construction
Jean Terwilliger, AIA Architect
JEST Properties LLC
JHWDesign
JLG Architects
JMPE Electrical Engineering
Joan Stigliano Interior Planning
Joe Janitor University
Joel Ann Todd Consulting
John D. Kelley, AIA Architect
John Hueber Homes
Johnson Controls Inc.
Jonathan Rose Companies
Jose Morla and Associates
Joslin Construction Consulting
K. Norman Berry Associates Architects
Kahler Slater Inc.
Kariher Daughtry Architects
Karpman Consulting
Kath Williams + Associates
KB Home
KD3 Design Studio, Inc
Keller Williams Realty/Boise
Keller Williams Realty/David Kelman
Kelley Green Consulting
Kelly Green Energy Raters, LLC
Kenerson Associates, Inc.
Kenneth Hahn Architects, Inc.
Kentucky Community and Technical College System
Kidder Mathews
Kirksey Architecture
KJWW Engineering Consultants
Klepper, Hahn & Hyatt
Knoll
KnollTextiles
Knoxville Corrugated Box Company
Madison Environmental Group, LLC
MaGrann Associates
Mahogany Enterprises
Majora Carter Group
Manning Architects
Marion Construction Inc
Marsden Bldg Maintenance, LLC
Martin Riley
Mary Davidge Associates, Inc.
Mary Nolte Designs
Mascaro Construction Co LP
Masland Contract
Masters Building Solutions Inc.
Mathew Davis Landscape Architect, LLC
Maxxon Corporation
MBA Waste Enterprises LLC
MBD Community Housing Crop.
McCool Carlson Green Architects
McCownGordon Construction, LLC
McDonald Building Company, LLC
McKenney’s, Inc.
McKenzie Engineering Co., Inc.
McKinley & Associates
McLelland Architecture
MCM Corp.
McWane, Inc.
Meadowlark Builders
Mechanical Contractors Inc
Mechanical Engineering Consultants
MEI Hotels Incorporated
Mercedes Corbell Design + Architecture
Mercovery Int llc
Meta Brunzema Architect PC
Meta-WEB LLC
Metropolitan Energy Center
Michael E Fowler Consulting Services
Micma Group LLC
Microgrid Energy
Miller Consulting Group, LLC
Miller Sellers Heroux Architects, Inc.
Mindswing Consulting
MinuteBids, Inc.
Miron Construction Co., Inc.
Mithun
MJ Realty Service, PLLC
MMM Design Group.com
Northeast Collaborative Architects
Northeast Green Building Consulting LLC
Norwich University
Norwood Marble & Granite
Nuestra Tierra Realty/Vida Verde y Sustentable
O,R&L Inc.
Oasis Brands Inc
Oberlin College
O’Brien & Company
Office Furniture Dealers Alliance (OFDA)
Ohio Environmental Council
Okapi Architecture
Oklahoma State University – Oklahoma City
OLIN
On Earth Energy Group LLC dba
On Point LLC
ONSITE Design LLC
Optima Engineering
organicARCHITECT
Orlando Science Center
OT9design,LLC
Oystertree Consulting
P2S Engineering
Pace Law School, Land Use Law Center
PacifiCAD
PageSoutherlandPage
Pais Architects, Plc
Palo Santo Designs LLC
Pando Alliance
Pardee Construction, LLC
Pare Corporation
PARSONS
Pathfinder Engineers & Architects LLP
Paul Poirier + Associates Architects
Paul Wermer Sustainability Consulting
PDG Architects
PE INTERNATIONAL Inc.
Pearce Brinkley Cease + Lee, PA
PEG
Penn Lighting
Pennsylvania Paper
Perfect Building Maintenance
Perkins+Will
Perspective Designs
Peter Caradonna Architects
Pfau Long Architecture
REAL Building Consultants, LLC
Real Green Solutions, LLC
Realty Appreciation, LTD
Red Bridge Homes Corp.
Red Eagle Development
Red Feather development Group
Reese Design Studio, LLC
Related Companies
Relocation Management Solutions, Inc.
Renewable Choice Energy
RESNET
Resonate LLC
Resource Dynamics
Reusch Design Services, LLC
Revolution Recovery, LLC
Reynolds Construction Management
RGA Landscape Architects Inc.
Richard Matsunaga & Associates
Riesterer Law & Consulting, Ltd.
Rivas Consultants
RJC Architects, Inc.
RLF Architects
RLS Design Group
RLTurner Corporation
RM Green Environmental
RMA Architects, PSC
Rob Wellington Quigley, FAIA
Robert Dye, LLC
Robert Prud’homme Design, LLC
Rose Garden Arena/Portland Trail Blazers
Rowe Fenestration
Rudolph and Sletten
Ruskin Moscou Faltischek, P.C.
S & L Development, S. E.
SAGE Electrochromics
Sage Energy
Samba Energy
Samsel Architects, P.A.
Savannah Tree Foundation
Schaefer Construction Company, Inc.
Schilling Supply Company
Schmidt Associates Inc.
Schneider-Electric
SCIenergy
SCNZ Architects LLC
Scoles Floorshine Industries
Somfy Systems
Sonoma Mountain Village
Sonoran
Sota Construction Services, Inc.
South Coast Solar, LLC
Southface Energy Institute
Southwest Green Building Center
Space Coast Energy Consortium
SparkleTeam
Specialized Engineering Solutions
Specifications Consultants
Sphere E LLC
Spillman Farmer Architects
Square Care
SRI Quality System Registrar
SRP Sales Corporation
SSA Landscape Architects, Inc.
SSM Industries
SSOE Group
SSRCx
Staengl Engineering
STAR Communities
States Industries LLC
Sterling Planet
Steven Winter Associates, Inc.
Stewart Engineering Consultants
Stewart Perry Company
Stockton and Shirk Interior Designs
StopWaste of Alameda County
Stramit USA
StrategicGreen, LLC
Structure Tone, Inc.
Stuart D. Kaplow, P.A.
STUDIO dnk
Studio E
Studio Southwest Architects, Inc.
Suncoast Community Capital
Superior Mechanical Services, Inc.
Superior Site Work Inc.
Supply Management International, LLC
sustain ABLE, Ltd.
Sustainability Dashboard Tools
Sustainable Building Partners
Sustainable Building Solutions
Sustainable Design Consulting, LLC
Sustainable Documentation LLC
The FWA Group
The Green Engineer, LLP
The Hoboken Brownstone Company
The Home Inspector General Inc
The Jordan institute
The Kobet Collaborative
The Lathrop Company
The Levy Company, APC
The Living Wall Company, LLC
The Marano Group, Inc
The Oak Hill Fund
The Ross Group
The Spinnaker Group
The Sustainable Design Group, LLC
The Walsh Company
The Weidt Group
ThermaCote, Inc.
ThinkStreet
Tholen Sustainability Group
Thompson Building Energy Solutions, LLC
Thompson Naylor Architects
Thornton Tomasetti
Threefold Studio
Tishman Speyer
Titan America, LLC
TJH Energy Consulting
TLC Engineering for Architecture
TMC, PC Architects & Planners
TOMe LLC
Toto USA
Tower Tech, Inc
Townsend Poole Design Group
TR Edwards Construction, LLC
Transwestern
Trinity Real Estate
Trinity University, Engineering and Science Department
Triple Green Building Group, LLC
TriStar Commissioning, Inc.
TruexCullins Architecture and Interior Design
TTS Environmental Consulting
Turner Foundation
Turner Real Estate
Turning Leaf Construction
tvsdesign
Two Trails, Inc.
U.S. Eco Logic
USGBC Kentucky Chapter
USGBC Long Island Chapter
USGBC Los Angeles Chapter
USGBC Louisiana Chapter
USGBC Maine Chapter
USGBC Maryland Chapter
USGBC Massachusetts Chapter
USGBC Memphis Regional Chapter
USGBC Middle Tennessee Chapter
USGBC Minnesota Chapter
USGBC Mississippi Chapter
USGBC Missouri Gateway Chapter
USGBC Montana Chapter
USGBC National Capital Region Chapter
USGBC Nebraska Flatwater Chapter
USGBC Nevada Chapter
USGBC New Hampshire Chapter
USGBC New Jersey Chapter
USGBC New Mexico Chapter
USGBC New York Upstate Chapter
USGBC North Carolina Triangle Chapter
USGBC North Dakota Provisional Chapter
USGBC North Florida Chapter
USGBC North Texas Chapter
USGBC Northeast Ohio Chapter
USGBC Northern California Chapter
USGBC Northern Gulf Coast Chapter
USGBC Northwest Ohio Chapter
USGBC Oklahoma Chapter
USGBC Orange County Chapter
USGBC Piedmont Triad NC Chapter
USGBC Redwood Empire Chapter
USGBC Rhode Island Chapter
USGBC San Diego Chapter
USGBC South Carolina Chapter
USGBC South Dakota Chapter
USGBC South Florida Chapter
USGBC Texas Gulf Coast Chapter
USGBC Utah Chapter
USGBC West Michigan Chapter
USGBC West Virginia Chapter
USGBC Wyoming Chapter
UTC Climate, Controls & Security
VandeMusser Design, PLLC
Vanderbilt Financial Group
Vegas PBS
Western Michigan University
WGK Architect
Wharton Smith, Inc
White + GreenSpec
Whited planning + design
Wiencek + Associates Architects + Planners, DC LLP
Wight & Company
William R. White, Architect
William S. Lyons AIA Architect
Wilmot, Inc.
Wisconsin Green Building Alliance
WNC Green Building Council
Woodbury Green Building Consultation
Woolpert Inc.
World Wildlife Fund
Wright Builders, Inc
WSV Architects
WV GreenWorks
Wylie Consulting Engineers
Yager-Consulting
Yoredale Consulting
YouthBuild USA
YR&G
YZNRG
Zar Group, Inc.
ZeroNet Energy Solutions
Zoetic Design LLC
Zyscovich Architects

via http://www.4Clicks.com – Premier cost estimating and project management software for efficient construction project delivery – JOC – Job Order Contracting, SABER, IDIQ, IPD, SATOC, MATOC, MACC, POCA, BOA.

Yet Another Sustainability Group! American High-Performance and Buildings Coalition

We need action, and the implementation of robust facility life-cycle management practices… NOT more groups!

Yet another new coalition has been formed to guide green building standards and support performance-based building codes, standards and rating systems developed in conformance with the American National Standards Institute.

In the meantime, the GSA ( US General Service Administration ) is currently reviewing the use of green building standards by the federal government, and the US Green Building Council (USGBC) is revising its Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design – LEED – green building rating system.

Members of the latest group include the US Chamber of Commerce, the National Association of Manufacturers, the American Supply Association, the Vinyl Institute, the Centre for Environmental Innovation in Roofing and others, the new coalition is said to “enjoy broad based support.”

46453858-Asset-Lifecyle-Model[1]

Facility Life-cycle Management Framework

LEED, Sustainability, and the Federal Government – Report Card – 2012

The Federal agency scorecard relative to 2009 Executive Order the government to meet energy, water, pollution and waste reduction targets is now available.
Green, yellow or red values were assigned for seven (7) metrics, with no overall score.Oddly the Department of Energy scored to “reds” for poor reductions in fleet petroleum use and poor progress in developing sustainable buildings.

The EPA and GSA score all greens… which is curious at best.  The GSA, for example doesn’t even have a centralized, efficient project delivery method for facility renovation, repair, sustainability and minor new construction projects, despite the fact these processes are readily available.  Further the GSA has yet to get control of its inventory and related efficient use of space.

The Department of Homeland Security and Office of Personnel Management scored poorly, while the Army Corps of Engineers curiously scored the worst, with red marks in all categories.  The latter, in theory, has the technical expertise to effect change, put apparently continues to suffer from management issues.

The Scorecards:

Develop Agency Sustainability Plans

Under Executive Order 13514, Federal agencies are required to develop, implement, and annually update a Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan that describes how they will achieve the environmental, economic, and energy goals mandated in the Executive Order. Agencies must prioritize actions based on a positive return on investment for the American taxpayer. The plans are updated each year, reviewed by CEQ and approved by OMB to ensure that actions are carefully aligned with resources, Administration priorities, and the Federal budget process.

In furtherance of the Administration’s commitment to transparency, the annual Sustainability Plans are publically accessible. Each year after the plans are approved, the agencies post them on their websites. On October 31st, 2011 the agencies released their second annual Sustainability Plans.

Click on the links below to view individual agency OMB Sustainability/Energy Scorecards for 2011:

 
Department of Agriculture Department of the Interior
Department of Commerce Department of Justice
Department of Defense Department of Labor
Department of Homeland Security National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Department of Education National Archives and Records Administration
Department of Energy Office of Personnel Management
Environmental Protection Agency Smithsonian Institution
General Services Administration Social Security Administration
Department of Health and Human Services Department of State
Department of Housing and Urban Development Department of Transportation
Department of the Treasury U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Tennessee Valley Authority Department of Veterans Affairs
United States Postal Service (Not Available at this Time)

via http://www.4Clicks.com – Premier  cost estimating and project management software for efficient facility renovation, repair, sustainability, and minor new construction project – JOC – Job Order Contracting – SABER, IDIQ, SATOC, MATOC, MACC, POCA, BOA ….

Now if all the Departments and Agencies would realize that life-cycle facility management is the path to sustainability…

LEED Abandoned by DOD?

In the recent past, all new DOD construction projects were required to meet the LEED Silver or an equivalent standard and/or to comply with the five principles of High Performance Sustainable Buildings. This year a new construction code for high-performance, sustainable buildings, is expected that will govern all new construction, major renovations and leased space acquisition. This new code, based heavily on ASHRAE 189.1, will accelerate DoD’s move toward efficient, sustainable facilities that cost less to own and operate, leave a smaller environmental footprint and improve employee productivity.

