How to Select a JOC Unit Price Book

How to Select a JOC Unit Price Book– WHITE PAPER


A Common Data Environment in the form of a locally researched detailed Unit Price Book, UPB, significantly improves renovation, repair, maintenance, and new construction outcomes.


A Unit Price Book – UPB – is very important to the quality, integrity, productivity, and transparency of a Job Order Contract.

That said, not all JOC Unit Price Books are the same, and the selection can benefit greatly from a strategic review of the goals and objectives of your JOC Program.

Here are a few items to consider when selecting a JOC Unit Price Book.

Is the UPB locally researched for the cities, counties, states, and/or regions for the JOC area, or does it depend upon location factors? The use of location factors and an associated contruction price book based upon national average costs can introduce gross errors versus having a unit price book locally researched for your specific location(s).

What labor rates are being used and how detailed is the information? All federal JOCs and a growing number of state/county/local JOCs require Davis-Bacon wage rates. Davis-Bacon wage rates are applied differently depending on the location, and the researcher. Some are dependent upon mileage from a central location, others by region, etc. The UPB should incorporate the highest level of detail available and the most recent cost data. Labor generally represents 60% of the total cost of construction project, thus accurate labor information is very important.

Do crews represent real world construction practices? Many of the commonly used price books, even the “leading cost books”, may not have crews that represent your work practices.  This can lead to inaccurate productivity rates and significant errors in construction costs.

Are tasks described in plain English and are terms common to the trade used? Using a UPB can be extremely difficult if tasks are not easily and fully understood. Abbreviations should be limited to units of measure, and even then, used in a consistent manner.

Is a common data architecture used for line item organization? The use of CSI Masterformat for data aggregation helps to assure efficient distribution, modification/updating, and proper use of the UPB in concert with JOC Program procedures and goals. The cost database and associated projects and estimates can be cost effectively created, stored, maintained, and used within a common data environment (CDE) and JOC-specific technology.

Is the size of the UPB manageable? Some UPB providers provide hundreds of thousands of line items. An excessive number of UPB line items can be a detriment. Most JOCs involve common renovation and repair tasks and commonly use less than 30,000 line items on a repeatative basis.  Excessive numbers of line items can slow productivity, introduce errors, and cause confusion

Are line item modifiers used? Modifiers are important as they add or deduct costs from the “parent” line item based upon variables such as quantity, material qualities, etc. Modifiers, on average, account for 30% of the cost a JOC task order.

Are demolition line items present? As JOC Programs focus upon renovation and repair, demolition line item costs are an important component JOC unit price book and most JOC estimates.

Are full training and support services available in multiple levels (introductory, advanced) and formats (on-site, regional, virtual)? Ongoing training and support by senior JOC professionals are critical to program success.

Is the UPB vendor independent from your JOC program? It is critical that any JOC consultant involved in approving individual JOC task orders not be compensated on a percentage fee basis of the project construction cost.  This has been noted as a structure to be avoided in various audits by government agency auditors.

Learn more…

Take your JOC to the Max.jpg

Glossary and Supplementary Notes:

Collaboration – Collaboration among construction project participants and/or stakeholder is critical to assuring a proper definition of the scope of services, and thus mandatory if the estimate is to reflect the expectations of the owners, design, contractor, etc. Achieving the best possible outcome for the estimate and the overall construction project, is dependent upon the processes involved in gathering accurate information in a timely manner. Employing the actions and philosophies associated with continuous improvement and LEAN best management practices adds to the overall success as well.

Contractors – Detailed, unit price, line item estimates are used to bid jobs and also done by general contractors and construction managers to validate bids from sub-contractors.

Detailed cost estimate – A forecast of construction cost, prepared on the basis of a detailed analysis of materials and labor for all items of work.”– 13th edition of the Architect’s Handbook of Professional Practice

Material, Equipment, & Labor – A detailed, unit cost, line item construction cost estimate involves a review and understanding of the scope of work of the associated project, including all possible factors and risks. Materials, labor, and equipment costs are provided in the highest level of granularity.