Testimony by  Dr. Dorothy Robyn Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Installations and Environment) before the House Appropriations Committee Subcommittee on Military Construction, Veterans Affairs and Related Agencies on March 7, 2012 to present the President’s Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 budget request for the Department of Defense programs to support installations, facility energy and the
environment covered four topics:

international and domestic basing, including the Department’s request for authorization of two new rounds of Base Realignment and Closure;

management of the built environment, including the programs that support military construction,
family housing,  sustainment and recapitalization;

strategy for managing facility energy to reduce costs and improve installation energy security;

and  management of the natural environment, including the programs that support environmental conservation and restoration, environmental technology and compatible development.

Relative to LEED it is important to note that  Congress has established a requirement to report  the return on investment from using consensus standards such as ASHRAE 189.1.  This is important to note as with more than 300,000 buildings and 2.2 billion square feet of building space, the DoD has a physical infrastructure footprint three times that of Wal-Mart and six times that of GSA.  The DOD’s  energy bill is approximately $4 billion annually—roughly 10 percent of what DoD spends to maintain its installation infrastructure ($40 billion).  Additionally facility energy represents nearly 40 percent of DOD greenhouse gas emissions.

Full Testimony

via http://www.4Clicks.com – Premier software for efficient cost estimating and efficient construction project delivery – JOC, SABER, SATOC, IPD, IDIQ, MATOC, MACC, POCA, BOA.  Featuring exclusive 400,000 line item representation of RSMeans Cost Data, visual estimating, contract management, and document management…all in one application.

Beyond Green – High Performance Buildings, BIM, and Life-cycle Facility Management

Let’s face it, LEED is a great marketing tool, but NOT the solution.  “Kudos” to LEED for building awareness  and  addressing the need to focus upon sustainability of the built environment!

That said,  high performance buildings should not cost significantly more that “typical construction”.  The paperwork and methods involved in LEED add superfluous costs and will not necessarily yield optimal results.   I have entered far too many LEED certified  buildings with massive glass multi-story areas and other clearly “non-sustainable” items.  There should be little to no cost premium for a sustainable building.   Even now, studies show that a 2% premium is all that is required.   I would further argue that no premium is really need should basic standards be a requirement and market efficiencies take hold.  Also, over the life-cycle of a building, a sustainable, high-performance building will win on ROI every time as only 10%-20% of life-cycle cost go into construction, vs. operations, maintenance, etc.

Efficient ongoing life-cycle management of facilities is the key to sustainability.   It is probable that many, if not most LEED buildings constructed are no longer meeting their design goals.  Why?  They are simply not being monitored maintained on a proactive life-cycle basis.  Why not?   The culture of our industry and awareness of the true meaning of BIM need dramatic if/not disruptive change and  improvement.

BIM is the life-cycle management of the built environment supported by technology… not pretty 3D pictures that don’t link to value knowledge domains.   Further, collaboration is the key to BIM, and collaboration is dictated by AEC delivery methods.  Traditional delivery methods such as design-bid-build (DBB) and even attempts at improving it such as design-build (DB) and construction manager at risk (CMAR) are flawed as they inevitably pit some of the key parties involved against one another.

Integrated project delivery (IPD) and job order contracting (JOC), the latter “IPD-lite” specifically for renovation, repair, sustainability, and minor construction projects, are critical to BIM and to altering the inefficient and adversarial processes that dominant our industry today.

BIMF - A Framework for BIM

High Performance Building Legislation – 2010 – Cities and Town

via http://www.4clicks.com – premier cost estimating and project management software for facility renovation, repair, and sustainability projects.

 

City and Town Governments continue to push legislation requiring high performance buildings.

-1- Ord. 2010-42Presented by:   The ManagerIntroduced:

Drafted by:

J.W. HartleORDINANCE OF THE CITY AND BOROUGH OF JUNEAU, ALASKASerial No. 2010-42An  Ordinance  Amending  the  Land  Use  Code  To  RequireConstruction and Renovation of Municipal Public Facilities toMeet a Sustainable Building Standard.  WHEREAS, the City and Borough anticipates that it will be facing unprecedentedincreases in fuel and electricity rates in the future; andWHEREAS, in the United States, buildings account for 12.2 percent of freshwateruse, 38 percent of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, 40 percent of material use, and 39percent of energy use; andWHEREAS,  the  City  and  Borough  desires  to  reduce  it’s  building  operating  andmaintenance costs, provide a healthy and productive indoor work environment for itsemployees and the public, promote the community’s ongoing economic vitality, andsupport energy efficiency; andWHEREAS, the City and Borough recognizes that the practice of sustainability, asit relates to buildings, is the use of key resources like energy, water, materials and landin a more efficient manner than simply constructing buildings to code; and1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526-2- Ord. 2010-42WHEREAS,  building  sustainability  creates  healthier  work,  learning,  and  livingenvironments  with  more  natural  light  and  cleaner  air,  contributing  to  improvedemployee and student health, comfort, and productivity; andWHEREAS, the LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) RatingSystem  is  a  third-party  certification  system  developed  by  the  United  States  GreenBuilding Council.  This system quantifies sustainable design, and awards rankingsbased on achievement; andWHEREAS, these third-party certification systems are not expected to significantlyimpact CBJ staffing; andWHEREAS, government is ultimately responsible for leading by example and settinga community standard for the sustainable planning, design, construction, renovationand   operation   of   buildings   to   support   economic,   social,   and   environmentalsustainability.NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT ENACTED BY THE ASSEMBLY OF THE CITY AND BOROUGH OFJUNEAU, ALASKA:Section 1.   Classification. This ordinance is of a general and permanent natureand shall become a part of the City and Borough Code.//////1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526-3- Ord. 2010-42Section 2.   Amendment  of  Chapter.    CBJ  49.35  Public  Improvements, isamended  to  add  a  new  section,  CBJ  49.35.800  Sustainable  building  standards  forconstruction and renovation of buildings, to read:49.35.800 Sustainable building standards for construction and renovation ofbuildings.(a)  New construction and renovation of existing buildings and facilities  by the Cityand Borough.  The City and Borough shall construct and renovate its public facilitiesand buildings to sustainable building standards through the use of the U.S. GreenBuilding Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) ratingsystem, and shall be responsible for ensuring that public facilities and buildings meetthe requirements as set out in this section and are operated accordingly.(1)  LEED shall be the quantitative measurement for how well standards aremet;(2)  All public facilities and buildings utilizing municipal funds and costingover  $5,000,000  (either  general  or  bonded),  including  new  privateconstruction  for  Municipal  leasing  or  renting,  shall  be  designed  andconstructed in such a fashion as to achieve a minimum level of LEEDCertified;(A)  The City and Borough Engineering Department shall determine ifattainment of specific LEED credits will be required within the creditspursued  for  LEED  Certification.    These  required  credits  shall  bedocumented in CBJ policy and shall be reviewed and updated each1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526-4- Ord. 2010-42time a new version of the LEED standard is issued.  Such update shalloccur within three months of the issuance of a new LEED standard.(b)  Application.  The sustainable building standards for municipal buildings andfacilities,  including  but  not  limited  to,  the  Juneau  School  District,  the  JuneauInternational  Airport,  and  Bartlett  Regional  Hospital,  shall  apply  to  facilities  andbuildings where the principal use is regularly occupied space, including, but not limitedto, buildings occupied for office, retail, classroom, healthcare, or assembly purposes.(1)  As  used  in  this  section,  occupied  means  a  facility  or  building  whoseprimary  purpose  is  for  people  to  work,  assemble,  or  intend  to  remainwithin  to  perform  functions  (other  than  routine  maintenance)  of  theprincipal use of the building.  Industrial facilities, such as maintenance,warehouse, and vehicle storage, are excluded from this section.Section 3.   Exception  Procedure.    If  the  Manager,  with  the  consent  of theAssembly, after consideration of the recommendation of the Sustainability Commission,determines that it would not be economically feasible to satisfy the prerequisites forLEED Certification in the case of a specific project, that project shall be exempt fromthe requirement for LEED Certification.////////////1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526-5- Ord. 2010-42Section 4.   Effective Date.  This ordinance shall become effective on July 1,2011.  Existing projects with fully executed contracts for design services on the effectivedate shall be exempt from this ordinance.Adopted this      day of                2010.____________________________Bruce Botelho, MayorAttest:____________________________Laurie J. Sica, Clerk

 

New LEED for Existing Buildings – LEED EB Draft 2010

IP CREDIT:

INTEGRATED PROCESS

This credit applies to:

Existing Buildings: Operations & Maintenance

EB:O&M Schools

EB:O&M Retail

EB:O&M Data Centers

EB:O&M Hospitality

Intent

Develop an early understanding of the relationships between technical systems, natural systems and occupants within a building project, its site, its context, and its intended use.  Engage all key project team members for the purpose of making cost- and environmentally-effective integrated decisions throughout the design and construction process.

Requirements

EBOM, SCHOOLS, RETAIL, DATA CENTERS, HOSPITALITY

Demonstrate that key systems interactions are explored and analyzed in a way that informs basic building renovation/reconfiguration, envelope modifications, site-related modifications, technical systems operations, and maintenance decisions while determining EBOM credits to pursue, by implementing the following:

Water Synergies: (x points) Develop an implementation plan (roadmap) that schedules tasks and activities to identify and analyze cost and performance synergies between systems relative to water use and water quality. This analysis must identify interactions between no less than 5 credits across no less than three credit categories (SS, WE, EA, MR, IEQ). Document projected cost and performance benefits for at least 8 years of future operations relative to the benchmarks established for each of the germane credits.  AND  Implement the above Water Synergies Plan over the performance period (no less than 2 years) and document resultant quantified cost and performance benefits by utilizing ongoing performance data and integrated cost bundling to analyze the effectiveness of the plan.

Energy Synergies: (x points) Develop an implementation plan (roadmap) that schedules tasks and activities to identify and analyze cost and performance synergies between systems relative to energy use. This analysis must identify interactions between no less than 5 credits across no less than three credit categories (SS, WE, EA, MR, IEQ). Document projected cost and performance benefits for at least 8 years of future operations relative to the benchmarks established for each of the germane credits.   AND  Implement the above Energy Synergies Plan over the performance period (no less than 2 years) and document resultant quantified cost and performance benefits by utilizing ongoing performance data and integrated cost bundling to analyze the effectiveness of the plan.

via http://www.4clicks.com – Premier Construction Cost Estimating and Project Management Software for Facility Renovation, Repair, and Sustainability – JOC, SABER, SATOC, MATOC, IDIQ ….

DOE to Impose Limits Regarding Use of Fossil Fuels – For New Government Buildings

Summary

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is publishing this notice of proposed rulemaking to implement provisions of the Energy Conservation and Production Act, as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 that require DOE to establish revised performance standards for the construction of all new Federal buildings, including commercial buildings, multi-family high-rise residential buildings and low-rise residential buildings. The provisions in this notice of proposed rulemaking specifically address the reduction of fossil fuel-generated energy consumption in new Federal buildings and Federal buildings undergoing major renovations. This proposed rule also addresses how agencies other than the General Services Administration (GSA) may petition DOE for a downward adjustment of the requirements if they believe meeting the full fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction level is technically impracticable in light of the specified functional needs for that building.Show citation box

Unified Agenda

Timeline

1 action from August 2010

  • August 2010
    • NPRM

Table of Contents

Tables

DATES: Back to Top

Public comments on this proposed rule will be accepted until December 14, 2010. DOE will hold a public meeting on Friday, November 12, 2010, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., in Washington, DC. Interested persons who wish to speak at the public meeting should e-mail or phone Ms. Brenda Edwards by 4:30 p.m., Friday, October 29, 2010. DOE must receive a signed original and an electronic copy of statements to be given at the public meeting before 4 p.m., Friday, November 5, 2010. Additionally, DOE plans to conduct the public meeting via webinar. You can attend the public meeting via webinar, and registration information, participant instructions, and information about the capabilities available to webinar participants will be published on the Building Energy Codes Program’s Web site http://www.energycodes.gov/events/doe/fossil_fuels.stm, and/or on the Federal Energy Management Program’s Web site http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/regulations/notices_rules.html. Participants are responsible for ensuring their systems are compatible with the webinar software.Show citation box

DOE will accept comments, data, and information regarding this notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR) before and after the public meeting, but no later than December 14, 2010. If you submit information that you believe to be exempt by law from public disclosure, you should submit one complete copy, as well as one copy from which the information claimed to be exempt by law from public disclosure has been deleted. DOE is responsible for the final determination with regard to disclosure or nondisclosure of the information and for treating it accordingly under the DOE Freedom of Information regulations at 10 CFR 1004.11.Show citation box

ADDRESSES: Back to Top

You may submit comments, identified by any of the following methods:Show citation box

  • Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov. Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Show citation box
  • E-mail: FossilFuelReduct-2010-STD-0031@ee.doe.gov. Include EERE-2010-BT-STD-0031 and/or RIN 1904-AB96 in the subject line of the message. Show citation box
  • Postal Mail: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings EERE-2010-BT-STD-0031 and/or RIN 1904-AB96, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Telephone: (202) 586-9138. Please submit one signed paper original. Due to the potential delays in DOE’s receipt and processing of mail sent through the U.S. Postal Service, DOE encourages respondents to submit comments electronically to ensure timely receipt. Show citation box
  • Hand Delivery/Courier: Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Show citation box

Instructions: All submissions must include the agency name and docket number or Regulatory Information Number (RIN) for this rulemaking.Show citation box

Docket: For access to the docket to read background documents or comments received by DOE, go to the U.S. Department of Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 5E-080 (Resource Room of the Federal Energy Management Program), 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC, (202) 586-9127, between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. Please call Brenda Edwards at (202) 586-2945 for additional information regarding visiting the Resource Room.Show citation box

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Back to Top

Margo Appel, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121, (202) 586-9495, e-mail: margo.appel@hq.doe.gov, or Ami Grace-Tardy, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of the General Counsel, Forrestal Building, GC-71, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585, (202) 586-5709, e-mail: ami.grace-tardy@hq.doe.gov.Show citation box

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Back to Top

Show citation box

I. BackgroundShow citation box

II. Discussion of Proposed RuleShow citation box

III. Reference ResourcesShow citation box

IV. Regulatory ReviewShow citation box

V. Approval by the Office of the SecretaryShow citation box

I. Background Back to Top

Section 305 of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) established energy conservation requirements for Federal buildings (42 U.S.C. 6834). Section 433(a) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Pub. L. 110-140) (EISA) amended section 305 of ECPA and directed that DOE establish regulations that revised Federal building energy efficiency performance standards to require that “[f]or new Federal buildings and Federal buildings undergoing major renovations, with respect to which the Administrator of General Services is required to transmit a prospectus to Congress under section 3307 of Title 40, in the case of public buildings (as defined in section 3301 of Title 40), or of at least $2,500,000 in costs adjusted annually for inflation for other buildings,” the “buildings shall be designed so that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the buildings is reduced as compared with such energy consumption by a similar building in fiscal year 2003 (as measured by Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey or Residential Energy Consumption Survey data from the Energy Information Agency), by” specific graduated percentages ranging from 55 percent to 100 percent over a specified period of time beginning in fiscal year 2010 and ending in fiscal year 2030 (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(I)).Show citation box

In addition, ECPA as amended by EISA permits DOE upon petition by an agency subject to the statutory requirements, to adjust the applicable numeric reduction requirement “downward with respect to a specific building, if the head of the agency designing the building certifies in writing that meeting such requirement would be technically impracticable in light of the agency’s specified functional needs for that building and” DOE concurs with the agency’s conclusion (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(II)). ECPA as amended by EISA further directs that such an adjustment does not apply to GSA (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(II)).Show citation box

Today’s proposed rule on fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction proposes to amend certain portions of 10 CFR parts 433 and 435, the regulations governing energy efficiency in Federal buildings. Additionally, DOE published a proposed rule on sustainable design standards for new Federal buildings on May 28, 2010 (75 FR 29933), which also proposes to amend certain portions of 10 CFR parts 433 and 435. DOE has already addressed some elements of today’s proposed rule in the sustainable design proposed rule. Specifically, overlapping elements of both proposed rules are the definitions of “new Federal building” and “major renovation.” The proposed regulatory text in today’s document would amend the current regulatory text, without consideration of amendments that may result from the sustainable design rulemaking. If and when these two rulemakings are finalized, DOE will coordinate the final regulatory text between the two rulemakings.Show citation box

In addition, there are a number of statutory provisions, regulations, Executive Orders, and memorandums of understanding that govern the construction of new Federal buildings or major renovations to Federal buildings. These include, but are not limited to, Executive Order 13514 (74 FR 52117); sections 323, 433, 434, and 523 of the Energy Independence and Security Act 2007 (Pub. L. 110-140); Executive Order 13423 (72 FR 3919); the Guiding Principles for Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings originally adopted in the Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings MOU; section 109 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. L. 109-58); and 10 CFR parts 433 and 435. If made final, the proposed rule would not supersede other applicable legal requirements for new Federal buildings or major renovations to Federal buildings.Show citation box

II. Discussion of Proposed Rule Back to Top

A. Overview

The proposed rule would establish revised Federal building energy efficiency performance standards for achieving the reductions in fossil fuel-generated energy consumption as listed in ECPA as amended by EISA (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(I)). The proposed rule would also clarify which building types are covered by the standards and which building types are excluded. The proposed rule establishes a methodology for compliance, including calculation of the maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption based on building type, and how fossil fuel consumption resulting from electricity usage should be considered. Today’s proposed rule would also establish procedures for agencies to petition DOE for downward adjustment of the applicable percentage reduction requirement.Show citation box

B. Scope of Proposed Rule

Section 305(a)(3) of ECPA as amended directs DOE to establish regulations that require fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions be applied to a subset of new Federal buildings and Federal buildings undergoing major renovation. (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(I)) A building is in the subset of new Federal buildings and Federal buildings undergoing major renovations if the building is:Show citation box

  • A public building as defined in 40 U.S.C. 3301, [1] for which the Administrator of General Services is required to transmit a prospectus to Congress under U.S.C. Title 40, section 3307, orShow citation box
  • A building and major renovation for which the construction project cost is at least $2,500,000 (in 2007 dollars, adjusted for inflation using U.S. Department of Labor Producer Price Indexes).Show citation box

DOE notes that the definition of “Federal building” was changed in statute, and DOE is addressing that definition and the definition of “new Federal building” in a separate rulemaking. (42 U.S.C. 6832(6)) The statute now defines “Federal building” to mean any building to be constructed by, or for the use of, any Federal agency. In the separate rulemaking DOE is proposing that the term include buildings built for the purpose of being leased by a Federal agency, and privatized military housing.Show citation box

For the purpose of this rulemaking, DOE would consider public buildings to include buildings leased by a Federal agency. DOE recognizes, however, that a Federal agency may not have control over the design of a renovation of a leased building in which the agency is a tenant. For the purpose of this rulemaking, DOE considers major renovations to be limited to those renovations for which a Federal agency has significant control over the renovation design.Show citation box

Additionally, DOE would consider construction project costs to be those costs for which the agency currently has funding. That is, the $2,500,000 threshold would not include renovation activities that potentially could occur in future fiscal years. Generally, construction project costs include design, permitting, construction (materials and labor), and commissioning costs. Land and legal costs would generally not be included. DOE requests comment on this definition of construction costs.Show citation box

DOE is proposing that Federal agencies would be required to comply with the final rule starting one year from the date of the final rule. As proposed, covered buildings for which design for construction begins on or after that effective date must meet the requirements established in this rule. The one year period would provide Federal agencies sufficient time to revise new building designs prior to the start of construction and would be consistent with that the lead time provided for the energy efficiency performance standards for the construction of all new Federal buildings.Show citation box

C. Fiscal Year Percentage Reductions

Section 305 of ECPA as amended by EISA mandates that buildings subject to this proposed rule be designed to reduce fossil fuel-generated energy consumption by 55 percent beginning in fiscal year 2010, 65 percent beginning in fiscal year 2015, 80 percent beginning in fiscal year 2020, 90 percent beginning in fiscal year 2025, and 100 percent beginning in fiscal year 2030 (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(I)). DOE interprets this table in the statute to mean that any building whose design for construction begins in the fiscal year specified in the statute must be designed to achieve the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions for that fiscal year. DOE welcomes comments on this interpretation. DOE interprets the fiscal years listed in the statute as spans of years for which the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions would apply. For instance, the applicable percentage reduction for fiscal year 2010 would apply for the time span of fiscal year 2010 through fiscal year 2014. The applicable percentage reduction for fiscal year 2015 would apply for the time span of fiscal year 2015 through fiscal year 2019, and so on. DOE welcomes comments on this interpretation. Congress directed DOE to establish a rule addressing these fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions beginning in fiscal year 2010. DOE believes that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions do not apply to Federal agencies until the regulations implementing the reductions are finalized. Today’s proposed rule would apply to buildings for which design for construction begins at least one year after the final rule is issued.Show citation box

D. Methodology To Determine Compliance

Section 305 of ECPA as amended by EISA in part requires that the buildings that are the subject of today’s proposed rule be designed so that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the buildings is reduced, as compared with such energy consumption by a similar building in fiscal year 2003 (as measured by Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey or Residential Energy Consumption Survey data from the Energy Information Agency), by the percentages specified in Section 305 of ECPA. (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(I)).Show citation box

Determine Baseline Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption of Similar Building

To determine whether a building meets the numeric fossil fuel reduction requirements specified by ECPA as amended by EISA, it is necessary to establish a baseline against which the reductions can be measured. For purposes of this proposed rulemaking, the statute establishes the baseline to be energy consumption data from Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) for commercial buildings and Residential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for residential buildings. The CBECS and RECS data, which can be found at http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/contents.html and at http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/contents.html, are based on actual reported energy use over a large sample of buildings, normalized for size to thousands of British thermal units per square foot of floor space (kBtu/ft [2] ).Show citation box

ECPA as amended by EISA requires that the buildings subject to this proposed rule be designed so that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the buildings is reduced as compared with energy consumption data of a similar building in fiscal year 2003 as measured by CBECS or RECS (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(I)). The limited number of buildings surveyed by CBECS and RECS data does not always allow for a direct estimate of building energy use by climate zone and building type because there are only a few surveyed buildings that fit into some building type/climate zone groups. DOE believes, however, that a climate adjustment is necessary to provide reasonable baselines. Therefore, DOE is developing fossil fuel-generated energy requirements based on building type using CBECS or RECS data, and then applying a climate adjustment using the climate zones defined in the baseline energy efficiency standards at 10 CFR parts 433 and 435. This ensures that new Federal buildings will have to achieve reductions commensurate to a baseline appropriate for their respective climate zone, rather than to a national average that does not account for the impacts of the local climate on the energy use of a specific building. DOE solicits comment on the best technique for calculating the climate adjustment for the different building types.Show citation box

Note that ECPA as amended by EISA makes no distinction between fossil fuels such as natural gas, petroleum, and coal for purposes of the required fossil fuel-generated reductions addressed in today’s rule. DOE recognizes that some fossil fuels have higher CO 2 emission factors than other fossil fuels, with coal being the highest and natural gas being the lowest. While the statute does not specifically direct DOE to consider variation in fossil fuels for purposes of this rulemaking, it does not prohibit DOE from doing so. With this in mind, DOE seeks public comment on whether all fossil fuels should be treated equally or whether each should be treated differently based on CO 2 emission factors or some other factor.Show citation box

Commercial Buildings Baseline—CBECS

ECPA as amended by EISA requires that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of new Federal buildings and Federal buildings undergoing major renovations be compared to that of similar buildings in fiscal year 2003 as measured by CBECS or RECS data (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(I)). The most recent available CBECS data is from a CBECS survey that was conducted in 2003.Show citation box

As discussed in the previous section, for purposes of establishing a baseline, DOE is developing a baseline based on building type, as defined by CBECS, with a climate adjustment as discussed previously. In the CBECS data, Column G of the following table, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/2003set9/2003excel/c3.xls, lists the energy use per square foot of various groups of buildings. Note that in CBECS documents, the phrases building type and principal building activity are used interchangeably. For the sake of consistency, this document only uses the phrase building type. Show citation box

It should be noted that DOE has commissioned an analysis of the 2003 CBECS data by building type and climate zone, and the results may be found in the report Methodology for Modeling Building Energy Performance Across the Commercial Sector by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL/TP-550-41956 2008) at http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/commercial_initiative/energy_use_intensity_targets.pdf. Examination of Table 4 in the analysis DOE commissioned indicates the insufficient sample size of the CBECS data when both building type and climate zone are used to characterize building energy consumption. DOE’s analysis produced often erratic and large variation in kBtu/ft [2] by building type across the different climate zones and even across similar climate zones, indicating an insufficient sample size. For this reason, DOE is performing additional analysis and processing of the CBECS data with the goal of producing CBECS-based requirements by building type and climate zone, with the climate zones as defined in the baseline standard for 10 CFR part 433 (ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004).Show citation box

One issue that arises with the use of this CBECS data is what to do with buildings that are split into multiple building types. It is quite common to find buildings that are a combination of warehouse and office, or warehouse and retail, or education and office, or laboratory and office, or some other combination of building types. Today’s proposed rule will offer agencies the option to perform a building area-weighted average in order to determine the appropriate baseline level of fossil fuel-generated energy consumption. This process is described in 10 CFR 433.4(e) of the proposed rule.Show citation box

CBECS does not provide data on total fossil fuel-generated energy consumption in buildings. However, fossil fuel-generated energy consumption can be calculated from CBECS data by using the following equation:Show citation box

Fossil fuel-generated energy consumption = Direct consumption of fossil fuels in the building plus the amount of electrical energy consumption that is generated from fossil fuelsShow citation box

The 2003 CBECS lists direct consumption of fossil fuels in Table C1 (http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/2003set9/2003excel/c1.xls) in columns labeled natural gas and fuel oil. The 2003 CBECS also identifies both the primary electrical energy, which is the total energy used to generate and transmit electricity to a building, and the energy content of the electricity consumed in the building. In CBECS energy consumption data, the primary electrical energy required to generate and transmit electricity to the point of use in a building is roughly three times the energy content of the electricity itself. The fraction of electricity generated from fossil fuels on a nationwide basis, referred to in this document as the fossil fuel generation ratio, is calculated from data in Table 2.1 of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) 2008 Electric Power Annual Report (http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat2p1.html) by summing the electric generation from coal, petroleum, natural gas, and other gases (derived from fossil fuels) and then dividing by the total electric generation. The fossil fuel generation ratio changes each year. Because ECPA as amended by EISA requires that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption in new buildings and those undergoing major renovations be compared to that of similar buildings in fiscal year 2003, the 2003 fossil fuel generation ratio must be used in order to calculate the baseline fossil fuel-generated energy consumption levels. For 2003, the fossil fuel generation ratio was 0.71, meaning that about 71% of all electricity in the United States is generated from fossil fuels.Show citation box

The approach taken in today’s rulemaking to estimate the fossil fuel consumption associated with electricity consumption applies the national average contribution of fossil fuel to electricity generation. This approach would result in reductions in electricity consumption being treated the same across all geographic areas, and would not reflect regional variations in the contribution of fossil fuels to electricity generation. DOE is considering a regional approach to establishing the average fossil fuel fraction associated with building energy use. Prior to reaching a conclusion regarding the use of national or regional averages of fossil fuel inputs to the electric sector, DOE will evaluate both approaches and both average and marginal factors to determine their likely effects on agency decision-making and their ability to provide an accurate indication of the likely impacts of reductions in Federal agency electricity use on the use of fossil fuels in the electric sector. For example, the use of national average fossil fuel inputs to electric sector (rather than regional averages) may provide a better indication of the actual fossil fuel reductions likely to result from reductions in electricity use. Reductions in future electricity demand are likely to cause electric utilities to reduce the power supplied by those electricity generation units or sources that have the highest marginal costs. Over both the short and long run, the types of power generation that have the highest marginal costs are more likely to be fossil fuel units than those powered by nuclear, hydropower or other renewable energy sources. This is likely to be true in all regions of the country, regardless of their current or projected reliance on fossil fuels to generate electricity. Regional marginal fossil fuel reduction factors may also be appropriate. DOE invites comments on whether it should use a national or regional approach and average or marginal factors to estimate the fossil fuel consumption associated with electricity consumption, taking into consideration the potential implications on agency decision-making and actual fossil fuel use.Show citation box

The fossil fuel-generated energy consumption baseline column in Table 1 below is calculated directly from Table C1 in the 2003 CBECS. For each building type, the primary electrical energy is multiplied by the fossil fuel generation ratio then added to the direct fossil fuel consumption to get the total fossil fuel-generated consumption for that particular building type. The total fossil fuel consumption is then divided by the total floorspace for that building type to get the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption, as reported in Table 1 below. DOE is proposing building type definitions based largely on the CBECS glossary, with some minimal modifications for regulatory clarity. DOE requests comment on the building type definitions.Show citation box

The baselines provided in Table 1 do not currently reflect any adjustment for climate-related variations in building energy use. As discussed elsewhere in this proposed rule, DOE believes a climate adjustment is necessary to provide reasonable baselines, and DOE is seeking comment on this issue. In a final rule, DOE intends to update the values provided in Table 1 for climate.Show citation box

Residential Buildings Baseline—RECS

ECPA as amended by EISA requires that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of new Federal buildings and Federal buildings undergoing major renovations be compared to that of similar buildings in fiscal year 2003 as measured by CBECS or RECS data (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(I)). Residential Energy Consumption Surveys (RECS) were conducted in 2001 and 2005; there is no data for 2003. Because the 2005 RECS data is the most recently available data at the time of this proposed rulemaking, DOE expects to use the 2005 RECS data as a baseline.Show citation box

As with the CBECS data for commercial buildings, the limited number of buildings surveyed by RECS data does not always allow for a direct calculation of building energy use by climate zone and building type without additional analysis. DOE believes, however, that a climate adjustment is necessary to provide more reasonable baselines. DOE, therefore, proposes to establish fossil fuel-generated energy requirements based on building type using RECS data, and then apply a climate adjustment using the climate zones defined in the baseline energy efficiency standard at 10 CFR part 435 (the 2004 IECC). This ensures that new Federal buildings will have to achieve reductions commensurate to a baseline appropriate for their respective climate zone, rather than to a national average baseline that is either too cold or too warm for their particular needs. DOE solicits comment on the best technique for calculating the climate adjustment for the different building types.Show citation box

The 2005 RECS lists direct consumption of fossil fuels by households in Table US9 available at http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/recs2005/hc2005_tables/c&e/excel/tableus9.xls in columns labeled natural gas, fuel oil, kerosene, and LPG. To calculate the total fossil fuel-generated energy consumption per household for each type of housing unit, the direct fossil fuel consumption per household and fossil fuel consumption for electricity consumption per household are summed, using the same factors to determine the fossil fuel fraction of residential electricity consumption that was used for commercial buildings. The total fossil fuel-generated energy consumption per household is then divided by the average floorspace for each type of housing unit. The average floor space for each type of housing unit can be found at http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/recs2005/c&e/summary/excel/tableus1part1.xls. This calculation produces the fossil fuel use per square foot for each type of housing unit. The results can be found in the baseline column of Table 2 below. DOE is proposing building type definitions based largely on the RECS glossary, with some minimal modifications for regulatory clarity. For example, the 2005 RECS data includes values for “manufactured homes” although the RECS glossary does not define “manufactured homes” but does define “mobile home.” DOE requests comment on the building type definitions.Show citation box

The baselines provided in Table 2 do not currently reflect any adjustment for climate-related variations in building energy use. As discussed elsewhere in this proposed rule, DOE believes a climate adjustment is necessary to provide reasonable baselines, and DOE is seeking comment on this issue. In a final rule, DOE intends to update the values provided in Table 2 for climate.Show citation box

When using Table 2, it is important to note a shortcoming of RECS data for use in performance standards for Federal buildings. The shortcoming is that RECS data is collected on a per household basis and does not include energy use in common areas. As a result, the value for fossil fuel-generated energy consumption per square foot of floorspace shown in Table 2 only accounts for the non-common areas of these buildings. DOE considered accounting for common area energy use in the requirements, but RECS does not collect that data. To resolve this issue, DOE proposes applying the RECS-derived fossil fuel requirements to all applicable floorspace, including common and non-common areas. The benefits of this approach are that it is relatively simple and will not make it more difficult for building designers to show compliance. Because common areas account for a small fraction of floorspace, the effect on the requirement will be minimal. Also, common areas often have a lower energy intensity, so by using only non-common areas the maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy requirement will, if anything, be slightly higher. DOE welcomes comments on this approach or other specific approaches that could be used to develop the RECS-derived requirements.Show citation box

Calculation of Maximum Allowable Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption

Once the baseline fossil fuel-generated energy consumption from the 2003 CBECS and 2005 RECS has been determined, the consumption reduction requirements as specified in ECPA as amended by EISA should be calculated. Again, although the baselines provided in Tables 1 and 2 do not currently reflect any adjustment for climate-related variations in building energy use, DOE is developing fossil fuel-generated energy requirements based on building type using CBECS or RECS data, and then applying a climate adjustment. In a final rule, DOE intends to update the values provided in Tables 1 and 2 for climate.Show citation box

The requirements derived from CBECS, which apply to commercial buildings, are shown in Table 1. The consumption reduction requirements derived from RECS, which apply to both multi-family high-rise residential buildings and low-rise residential buildings, are found in Table 2. In this rulemaking DOE is proposing a revised definition of “Multi-family high-rise residential building,” largely based on the definition at 10 CFR 434.201, although the proposed definition clarifies that multi-family high-rise residential buildings are designed to be four or more stories above grade.Show citation box

As discussed above, Tables 1 and 2 show data only at the national level, with national average values used for the fossil fuel generation ratio of 0.71. As discussed elsewhere in this rule, DOE is considering and invites comments on whether it should use a national or regional approach and average or marginal factors to estimate the fossil fuel consumption associated with electricity consumption.Show citation box

For purposes of simplification, values in these tables have been truncated to the nearest kBtu/ft [2] . In today’s notice, the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption percentage reductions are presented as maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption levels. Because the figures are premised on the proposed baseline values, the percentage reductions equate to the absolute values which are presented as the maximum allowable values. For ease of agency interpretation, the maximum allowable approach was used in today’s notice. Show citation box

Table 1—2003 CBECS Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Baseline and Maximum Allowable Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption by Building Type and Fiscal Year (FY), kBtu/ft 2 Back to Top
Building type Baseline(kBtu/ft2) FY 2012-2014 FY 2015-2019 FY 2020-2024 FY 2025-2029 FY 2030 and beyond
55%reduction (kBtu/ft2) 65%reduction (kBtu/ft2) 80%reduction (kBtu/ft2) 90%reduction (kBtu/ft2) 100%reduction (kBtu/ft2)
Education 126 57 44 25 13 0
Food Sales 387 174 135 77 39 0
Food Service 404 182 141 81 40 0
Health Care (Inpatient) 313 141 109 63 31 0
Health Care (Outpatient) 148 67 52 30 15 0
Lodging 148 67 52 30 15 0
Retail (Other Than Mall) 126 57 44 25 13 0
Office 160 72 56 32 16 0
Public Assembly 125 56 44 25 12 0
Public Order and Safety 146 66 51 29 15 0
Religious Worship 62 28 22 12 6 0
Service 113 51 40 23 11 0
Warehouse and Storage 66 30 23 13 7 0
Table 2—2005 RECS Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Baseline and Maximum Allowable Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption by Type of High-Rise or Low-Rise Housing Unit, kBtu/ft 2 Back to Top
Building type Baseline(kBtu/ft2) FY 2012-2014 FY 2015-2019 FY 2020-2024 FY 2025-2029 FY 2030 and beyond
55%reduction (kBtu/ft2) 65%reduction (kBtu/ft2) 80%reduction (kBtu/ft2) 90%reduction (kBtu/ft2) 100%reduction (kBtu/ft2)
Single-Family Detached 59 27 21 12 6 0
Single-Family Attached 66 30 23 13 7 0
Multi-Family in 2-4 Unit Buildings 105 47 37 21 11 0
Multi-Family in 5 or More Unit Buildings 94 42 33 19 9 0
Manufactured Homes 115 52 40 23 12 0

DOE recognizes that the required reductions identified in the above tables for the years preceding FY 2030 may change based on how climate and fossil fuels are considered and characterized. However, the FY 2030 requirement for buildings to be designed such that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption is zero would remain unchanged.Show citation box

Although ECPA as amended by EISA requires that new Federal buildings and Federal buildings undergoing major renovations be designed so that fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the buildings is reduced as compared with such energy consumption by a similar building in fiscal year 2003 (as measured by CBECS and RECS), there are some building types for which no amount of processing of CBECS and RECS data will yield an appropriate baseline for comparison. Examples might include industrialized or research facilities. For purpose of determining the Maximum Allowable Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption for these buildings not addressed by CBECS or RECS, DOE proposes to use the ASHRAE’s Performance Rating Method to determine the baseline energy consumption for a new Federal commercial or multi-family high-rise residential building, and the IECC’s Simulated Performance Alternative to determine the baseline energy consumption for a new Federal low-rise residential building. DOE welcomes input on this approach.Show citation box

Calculation of Proposed Building Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption

To determine compliance, DOE is proposing that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the proposed new Federal building or Federal building undergoing major renovation should be estimated using the Performance Rating Method found in Appendix G of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 for commercial and multi-family high-rise residential buildings, and the ICC International Energy Conservation Code 2004 Supplement for low-rise residential buildings. These are the same methods already prescribed at 10 CFR parts 433 and 435, respectively. Because of the complexity involved in estimating fossil fuel-generated energy consumption, this compliance requirement effectively requires the use of a whole building simulation tool. Whole building simulations are already performed today for most medium- and large-sized buildings to accurately estimate loads for purposes of sizing HVAC equipment for evaluating buildings under voluntary industry building codes. The outputs from these tools typically include site energy usage for both electricity and fossil fuel.Show citation box

To compare the estimated fossil fuel-generated energy consumption from the whole-building simulation tool to the maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption under the statute, the designer should first calculate the primary electrical energy by multiplying the site electrical energy (from the whole building simulation), including receptacle and process loads, by the electricity source energy factor. The designer then calculates the fossil fuel-generated electrical consumption by multiplying the primary electrical energy by the fossil fuel-generation ratio. Finally, the designer must then sum up the fossil fuel-generated electrical consumption and any non- electrical fossil fuels directly used in the proposed building (such as gas furnaces, gas cooking stoves, gas water heaters, etc.). The sum should be less than or equal to the required fossil fuel-generated energy consumption value for the appropriate building type.Show citation box

The electricity source energy factor is the ratio of primary electrical energy consumed to generate and deliver energy to a site to the electrical energy consumed on site. DOE is proposing that the electricity source energy factor would be calculated by dividing the average utility delivery ratio in Table 6.2.4 of the DOE Building Energy Data Book (http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/docs/xls_pdf/6.2.4.xls) by 3412 to convert the value from Btu/kWh to kWh/kWh. The fossil fuel generation ratio would be calculated using the EIA’s latest Electric Power Annual report by summing the electric generation from coal, petroleum, natural gas, and other gases (derived from fossil fuels) and then dividing by the total electric generation.Show citation box

DOE notes that the simulation analysis requirement may be burdensome for designers of some buildings, particularly small buildings. DOE also acknowledges that the Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDGs) have been completed for a few building types, including the most significant commercial building types and sizes, but the AEDGS are not designed to achieve the reduction levels necessary under this rule. DOE welcomes comments on alternatives to a whole building simulation to demonstrate compliance of these buildings with the requirements of this proposed rulemaking. DOE also welcomes comments on the calculations methods discussed in this section.Show citation box

Plug and Process Energy Consumption

EPACT 2005 as amended by EISA requires that building be designed so that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the buildings is reduced as compared with such energy consumption by a similar building as measured by CBECS and RECS. All building energy consumption, including plug and process energy consumption, is included in baseline CBECS and RECS data, and thus is also factored into the maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption. Therefore, it is necessary that plug and process loads also be included in the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the new Federal building or Federal building undergoing major renovations. This is consistent with Table G3.1.12 in Appendix G, Performance Rating Method, ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. DOE acknowledges the difficulty of estimating plug and process loads and that their inclusion may make it more difficult to achieve the mandated fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions. DOE welcomes comments on how the proposed rule can be designed such that the assumptions used in the whole building simulations accurately reflect, to the best degree possible, the final building design and the operation of the building, including plug and process loads.Show citation box

Purchase of Offsite Renewable Energy

In order to meet the maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption requirements mandated by ECPA as amended by EISA, fossil fuel-generated energy consumption could be offset with use of energy created from other sources, including renewable energy sources. DOE also recognizes there may be physical limitations to the amount of on-site renewable electricity that can be produced, and it may be more affordable in some cases for an agency to purchase electricity from centralized renewable energy-generation facilities. As an example, ASHRAE Standard 189.1-2009, “The Standard for High-Performance Green Buildings,” has an on-site renewable energy requirement, but allows the use of Renewable Energy Certificates as an alternative to meet the requirement.Show citation box

DOE is concerned however, that purchase of renewable energy-generated electricity via Renewable Energy Certificates or direct Power Purchase Agreements may simply reduce the amount of renewable energy available for purchase by other entities within the U.S. and may not necessarily lead to an overall decrease in domestic fossil fuel-generated energy consumption. In addition, unlike Power Purchase Agreements, the purchase of Renewable Energy Certificates does not involve a long-term binding agreement and can readily be cancelled. It should also be noted that the use of Renewable Energy Certificates is being phased out by January 2012, as a way to meet the renewable energy consumption levels established under section 203 of EPACT 2005 and Executive Order 13423 (see“Renewable Energy Requirement Guidance for EPACT 2005 and Executive Order 13423,” available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/epact05_fedrenewenergyguid.pdf).Show citation box

DOE is leaning toward allowing Power Purchase Agreements with a long-term contract to count toward meeting the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction requirements, but not allowing Renewable Energy Certificates. Under this approach, agencies would be allowed to subtract the annual electricity generated by the renewable energy-generation facility from the building’s annual site electrical energy consumption. The building designer would use this quantity, the net site electrical energy consumption, when calculating the building’s fossil fuel-generated energy consumption. In effect, the Power Purchase Agreements would help agencies meet the fossil fuel consumption requirements. DOE invites comments on how Renewable Energy Certificates and Power Purchase Agreements should be addressed in the context of this rulemaking. DOE also invites comments on the proposed approach with respect to Power Purchase Agreements.Show citation box

Potential Impact on Onsite Electrical Generation From Natural Gas

DOE is interested in the effect of fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction requirements on distributed energy technologies that provide onsite electrical generation from natural gas such as in power plants and combined heat and power (CHP) systems. At power plants and in CHP systems, natural gas is used to generate both heat and electricity. A building with a CHP system could potentially be an all-gas building in terms of utility purchases and would therefore be required to reduce natural gas consumption in accordance with the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction requirements. DOE’s intent is to ensure the rule does not penalize or discourage the use of on-site CHP systems, and invites comments how appropriate credit may be given for CHP systems through the compliance determination methodology.Show citation box

E. Cost Analysis

Given the significant reductions in fossil fuel-generated energy consumption that would be required in today’s proposed rulemaking, one obvious question is how much will compliance with this proposed rule impact the cost of new Federal construction and major renovations. The answer to that question depends both on the building type and type of housing unit being constructed and the level of fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction that is required. DOE commissioned a study by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in 2008 to look at the incremental costs of high performance buildings. Cost data for high performance buildings is fairly rare and many times the costs for achieving high levels of energy efficiency are intermingled with the costs to achieve more sustainable design. That report entitled, “Literature Review of Data on the Incremental Costs to Design and Build Low-Energy Buildings (Hunt, WD, 2008, PNNL-17502 and available at http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-17502.pdf) came to the following key findings as noted in the summary of the document:Show citation box

Key findings of this literature review are as follows:Show citation box

1. Objectively-developed and verifiable data on the cost premium for low-energy (high efficiency) buildings are very limited. Most of the literature focused on green or sustainable buildings, not on low-energy buildings.Show citation box

2. In cases where energy efficiency cost data were available, the cost premiums ranged from 1% to 7%. In most cases, the cost premium was less than 4%.Show citation box

3. Technology solutions are available right now to achieve savings on the order of 30% and more over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004; however, cost-effectiveness of these technology solutions is often not addressed.Show citation box

4. Independent surveys administered to assess the perceptions of building owners and designers regarding the costs to build and operate green/energy-efficient buildings, and the willingness of owners/developers to invest in green/energy-efficient buildings, reveal some interesting common threads.Show citation box

i. There is a perception that energy-efficient/green buildings cost significantly more to design (starting at a 5% premium) and represent a key barrier with decision makers.Show citation box

ii. There seems to be a potential willingness (as implied or measured through survey responses) to build more energy-efficient buildings for cost premiums below 5%.Show citation box

In response to the third key finding listed in the report, DOE began calculating cost impacts for their work associated with AEDGs. Cost impact data are available in the technical support document (TSD) of one published ASHRAE AEDG for small warehouses that are 30% better than Standard 90.1-2004 and four TSDs prepared by DOE for support of future AEDGs that will achieve 50% savings over Standard 90.1-2004. The four TSDs are for medium offices, roadside lodging, general retail, and grocery stores. DOE expects to develop six additional TSDs for small offices, large offices, quick service restaurants, large hospitals, university dormitories, and K-12 schools in FY10. These additional TSDs were not available at the time this notice was prepared.Show citation box

The available TSDs may be found at: Small Warehouse (30% savings)—http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-17056.pdf. General Merchandise (50% savings)—http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/46100.pdf. Grocery Stores (50% savings)—http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/46101.pdf. Highway Lodging Buildings (50% savings)—http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-18773.pdf. Medium Office (50% savings)—http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-19004.pdf.Show citation box

Results from the cost analyses in three of these TSDs—small warehouse, highway lodging, and medium office—are shown below in Table 3. Ranges in the results are a function of climate zone, with buildings in some climates zones costing more or generating less energy savings. Multiple HVAC systems were evaluated for the 50% medium office—a more efficient but more expensive radiant system and a more standard variable air volume (VAV) system. It should be noted that all of the buildings analyzed for the TSDs did have increased first costs, but that the energy savings provided relatively good payback periods.Show citation box

Table 3—Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Highly Energy Efficient Buildings Back to Top
TSD Building square footage Incremental cost ($ per ft2) Incremental cost (percentage increase) Simple payback on energy savings (years)
Warehouse 50,000 ft2 1.88 to 3.56 2.6% to 7% 6.0 to 13.5.
Highway Lodging 43,000 ft2 7.58 to 10.85 8.4% to 8.7% 9.6 to 15.9.
Medium Office 53,600 ft2 5.47 to 9.03 (Radiant) 2.37 to 4.22 (VAV) 5.4% to 7.0% (Radiant) 2.7% to 3.9% (VAV) 5.6 to 11.1 (Radiant) 3.3 to 6.2 (VAV).

Consideration of the graduated levels of fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction listed in the statute (55%, 65%, 80%, 90%, and 100%), coupled with the fact that a percentage reduction is not directly comparable to a 30% or 50% savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004, makes it hard to determine what level of savings is associated with the 1% to 7% cost premiums cited in the PNNL study (“Literature Review of Data on the Incremental Costs to Design and Build Low-Energy Buildings,” Hunt, WD, 2008, PNNL-17502). Converting both the requirements of this proposed rulemaking and the simulated performance of buildings built to 30% better than ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 to a common Energy Use Intensity basis provides a better method of comparison. Also note that the comparison must be made on a similar energy basis. Today’s proposed rulemaking applies to fossil fuel-generated energy consumption, which is close to source energy, while results from the TSDs are typically expressed in site energy.Show citation box

Table 4 shows the comparison of the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions proposed in this rulemaking to the fossil fuel reductions achieved in the simulations associated with two of the TSDs, the medium office and highway lodging.Show citation box

Table 4—Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Proposed in Today’s Rulemaking and Calculated in Selected AEDGs Back to Top
Building type 55% Fossil fuel reduction from CBECS kBtu/ft2 65% Fossil fuel reduction from CBECS kBtu/ft2 80% Fossil fuel reduction from CBECS kBtu/ft2 Fossil fuelreduction calculated in TSD kBtu/ft2 Incremental cost(percentage increase)
Medium Office (Rad) 72 56 32 49.2 5.4% to 7.0%.
Medium Office (VAV) 72 56 32 63.6 2.7% to 3.9%.
Highway Lodging 67 52 30 56.4 8.4% to 8.7%.

Table 4 indicates that the estimated cost savings from the 50% TSDs can be used to support the fact that 55% fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions and perhaps even 65% fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions from CBECS will require cost increases of no more than 8.7%. None of the savings achieved in the 50% TSDs approach the reduction mandated at the 80% fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction level, so the cost estimates for that level of savings and higher levels cannot be estimated.Show citation box

With respect to residential buildings, DOE does not anticipate that there will be many low-rise residential buildings that will fall under today’s proposed rulemaking as most Federal low-rise residential buildings are not likely to be public buildings or buildings for which construction costs are at least $2.5 million in 2007 dollars, which are criteria that determine whether buildings are subject to the requirements in today’s proposed rule. The only low-rise residential buildings that might be considered to fall under today’s proposed rule would be low-rise military barracks, and those barracks are best considered to be similar to the dormitory or lodging building types found in CBECS.Show citation box

Using CBECS and RECS baselines without a climate adjustment puts buildings in colder climate zones at a cost disadvantage because the non-adjusted baseline would be lower than for one adjusted for climate. A non-adjusted baseline for colder climates would require larger, more costly fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions. Conversely, using CBECS and RECS baselines without a climate adjustment provides a cost advantage to buildings in warmer climate zones because the baseline would be greater than for one adjusted for climate. A non-adjusted baseline for warmer climates would require smaller, less costly fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions.Show citation box

However, adjusting for climate in both the baseline and the required reduction level would be expected to eliminate potential regional inequity that could result from climate variation and help ensure that the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reductions are commensurate to the climate zone. Similarly, consideration of regional variations in the fossil fuel contribution to electricity is not expected to result in substantial differences in the compliance burden for buildings across regions so long as regional variations are also reflected in the baseline buildings. If the regional values were used for both the baseline building and the required reduction level, the burden of meeting the percentage reductions would remain roughly the same in all regions (although regions with low fossil fuel use in the electric sector might have to find more savings in non-electric end-uses).Show citation box

DOE is seeking comment on a number of issues related to the cost-effectiveness of today’s proposed rule, especially any construction cost increases for buildings Federal agencies are in the process of designing or have already built. DOE is seeking comment on these cost impacts.Show citation box

F. Agency Petitions for Adjustment to the Percentage Reduction Requirement

ECPA as amended by EISA permits DOE upon petition by an agency subject to the statutory requirements to adjust the applicable numeric fossil fuel-generated energy consumption percentage reduction requirement “downward with respect to a specific building, if the head of the agency designing the building certifies in writing that meeting such requirement would be technically impracticable in light of the agency’s specified functional needs for the building” and DOE concurs with the agency’s conclusion. (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)(i)(II)) ECPA as amended by EISA further directs that such an adjustment does not apply to GSA.Show citation box

Today’s action proposes that a petition for downward adjustment of the numeric requirement should include an explanation of what measures would be required to meet the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction requirement, and why those measures would be technically impracticable in light of the agency’s specified functional needs for the building. DOE proposes that the petition should also demonstrate that the adjustment requested by the agency represents the largest feasible reduction in fossil fuel-generated energy consumption that can reasonably be achieved. DOE welcomes comments on that proposal. Although the downward adjustment provision of ECPA as amended by EISA does not expressly include cost considerations, DOE is considering incorporating cost considerations as part of a “technically impracticable” determination. Cost would not be the sole rationale for a determination of “technically impracticable,” but high costs could be part of the evaluation. (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)(3)(D)). DOE also invites comments that would help clarify what kind of technical impracticability would constitute grounds for a petition for downward adjustment.Show citation box

The petition pursuant to ECPA as amended by EISA should also include a written certification statement by the head of the agency designing the building that meeting the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction requirements would be technically impracticable in light of the agency’s specified functional needs for that building. 42 U.S.C. 6834(D)(i)(II).Show citation box

DOE notes that the statute exempts GSA from the option to petition DOE for a downward adjustment of the applicable percentage reduction requirement. However, DOE proposes that a new Federal building or a Federal building undergoing major renovations for which a Federal agency is providing substantive and significant design criteria may be the subject of a petition. Under this approach, a GSA building that is designed to meet the specifications provided by a tenant agency may be considered for a downward adjustment if a petition is submitted by the head of the tenant agency.Show citation box

DOE will review petitions in a timely manner. If the petitioning agency has successfully demonstrated the need for a downward adjustment per the discussion above, DOE will concur with the agency’s conclusion and notify the agency in writing. If DOE does not concur, it will forward its reasons to the petitioning agency with suggestions as to how the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption percentage reduction requirement may be achieved.Show citation box

A petition for downward adjustment of the numeric reduction, including any supporting information, would be addressed to: Margo Appel, Building Technologies Program, U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585.Show citation box

G. Guidance on Measures To Reduce Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption

Building energy efficiency solutions involve advanced technologies, integrated design principles, control strategies and other tools. The appropriate solution and the effectiveness of each solution will vary based on building type, building size, and location. To successfully design a high performance building, Federal agencies must use a reputable, experienced design team. There are an increasing number of firms in all locations that have designed high performance buildings. The key to successful design is identifying firms with the requisite experience and skills, adopting an integrated design process that begins at the first phase of the building project, and providing clear direction and quality control over the firm’s work. DOE invites comment from agencies as to what additional training in this area might be helpful.Show citation box

Numerous tools are available to help Federal agencies achieve the required fossil fuel reductions. DOE, in conjunction with ASHRAE, has developed a series of Advanced Energy Design Guides to achieve 30 percent reductions in energy use for several types of small buildings (small office buildings, small retail buildings, K-12 school buildings, small warehouses and self-storage buildings, highway lodging, and small hospitals and healthcare facilities). DOE and ASHRAE are working on 50 percent reduction guidelines for several building types. Additional tools and resources are available through the EERE Web site. DOE’s Building Technologies Program maintains a database of high-performance buildings (available at http://eere.buildinggreen.com).Show citation box

Other resources include: The National Institute of Building Sciences’Whole Building Design Guide; the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) system; ASHRAE Standard 189.1-2009, Standard for the Design of High Performance Green Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings; and the International Code Council’s International Green Construction Code Public Version 1.0. DOE’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Web site provides access to these and other resources and tools that can help Federal agencies improve the energy efficiency of new and existing buildings (available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/). DOE has also published a cool roof resource guide for Federal agencies, available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/features/cool_roof_resources.html. DOE is also developing additional guidance that provides technical and cost data related to the installation of cool roofs.Show citation box

H. Post-Construction Monitoring and Reporting

ECPA as amended by EISA does not contain any explicit post-construction monitoring and reporting requirements. Federal agencies, however, are reminded of the monitoring, reporting, and benchmarking requirements in section 103 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) and section 432 of EISA. FEMP has issued guidance for the metering requirements in section 103 of EPAct 2005 (available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/adv_metering.pdf). FEMP has also developed guidance for meeting EISA section 432 requirements (available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/eisa_s432_guidelines.pdf). Finally, FEMP has also issued additional guidance on EISA section 432 benchmarking (available at http://www.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/eisa_s432_guidelines.pdf).Show citation box

FEMP has selected the Energy Star Portfolio Manager as the required building energy use benchmarking system for Federal agencies. Additional information on the use of Energy Star Portfolio Manager, energy management, and benchmarking in general may be found on the EPA Energy Star Web site at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=business.bus_index. Show citation box

III. Reference Resources Back to Top

DOE has prepared a list of resources to help Federal agencies address the reduction of fossil fuel-generated energy consumption. The interim final rule on energy efficiency published in the Federal Register on December 4, 2006 (71 FR 70275) contains reference resources for energy efficiency improvement in building design. These resources come in many forms such as design guidance, case studies and in a variety of media such as printed documents or on Web sites. The resources for energy efficiency improvement will also provide guidance for fossil fuel-based energy consumption reduction.Show citation box

IV. Regulatory Review Back to Top

A. Review Under Executive Order 12866

Today’s notice of proposed rulemaking has been determined to be a significant regulatory action under section 3(f)(1) of Executive Order 12866, “Regulatory Planning and Review,” 58 FR 51735 (October 4, 1993). Accordingly, today’s action was reviewed by the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) in the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).Show citation box

B. Review Under the Regulatory Flexibility Act

The Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) requires preparation of an initial regulatory flexibility analysis for any rule that by law must be proposed for public comment, unless the agency certifies that the rule, if promulgated, will not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. As required by Executive Order 13272, “Proper Consideration of Small Entities in Agency Rulemaking,” (August 16, 2002), DOE published procedures and policies on February 19, 2003, to ensure that the potential impacts of its rules on small entities are properly considered during the rulemaking process (68 FR 7990). DOE has made its procedures and policies available on the Office of General Counsel’s Web site: http://www.gc.doe.gov. Show citation box

DOE has reviewed today’s proposed rule under the provisions of the Regulatory Flexibility Act and the procedures and policies published on February 19, 2003. Today’s proposed rulemaking applies only to the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of new Federal buildings and Federal buildings undergoing major renovation. As such, the only entities impacted by this rulemaking would be Federal agencies. DOE does not believe that there will be any impacts on small entities such as small businesses, small organizations, or small governmental jurisdictions.Show citation box

On the basis of the foregoing, DOE certifies that this proposed rule would not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. Accordingly, DOE has not prepared a regulatory flexibility analysis for this rulemaking. DOE’s certification and supporting statement of factual basis will be provided to the Chief Counsel for Advocacy of the Small Business Administration pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 605(b).Show citation box

C. Review Under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995

This proposed rule will impose no new information or record keeping requirements. Accordingly, OMB clearance is not required under the Paperwork Reduction Act. (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.)Show citation box

D. Review Under the National Environmental Policy Act

The Department prepared a draft Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1463) pursuant to the Council on Environmental Quality’s (CEQ) Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act (40 CFR parts 1500-1508), the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), and DOE’s NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR part 1021).Show citation box

The draft EA addresses the potential incremental environmental effects attributable to the application of the proposed rules. The draft EA has been added to the docket for this rulemaking.Show citation box

E. Review Under Executive Order 13132

Executive Order 13132, “Federalism,” 64 FR 43255 (August 4, 1999), imposes certain requirements on agencies formulating and implementing policies or regulations that preempt State law or that have federalism implications. The Executive Order requires agencies to examine the constitutional and statutory authority supporting any action that would limit the policymaking discretion of the States and carefully assess the necessity for such actions. DOE has examined the proposed rule and determined that it would not preempt State law and would not have a substantial direct effect on the States, on the relationship between the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of Government. No further action is required by Executive Order 13132.Show citation box

F. Review Under Executive Order 12988

With respect to the review of existing regulations and the promulgation of new regulations, section 3(a) of Executive Order 12988, “Civil Justice Reform,” 61 FR 4729 (February 7, 1996), imposes on Executive agencies the general duty to adhere to the following requirements: (1) Eliminate drafting errors and ambiguity; (2) write regulations to minimize litigation; and (3) provide a clear legal standard for affected conduct, rather than a general standard and promote simplification and burden reduction. With regard to the review required by section 3(a), section 3(b) of Executive Order 12988 specifically requires that Executive agencies make every reasonable effort to ensure that the regulation: (1) Clearly specifies the preemptive effect, if any; (2) clearly specifies any effect on existing Federal law or regulation; (3) provides a clear legal standard for affected conduct, while promoting simplification and burden reduction; (4) specifies the retroactive effect, if any; (5) adequately defines key terms; and (6) addresses other important issues affecting clarity and general draftsmanship under any guidelines issued by the Attorney General. Section 3(c) of Executive Order 12988 requires Executive agencies to review regulations in light of applicable standards in section 3(a) and section 3(b) to determine whether they are met or it is unreasonable to meet one or more of them. DOE has completed the required review and determined that to the extent permitted by law, this proposed rule meets the relevant standards of Executive Order 12988.Show citation box

G. Review Under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995

The Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-4) generally requires Federal agencies to examine closely the impacts of regulatory actions on State, local, and Tribal governments. For a proposed regulatory action likely to result in a rule that may cause the expenditure by State, local, and Tribal governments, in the aggregate, or by the private sector of $100 million or more in any one year (adjusted annually for inflation), section 202 of UMRA requires a Federal agency to publish a written statement that estimates the resulting costs, benefits, and other effects on the national economy. (2 U.S.C. 1532(a) and (b)) The UMRA also requires a Federal agency to develop an effective process to permit timely input by elected officers of State, local, and Tribal governments on a proposed “significant intergovernmental mandate,” and requires an agency plan for giving notice and opportunity for timely input to potentially affected small governments before establishing any requirements that might significantly or uniquely affect small governments. On March 18, 1997, DOE published a statement of policy on its process for intergovernmental consultation under UMRA (62 FR 12820) (also available at http://www.gc.doe.gov). This notice of proposed rulemaking contains neither an intergovernmental mandate nor a mandate that may result in the expenditure of $100 million or more in any year, so these requirements under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act do not apply.Show citation box

H. Review Under the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act, 1999

Section 654 of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act, 1999 (Pub. L. 105-277) requires Federal agencies to issue a Family Policymaking Assessment for any proposed rule that may affect family well-being. This proposed rule would not have any impact on the autonomy or integrity of the family as an institution. Accordingly, DOE has concluded that it is not necessary to prepare a Family Policymaking Assessment.Show citation box

I. Review Under Executive Order 12630

DOE has determined, under Executive Order 12630, “Governmental Actions and Interference with Constitutionally Protected Property Rights,” 53 FR 8859 (March 18, 1988), that this notice of proposed rulemaking would not result in any takings which might require compensation under the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution.Show citation box

J. Review Under the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act, 2001

The Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act, 2001 (44 U.S.C. 3516, note) provides for agencies to review most disseminations of information to the public under guidelines established by each agency pursuant to general guidelines issued by OMB. OMB’s guidelines were published at 67 FR 8452 (February 22, 2002), and DOE’s guidelines were published at 67 FR 62446 (October 7, 2002). DOE has reviewed today’s proposed rule under the OMB and DOE guidelines and has concluded that it is consistent with applicable policies in those guidelines.Show citation box

K. Review Under Executive Order 13211

Executive Order 13211, “Actions Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use,” 66 FR 28355 (May 22, 2001), requires Federal agencies to prepare and submit to OMB a Statement of Energy Effects for any proposed significant energy action. A “significant energy action” is defined as any action by an agency that promulgated or is expected to lead to promulgation of a final rule, and that: (1) Is a significant regulatory action under Executive Order 12866, or any successor order; and (2) is likely to have a significant adverse effect on the supply, distribution, or use of energy, or (3) is designated by the Administrator of OIRA as a significant energy action. For any proposed significant energy action, the agency must give a detailed statement of any adverse effects on energy supply, distribution, or use should the proposal be implemented, and of reasonable alternatives to the action and their expected benefits on energy supply, distribution, and use. Today’s proposed rule would not have a significant adverse effect on the supply, distribution, or use of energy and, therefore, is not a significant energy action. Accordingly, DOE has not prepared a Statement of Energy Effects.Show citation box

V. Approval of the Office of the Secretary Back to Top

The Secretary of Energy has approved publication of today’s notice of proposed rulemaking.Show citation box

List of Subjects in 10 CFR Parts 433 and 435 Back to Top

Buildings and facilities, Energy conservation, Engineers, Federal buildings and facilities, Housing.Show citation box

Issued in Washington, DC, on September 30, 2010.

Cathy Zoi,

Assistant Secretary, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

For the reasons set forth in the preamble, DOE proposes to amend chapter II of title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations as set forth below:Show citation box

PART 433—ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND FOSSIL FUEL-GENERATED ENERGY CONSUMPTION REDUCTION DESIGN STANDARDS FOR NEW AND MAJOR RENOVATIONS TO FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Back to Top

1. The authority citation for part 433 continues to read as follows:Show citation box

Authority: Back to Top

42 U.S.C. 6831-6832, 6834-6835; 42 U.S.C. 7101 et seq. Show citation box

2. The heading for part 433 is revised to read as set forth above.Show citation box

3. Section 433.1 is revised to read as follows:Show citation box

§ 433.1 Purpose and scope.

This part establishes an energy efficiency performance and maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption standard for new Federal commercial and multi-family high-rise residential buildings, for which design for construction began on or after January 3, 2007 (except as otherwise indicated: fossil fuel-generated energy consumption requirements are applicable one year after publication of the final rule), as required by section 305(a) of the Energy Conservation and Production Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)). Additionally, this part establishes certain requirements applicable to major renovations of Federal commercial and multi-family high-rise residential buildings, as indicated. For renovated buildings, those requirements apply only to the portions of the building or building systems that are being renovated and to the extent that the scope of the renovation permits compliance with the applicable requirements in this part. Unaltered portions of the building or building systems are not required to comply with this part.Show citation box

4. Section 433.2 is amended by adding in alphabetical order new definitions for “Direct fossil fuel consumption,” “District Energy System,” “Electricity fossil fuel-generation ratio,” “Electricity source energy factor,” “Fossil fuel,” “Fossil fuel consumption for electricity generation,” “Fossil fuel-generated energy consumption,” “Multi-family high-rise residential building,” and “Primary electrical energy consumption” to read as follows:Show citation box

§ 433.2 Definitions.

* * * * *

Direct fossil fuel consumption means the total fossil fuel consumption in a building excluding fossil fuel consumption for electricity generation. This includes any fossil fuel consumption resulting from a district energy system used in a building.Show citation box

District Energy System means a central energy conversion plant and transmission and distribution system that provides thermal energy to a group of buildings (heating via hot water or steam, and/or cooling via chilled water). This definition includes only thermal energy systems; central energy supply systems that provide only electricity are excluded from this definition.Show citation box

* * * * *

Electricity fossil fuel-generation ratio means the fraction of national U.S. electricity generation from fossil fuel sources as provided by the Energy Information Administration Electric Power Annual report for the appropriate year.Show citation box

Electricity source energy factor is the ratio of primary electrical energy consumed to generate and deliver energy to a site relative to electrical energy consumed on site. The electricity source energy factor may be calculated by dividing the average utility delivery ratio in Table 6.2.4 of the DOE Building Energy Data Book for the appropriate year by 3412 to convert the value from Btu/kWh to kWh/kWh.Show citation box

* * * * *

Fossil fuel means a fuel formed in the earth from plant or animal remains. Fossil fuels include coal, oil, natural gas, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).Show citation box

Fossil fuel consumption for electricity generation means the primary electrical energy consumption in a building supplied from the national power grid multiplied by the electricity fossil fuel-generation ratio. Electricity generated completely from non-fossil fuel sources or from a dedicated source not connected to the national power grid is excluded from this definition.Show citation box

Fossil fuel generated-energy consumption means the sum of direct fossil fuel consumption plus fossil fuel consumption for electricity generation.Show citation box

* * * * *

Multi-family high-rise residential building means a residential building that contains three or more dwelling units and that is designed to be 4 or more stories above grade.Show citation box

* * * * *

Primary electrical energy consumption means the total amount of energy used to generate and deliver electrical energy to a building from the national power grid.Show citation box

* * * * *

5. Section 433.4 is amended by adding new paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) to read as follows:Show citation box

§ 433.4 Energy efficiency performance standard.

* * * * *

(d) All Federal agencies shall design new Federal commercial and multi-family high-rise residential buildings and major renovations to Federal commercial and multi-family high-rise residential buildings, for which design for construction began at least one year after publication of the final rule, to meet the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section if:Show citation box

(1) The subject building is a public building as defined in 40 U.S.C. 3301 and for which transmittal of a prospectus to Congress is required under 40 U.S.C. 3307; orShow citation box

(2) The cost of the building or major renovation is at least $2,500,000 (in 2007 dollars, adjusted for inflation).Show citation box

(e)(1) All Federal agencies shall design new Federal commercial and multi-family high-rise residential buildings and major renovations of Federal commercial and multi-family high-rise residential buildings for which design for construction began at least one year after publication of the final rule and that are classified in paragraph (d) of this section, to meet fossil fuel-generated energy consumption values equal to or lesser than the values shown in Table 1. The maximum allowable fossil fuel generated energy consumption values in Table 1 are a function of building type and fiscal year for which design for construction began.Show citation box

(2) For the purpose of this paragraph (e), the following definitions apply:Show citation box

(i) Education means buildings used for academic or technical classroom instruction, such as elementary, middle, or high schools, and classroom buildings on college or university campuses. Buildings on education campuses for which the main use is not classroom are included in the category relating to their use. For example, administration buildings are part of “Office,” dormitories are “Lodging,” and libraries are “Public Assembly.”Show citation box

(ii) Food sales means buildings used for retail or wholesale of food. For example, grocery stores are “Food Sales.”Show citation box

(iii) Food service means buildings used for preparation and sale of food and beverages for consumption. For example, restaurants are “Food Service.” Show citation box

(iv) Health care (inpatient) means buildings used as diagnostic and treatment facilities for inpatient care.Show citation box

(v) Health care (outpatient) means buildings used as diagnostic and treatment facilities for outpatient care. Medical offices are included here if they use any type of diagnostic medical equipment (if they do not, they are categorized as an office building).Show citation box

(vi) Lodging means buildings used to offer multiple accommodations for short-term or long-term residents, including skilled nursing and other residential care buildings.Show citation box

(vii) Multi-family in 2-4 unit buildings means a unit in a building with two to four housing units—a structure that is divided into living quarters for two, three, or four families or households in which one household lives above or beside another. This category also includes houses originally intended for occupancy by one family (or for some other use) that have since been converted to separate dwellings for two to four families.Show citation box

(viii) Multi-family in 5 or more unit buildings means a unit in a building with five or more housing units—a structure that contains living quarters for five or more households or families and in which one household lives above or beside another.Show citation box

(ix) Public assembly means public or private buildings, or spaces therein, in which people gather for social or recreational activities.Show citation box

(x) Public order and safety means buildings used for the preservation of law and order or public safety.Show citation box

(xi) Religious worship means buildings in which people gather for religious activities, (such as chapels, churches, mosques, synagogues, and temples).Show citation box

(xii) Retail (other than mall) means buildings used for the sale and display of goods other than food.Show citation box

(xiii) Service means buildings in which some type of service is provided, other than food service or retail sales of goods.Show citation box

(xiv) Warehouse and storage means buildings used to store goods, manufactured products, merchandise, raw materials, or personal belongings (such as self-storage).Show citation box

Table 1—Maximum Allowable Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption by Building Type, Commercial Buildings, kBtu/ft 2 Back to Top
Building type kBtu/ft2by fiscal year for which design for construction began
FY 2012-2014 FY 2015-2019 FY 2020-2024 FY 2025-2029 FY 2030 and beyond
Education 57 44 25 13 0
Food Sales 174 135 77 39 0
Food Service 182 141 81 40 0
Health Care (Inpatient) 141 109 63 31 0
Health Care (Outpatient) 67 52 30 15 0
Lodging 67 52 30 15 0
Retail (Other Than Mall) 57 44 25 13 0
Office 72 56 32 16 0
Public Assembly 56 44 25 12 0
Public Order and Safety 66 51 29 15 0
Religious Worship 28 22 12 6 0
Service 51 40 23 11 0
Warehouse and Storage 30 23 13 7 0

(3) For multi-family high-rise residential buildings, the maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption in kBtu per ft [2] is listed in Table 2.Show citation box

Table 2—Maximum Allowable Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption by Building Type, Multi-Family High-Rise Residential Buildings, kBtu/ft 2 Back to Top
Building type kBtu/ft2by fiscal year for which design for construction began
FY 2012-2014 FY 2015-2019 FY 2020-2024 FY 2025-2029 FY 2030 and beyond
Multi-Family in 2-4 Unit Buildings 47 37 21 11 0
Multi-Family in 5 or More Unit Buildings 42 33 19 9 0

(4) For buildings that combine one or more building types within or between Tables 1 and 2, area-weighted fossil fuel-generated energy consumption may be calculated by multiplying the floor area of each building type by the consumption value from the appropriate table for that building type, then dividing by the total floor area of the combined building types.Show citation box

(5) For Federal buildings that do not fit into any of the building type categories listed in Table 1 or Table 2 of § 433.4, a baseline fossil fuel-generated energy consumption shall be calculated using the Performance Rating Method, Appendix G of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004, as outlined in § 433.5. The maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption for the proposed design shall be calculated by using the following formula:Show citation box

Maximum Allowable Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption = ((Baseline Design Electricity Consumption × Electricity Source Energy Factor × Electricity Fossil Fuel-Generation Ratio) + Baseline Design Direct Fossil Fuel Consumption) × Fossil Fuel Reduction MultiplierShow citation box

(6) The fossil fuel reduction multiplier in the formula above shall be taken from Table 3.Show citation box

Table 3—Fossil Fuel Reduction Multiplier by Fiscal Year for Which Design for Construction Began Back to Top
Fiscal year Reduction multiplier
2012-2014 0.45
2015-2019 0.35
2020-2024 0.20
2025-2029 0.10
2030 and beyond 0.00

(7) All building energy usage, including estimated receptacle and plug loads, must be included in the calculation in Table 3 of this section.Show citation box

(f)(1) Upon petition by an agency subject to this section, the Secretary may adjust the applicable numeric requirement in paragraph (e) of this section with respect to a specific building if:Show citation box

(i) The head of the agency designing the building certifies in writing that meeting such requirement would be technically impracticable in light of the agency’s specified functional needs for that building;Show citation box

(ii) The head of the agency designing the building demonstrates that the requested adjustment is the largest feasible reduction in fossil fuel-generated consumption that can reasonably be achieved; andShow citation box

(iii) The Secretary concurs with the agency’s conclusion.Show citation box

(2) This adjustment shall not apply to the General Services Administration.Show citation box

6. Section 433.5 is revised to read as follows:Show citation box

§ 433.5 Performance level determination.

(a) For new Federal commercial and multi-family high-rise residential buildings whose design for construction began on or after January 3, 2007, each Federal agency shall determine energy consumption levels for both the baseline and proposed building by using the Performance Rating Method found in Appendix G of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, (incorporated by reference; see§ 433.3), except the formula for calculating the Performance Rating in paragraph G1.2 shall read as follows:Show citation box

Percentage improvement = 100 × (Baseline building consumption−Proposed building consumption)/(Baseline building consumption−Receptacle and process loads)Show citation box

(b) Each Federal agency shall consider laboratory fume hoods and kitchen ventilation systems as part of the ASHRAE-covered HVAC loads subject to the 30 percent savings requirements in this section, rather than as process loads.Show citation box

(c) Subject to § 433.4(d), each Federal agency shall calculate the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of a proposed design by the following formula:Show citation box

Proposed Design Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption = (Proposed Design Electricity Consumption × Electricity Source Energy Factor × Electricity Fossil Fuel-Generation Ratio) + Direct Fossil Fuel Consumption of Proposed DesignShow citation box

(d) Subject to § 433.4(d), if the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the proposed design is equal to or less than the applicable maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption value in § 433.4(e), the proposed design complies with the fossil fuel-generated consumption reduction requirement in § 433.4. If the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the proposed design is greater than the applicable maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption value in § 433.4(e), the proposed design does not comply with the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction requirement in § 433.4, and the agency must either modify the design until the design complies with the requirement, or request and receive approval from the Secretary for a downward adjustment of the requirement.Show citation box

PART 435—ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND FOSSIL FUEL-GENERATED ENERGY CONSUMPTION REDUCTION DESIGN STANDARDS FOR NEW AND MAJOR RENOVATIONS TO FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDNGS Back to Top

7. The authority citation for part 435 continues to read as follows:Show citation box

Authority: Back to Top

42 U.S.C. 6831-6832; 6834-6836; 42 U.S.C. 8253-54; 42 U.S.C. 7101 et seq. Show citation box

Subpart A—Mandatory Energy Efficiency and Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction Design Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings Back to Top

8. The headings for part 435 and subpart A are revised to read as set forth above.Show citation box

9. Section 435.1 is revised to read as follows:Show citation box

§ 435.1 Purpose and scope.

This part establishes an energy efficiency performance and maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption standard for new Federal low-rise residential buildings, for which design for construction began on or after January 3, 2007 (except as otherwise indicated: fossil fuel-generated energy requirements are applicable one year after publication of the final rule, as required by section 305(a) of the Energy Conservation and Production Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6834(a)). Additionally, this part establishes certain requirements applicable to major renovations of Federal low-rise buildings, as indicated. For renovated buildings, those requirements apply only to the portions of the building or building systems that are being renovated and to the extent that the scope of the renovation permits compliance with the applicable requirements in this rule. Unaltered portions of the building or building systems are not required to comply with this rule.Show citation box

10. Section 435.2 is amended by adding in alphabetical order new definitions for “Direct fossil fuel consumption,” “District Energy System,” “Electricity fossil fuel-generation ratio,” “Electricity source energy factor,” “Fossil fuel,” “Fossil fuel consumption for electricity generation,” “Fossil fuel-generated energy consumption,” and “Primary electrical energy consumption” to read as follows:Show citation box

§ 435.2 Definitions.

* * * * *

Direct fossil fuel consumption means the total fossil fuel consumption in a building excluding primary electrical energy consumption. This includes any fossil fuel consumption resulting from a district energy system used in a building.Show citation box

District Energy System means a central energy conversion plant and transmission and distribution system that provides thermal energy to a group of buildings (heating via hot water or steam, and/or cooling via chilled water). This definition includes only thermal energy systems; central energy supply systems that provide only electricity are excluded from this definition.Show citation box

* * * * *

Electricity fossil fuel-generation ratio means the fraction of national U.S. electricity generation from fossil fuel as provided by the Energy Information Administration Electric Power report for the appropriate year.Show citation box

Electricity source energy factor is the ratio of primary electrical energy consumed to generate and deliver energy to a site to the electrical energy consumed on site. Electricity source energy factor may be calculated by dividing the average utility delivery ratio in Table 6.2.4 of the DOE Building Energy Data Book for the appropriate year by 3412 to convert the value from Btu/kWh to kWh/kWh.Show citation box

* * * * *

Fossil fuel means a fuel formed in the earth from plant or animal remains. Fossil fuels include coal, oil, natural gas, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).Show citation box

Fossil fuel consumption for electricity generation means the primary electrical energy consumption in a building supplied from the national power grid multiplied by the electricity fossil fuel-generation ratio. Electricity generated completely from non-fossil fuel sources or from a dedicated source not connected to the national power grid is excluded from this definition.Show citation box

Fossil fuel-generated energy consumption means the sum of direct fossil fuel consumption plus fossil fuel consumption for electricity generation.Show citation box

* * * * *

Primary electrical energy consumption means the total amount of energy used to generate and deliver electrical energy to a building from the national power grid.Show citation box

* * * * *

11. Section 435.4 is amended by adding new paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) to read as follows:Show citation box

§ 435.4 Energy efficiency performance standard.

* * * * *

(d) All Federal agencies shall design new Federal low-rise residential buildings and major renovations to Federal low-rise residential buildings, for which design for construction began at least one year after publication of the final rule, to meet the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section if:Show citation box

(1) The subject building is a public building as defined in 40 U.S.C. 3301 and for which transmittal of a prospectus to Congress is required under 40 U.S.C. 3307; orShow citation box

(2) The cost of the building or major renovation is at least $2,500,000 (in 2007 dollars, adjusted for inflation).Show citation box

(e)(1) All Federal agencies shall design new Federal low-rise residential buildings or major renovations of Federal low-rise residential buildings for which design for renovation began at least one year after publication of the final rule and that are classified in paragraph (d) of this section, to meet fossil fuel-generated energy consumption values equal to or lesser than the values shown in Table 1. The maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption values in Table 1 area function of housing type and fiscal year for which design for construction began.Show citation box

(2) For the purpose of this paragraph (e), the following definitions apply:Show citation box

(i) Manufactured home means a housing unit built to the Federal Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards in 24 CFR part 3280, that is built on a permanent chassis and moved to a site. It may be placed on a permanent or temporary foundation and may contain one or more rooms.Show citation box

(ii) Multi-family in 2-4 unit buildings means a unit in a building with two to four housing units—a structure that is divided into living quarters for two, three, or four families or households in which one household lives above or beside another. This category also includes houses originally intended for occupancy by one family (or for some other use) that have since been converted to separate dwellings for two to four families. This includes modular homes but does not include manufactured homes.Show citation box

(iii) Multi-family in 5 or more unit buildings means a unit in a building with five or more housing units—a structure that contains living quarters for five or more households or families and in which one household lives above or beside another. This includes modular homes but does not include manufactured homes.Show citation box

(iv) Single-family attached means a housing unit connected to another housing unit, generally with a shared wall, that provides living space for one household or family. Attached houses are considered single-family houses as long as they are not divided into more than one housing unit and they have an independent outside entrance. A single-family house is contained within walls extending from the basement (or the ground floor, if there is no basement) to the roof. Townhouses, rowhouses, and duplexes are considered single-family attached housing units, as long as there is no household living above another one within the walls extending from the basement to the roof to separate the units. This includes modular homes but does not include manufactured homes.Show citation box

(v) Single-family detached means a separate, unconnected housing unit, not sharing a wall with any other building or housing unit, that provides living space for one household or family. A single-family house is contained within walls extending from the basement (or the ground floor, if there is no basement) to the roof. This includes modular homes but does not include manufactured homes.Show citation box

Table 1—Maximum Allowable Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption by Building Type, Low-Rise Residential Buildings, kBtu/ft 2 Back to Top
Building type kBtu/ft2by Fiscal year for which design for construction began
FY 2012-2014 FY 2015-2019 FY 2020-2024 FY 2025-2029 FY2030 and beyond
Single-Family Detached 27 21 12 6 0
Single-Family Attached 30 23 13 7 0
Multi-Family in 2-4 Unit Buildings 47 37 21 11 0
Multi-Family in 5 or More Unit Buildings 42 33 19 9 0
Manufactured Homes 52 40 23 12 0

(3) For Federal buildings that do not fit into any of the building type categories listed in Table 1 of § 435.4, a baseline fossil fuel-generated energy consumption shall be calculated using the Simulated Performance Alternative outlined in § 435.5. The maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption for the proposed design shall be calculated by using the following formula:Show citation box

Maximum Allowable Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption = ((Baseline Design Electricity Consumption × Electricity Source Energy Factor × Electricity Fossil Fuel-Generation Ratio) + Baseline Design Direct Fossil Fuel Consumption) × Fossil Fuel Reduction MultiplierShow citation box

(4) The fossil fuel reduction multiplier in the formula above shall be taken from Table 2. Show citation box

Table 2—Fossil Fuel Reduction Multiplier by Fiscal Year for which Design for Construction Began Back to Top
Fiscal year Reduction multiplier
2012-2014 0.45
2015-2019 0.35
2020-2024 0.20
2025-2029 0.10
2030 and beyond 0.00

(5) All building energy usage, including estimated receptacle and plug loads, must be included in the calculation in Table 2 of this section.Show citation box

(f)(1) Upon petition by an agency subject to this section, the Secretary may adjust the applicable numeric requirement in paragraph (e) of this section with respect to a specific building, if:Show citation box

(i) The head of the agency designing the building certifies in writing that meeting such requirement would be technically impracticable in light of the agency’s specified functional needs for that building;Show citation box

(ii) The head of the agency designing the building demonstrates that the requested adjustment is the largest feasible reduction in fossil fuel-generated consumption that can reasonably be achieved; andShow citation box

(iii) The Secretary concurs with the agency’s conclusion.Show citation box

(2) This adjustment shall not apply to the General Services Administration.Show citation box

12. Section 435.5 is revised to read as follows:Show citation box

§ 435.5 Performance level determination.

(a) For new Federal low-rise residential buildings whose design for construction started on or after January 3, 2007, each Federal agency shall determine energy consumption levels for both the baseline building and proposed building by using the Simulated Performance Alternative found in section 404 of the ICC International Energy Conservation Code, 2004 Supplement Edition, January 2005 (incorporated by reference; see§ 435.3).Show citation box

(b) Subject to § 435.4(d), each Federal agency shall calculate the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of a proposed design by the following formula:Show citation box

Proposed Design Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption = (Proposed Design Electricity Consumption × Electricity Source Energy Factor × Electricity Fossil Fuel-Generation Ratio) + Direct Fossil Fuel Consumption of Proposed DesignShow citation box

(c) Subject to § 435.4(d), if the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the proposed design is equal to or less than the applicable maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption value in § 435.4(e), the proposed design complies with the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction requirement in § 435.4. If the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption of the proposed design is greater than the applicable maximum allowable fossil fuel-generated energy consumption value in § 435.4(e), the building does not comply with the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption reduction requirement in § 435.4, and the agency must either modify the design until the design complies with the requirement, or request and receive approval from the Secretary for a downward adjustment of the requirement.Show citation box

[FR Doc. 2010-25852 Filed 10-14-10; 8:45 am]

Footnotes Back to Top

1. Under 40 U.S.C. 3301(5) “public building” is a building, whether for single or multitenant occupancy, and its grounds, approaches, and appurtenances, which is generally suitable for use as office or storage space or both by one or more Federal agencies or mixed-ownership Government corporations.

“Public building” includes Federal office buildings, post offices, customhouses, courthouses, appraisers stores, border inspection facilities, warehouses, record centers, relocation facilities, telecommuting centers, similar Federal facilities, and any other buildings or construction projects the inclusion of which the President considers to be justified in the public interest.

The definition does not include a building or construction project that is on the public domain (including that reserved for national forests and other purposes); that is on property of the Government in foreign countries; that is on Indian and native Eskimo property held in trust by the Government; that is on land used in connection with Federal programs for agricultural, recreational, and conservation purposes, including research in connection with the programs; that is on or used in connection with river, harbor, flood control, reclamation or power projects, for chemical manufacturing or development projects, or for nuclear production, research, or development projects; that is on or used in connection with housing and residential projects; that is on military installations (including any fort, camp, post, naval training station, airfield, proving ground, military supply depot, military school, or any similar facility of the Department of Defense); that is on installations of the Department of Veterans Affairs used for hospital or domiciliary purposes; or the exclusion of which the President considers to be justified in the public interest.

Existing Buildings – Sustainability Resources – Meeting 2030 Guidelines

Online Resources:

Advanced Buildings

Advanced Buildings was developed by the New Buildings Institute.  It is a collection of technical resources and training opportunities useful to the design and operation of high performance buildings.  Resources include a database of high performance buildings that use less than 50% of the energy of conventional buildings http://www.advancedbuildings.net/

American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE)

The ACEEE has promoted energy efficiency practices and policies for nearly 30 years. Titles of its numerous technical papers and conference proceedings, including their semi-annual Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings are all listed on the site along with purchasing information. http://www.aceee.org  American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) ASHRAE is a professional organization dedicated to the creation and promotion of quality-based standard practices in the HVAC&R industry.  Members have access to ASHRAE technical articles and conference papers.  Anyone can browse abstracts of ASHRAE’s numerous books, journal articles and other technical publications that are available for purchase.      http://www.ashrae.org

Architecture 2030 Challenge

This initiative has established performance standards for buildings to achieve by the year 2030.  The standards include significant reductions in green house gases, energy consumption, and the use of fossil fuel.  Guidelines for Implementation of these standards are provided here.  http://www.architecture2030.org/2030_challenge/index.html

ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guides

ASHRAE developed design guides for six building types; healthcare, offices, lodging, schools, retail, and warehouses.  The goal of these guides is to provide users with the tools to achieve building energy savings that are 30% above the savings of buildings that meet the minimum requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 1999.  http://www.ashrae.org/publications/page/1604

Assessment of the Technical Potential for Achieving Net Zero-Energy Buildings in the Commercial Sector

This National Renewable Energy Laboratory paper reports on the findings from their research to assess the potential for zero-energy building technologies and practices to reduce energy consumption in the commercial building sector. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy08osti/41957.pdf

Energy Efficiency Class Resources

Buildings Energy Data Book, 2009 The Department of Energy’s Buildings Energy Data Book is updated annually.  This publication contains statistics on residential and commercial building energy consumption in the US.  The Data Book also includes characteristics and efficiencies of common commercial equipment.  http://buildingsdatabook.eere.energy.gov/

BuildingGreen

BuildingGreen is a good resource for information on environmentally friendly products, building design and operation practices.  This site provides abstracts of all articles from Environmental Building News, plus full text of selected articles, product reviews, GreenSpec® product information service, and resource lists on green building topics. http://www.buildinggreen.com

California Energy Commission.  Title 24 Energy Efficiency Standards

The CEC’s web site provides access to the new Title 24 Standards, Residential and Nonresidential Compliance Manuals, Alternative Calculation Manuals, and the 2008 Reference Appendices.  Links are also provided for information about Computer Compliance Software and HERS regulations. http://www.energy.ca.gov/title24/2008standards/

Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS)

CBECS is a sample survey of U.S. commercial buildings’ energy characteristics that is published every 4 years by the Energy Information Administration.  The survey includes data on buildings’ energy consumption, energy expenditures, end-use equipment, and energy sources. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/

Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE)

CEE promotes the manufacture and acquisition of energy efficient products and services for homes and businesses.  Topics include lighting, HVAC, and refrigeration equipment.  Efficiency specifications, product information, qualifying equipment lists, and FAQs on commercial equipment are available on this site. http://www.cee1.org

DOE Zero Energy Buildings Database

This database features profiles of eight zero energy commercial buildings.  Each profile contains an overview and information about the process, financing, land use, site, energy use, materials, indoor environment, ratings, and lessons learned. http://zeb.buildinggreen.com/

ENERGY STAR.

Benchmarking The EPA’s energy performance rating system has tools and resources for benchmarking the energy performance of buildings.  Tools include Portfolio Manager and the Benchmarking Starter Kit. http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=eeps_guidebook.eeps_guidebook-2-benchmarking

ENERGY STAR Building Upgrade Manual

This manual is a guide to planning and implementing energy saving building upgrades.  Individual chapters cover heating and cooling, lighting, air distribution, load reduction and retrocommissioning.  http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfmc=business.bus_upgrade_manual  Flex Your Power.

Commercial Sector: Upgrade Your Facility

The Commercial Sector of this site includes steps and tools for upgrading your facility, plus a Best Practices Guide for improving the energy efficiency of office buildings and lowering operating costs.  The guide also includes case studies. http://www.fypower.org/com/upgrade.html

Energy Efficiency Class Resources

Green Building Research Center (GBRC).  University of California, Berkeley The GBRC was created to promote sustainable building design and operation on the Berkeley campus.  The Best Practices case studies feature the top design and retrofit performers in energy efficiency, sustainability, innovation, and cost-effectiveness throughout the UC/CSU/CCC community.  http://www.greenbuildings.berkeley.edu/index.htm

LEED for Existing Buildings

Operations & Maintenance LEED for Existing Buildings Rating System helps building owners and operators measure their existing operations and improvements to their practices.  This system includes Operations & Maintenance Rating System, Checklist, and Reference Guide.  These publications can be downloaded from this site. http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=221

LEED® Green Building Rating System

This newest version of LEED launched in April 2009.  Learn about the components of this updated building rating system for new construction and major renovations, opportunities for LEED training, webcasts, and LEED credentials here.  The LEED Reference Guides can be downloaded or ordered in hard copy from this USGBC site.  Project Profiles and Case Studies can be found under the Resources navigation tab.  http://www.usgbc.org/DisplayPage.aspxCMSPageID=1970

Commissioning and Retrocommissioning  California Commissioning Collaborative

The California Commissioning Collaborative is a group of government, utility, and building service professionals organized to develop and promote commissioning practices in the California.  The CCC site includes over 40 case studies, and has recently added a Library to its Resources that contains articles, white papers, guides, and sample commissioning documents. http://www.cacx.org

Cost-Effectiveness of Commercial-Buildings Commissioning.

Evan Mills et al. This December 2004 paper is a comprehensive compilation and analysis of commissioning data from over 200 commercial buildings throughout the United States.  The paper examines commissioning data from both existing and new buildings.  http://eetd.lbl.gov/emills/PUBS/Cx-Costs-Benefits.html  Green California.

Commissioning and Retro-Commissioning Buildings

California’s initiative for green buildings includes the commissioning and retrocommissioning process.  This section describes the commissioning and retrocommissioning process and provides access to many useful guidelines, reports, and tools.  Links to related Green California sites are also provided. http://www.green.ca.gov/CommissioningGuidelines/default.htm

A Practical Guide for Commissioning Existing Buildings

Prepared by the staffs of Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. and Oakridge National Laboratory, this guide covers the benefits and methodologies of retrocommissioning projects.  http://www.osti.gov/bridge/product.biblio.jsposti_id=15043

Incentives  Commercial Building Tax Deduction Coalition

This coalition presents an overview of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and provides answers to some frequently asked questions.  Links to related rules and legislative updates are also available on this site.  http://www.efficientbuildings.org

Energy Efficiency Class Resources

Commercial Lighting Tax Deduction Find details on the tax deductions available for lighting upgrades here.  A Guide to the Energy Efficient Commercial Buildings Deduction, resources to assist with implementing the deduction, information about lighting technologies, ASHRAE 90.1, and case studies are provided.  http://www.lightingtaxdeduction.org/

DSIRE

Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency DSIRE provides information about financial incentives for renewable energy and energy efficiency projects throughout the United States.  Information is provided on state, local, utility, and federal programs and is organized by state.  Click on the state of California to view information about available incentives.  http://www.dsireusa.org

Energy Star® for Business Improvement.

Tools and Resources This is the Energy Star program’s gateway to documents and software for measuring, managing, and improving business energy usage and financial performance. Energy Star also provides a directory for locating Energy Star labeled energy efficient products and services. http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfmc=tools_resources.bus_energy_management_tools_resources  ENERGY STAR.

Tax Deductions for Commercial Buildings.

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 provides tax deductions to building owners and designers for energy saving measures included in new or existing commercial buildings.  This site provides links to resources that provide details about these deductions.  http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfmc=tax_credits.tx_comm_buildings

Tax Incentives Assistance Project (TIAP)

TIAP provides tax incentive information to homeowners, businesses, builders and manufacturers.  Some of the information provided includes an overview of tax incentives, credit amounts, and descriptions of eligible projects. http://www.energytaxincentives.org

PG&E Resources:  Business Tools

PG&E Business Tools include Energy Usage, Billing History and Rate Comparison Tools. http://www.pge.com/mybusiness/myaccount/analysis/

Demand Response Program

Information on the various Demand Response programs offered by PG&E can be found here. http://www.pge.com/mybusiness/energysavingsrebates/demandresponse/

Large Business Energy Management Solutions

Here you will find information about cash rebates and incentives for replacing existing equipment with new energy efficient technologies or purchasing new equipment.  Design assistance for a new facility and system process is also available.  http://www.pge.com/mybusiness/energysavingsrebates/incentivesbyindustry/

Small and Medium Businesses Energy Management Solutions

Information about rebates, incentives, and resources available for your retrofit or new construction project can be found here.  http://www.pge.com/mybusiness/energysavingsrebates/smallmediumbusiness/

 

ASHRAE GreenGuide: The Design, Construction, and Operation of Sustainable Buildings, 2 nd  ed.  ASHRAE, 2006 ‰

Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.  ASHRAE/ANSI Standard 90.1-2007 ‰

Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Methods for Architects.  Norbert Lechner.  Wiley, 2008 ‰

LEED for Existing Buildings. Version 2.0.  Reference Guide.  USGBC, 2006 ‰

Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings, 10 th  ed. Benjamin Stein, ed.  Wiley, 2006 ‰

Retrocommissioining:  Program Strategies to Capture Energy Savings in Existing Buildings.  Jennifer Thorne.  ACEEE, 2003

Journals  ‰

Building and Environment ‰

Consulting-Specifying Engineer ‰

Energy and Buildings ‰

Environmental Design + Construction (ED +C) Magazine ‰

High Performance Buildings ‰

HPAC Engineering Magazine

Other Print Resources:  ‰

Energy Conservation in Existing Buildings.  ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 100-2006.  ASHRAE, 2006 ‰

Energy Efficiency Guide for Existing Commercial Buildings: The Business Case for Building Owners and Managers.  ASHRAE, 2009