Owners – Real property owners and/or facilities managers responsible for life-cycle management of the built environment. Detailed, unit price, line time estimates are required by public agencies for most JOC/IDIQ construction projects. If the project exceeds a specified dollar threshold, an independent owner estimate must also be created (also called an independent government estimate – IGE). Line item estimates are also used to create and validate construction budgets.

Productivity – Earned value work accomplished, generally represented as a percentage. Construction productivity can be affected by multiple variables; labor composition, skill level, weather, work flow, site access, materials availability, etc.

Required Skills – Field experience at construction sites is extremely important, as is the only way to gain a true appreciation of processes, risk factors, and other variables that can impact a construction project. The ability to review and interpret construction drawings, work with cost estimating formulas and technologies, and the ability to communicate information to disparate disciplines and audiences are also vital.

Process Tasks – Processes associated with creating a line item construction cost estimate include the following:

Full definition of the scope of services requires several considerations, such as:

  • Estimate preparation
  • Validation of contents and assumptions
  • Estimate reconciliation (if multiple estimates are required for a project)
  • Documenting and presenting the estimate
  • Identifying inclusions and exclusions
  • Defining the basis to be used for pricing (construction cost databases and/or unit price books – UPB, unit price guides, subcontractor quotes)
  • Presentation of line items as bare costs or inclusive of overhead and profit
  • Classification system to be used, i.e. CSI MasterFormat, Uniformat II, WBS, etc.
  • Format of the estimate (summary level, detailed level, price vs. non pre-priced items, associated formulas, source of each line item).

The above information is via Four BT, LLC – Best value provider of JOC solutions: Unit Price Books, Technology, support, training, and professional JOC services – 4BT.US

Learn more…



OpenJOC – Job Order Contracting the Way it’s Supposed to be!

OpenJOC is a standardized, independent, objective, and defensible method for organizing, describing, pricing, procuring, and managing renovation, repair, and minor new construction activitivies.

OpenJOC, a LEAN construction delivery method  associated levels of higher productivity,  requires an OPEN common data environment (CDE).     A locally researched unit price book, UPB,  provides a common data environment for JOC and other LEAN construction delivery methods.

standardized cost data

The 4BT OpenJOC Unit Price Book (approximately 60,000 line items) provides a significant benefits to owners, contractors, and subcontractors in the following ways…

  1. Davis-Bacon labor data, locally research and properly applied, providing 30%+ greateer accuracy than traditional sources.
  2. Locally researched labor, material, and equipment – cost localization factors are not used (Cost localization factors introduce gross error)
  3. Line item modifiers for quantity, material, and location – Line item modifiers can significantly (10$-50%) impact cost.
  4. Fraction of the cost of alternative sources.
  5. Standard data architecture – CSI Masterformat is the North American standard data format for construction.
  6. Description in plain English using industry standard terms with limited use of abbreviations – Promotes higher levels of productivity, collaboration, and communication , and mitigates errors and omissions.

The 4BT OpenJOC Unit Price Book provides transparent, locally research, detailed construction cost estimates for repair, renovation, repair, maintenance, sustainability, and/or new construction projects.

The use of standardized data formats and descriptions which can easily be understood by project participants is central to any successful construction project, and currently an industry void.

Construction cost unit price books should provide consistent clear descriptions of each line item in common terms that all parties can easily understand.  Abbreviations should be avoided whenever possible.

Each line item task, in addition to being clearly defined in “plain English” should include any associated details such as material, equipment, and labor requirements.

Best Value Job Order Contracting Solutions

History of Job Order Contracting – JOC, The LEAN Collaborative Construction Delivery Method

Early 1980’s – U.S. Military Academy, West Point, facility engineers realized the disadvantages of the design-bid-build construction delivery system, and implemented an a new indefinite delivery- indefinite quantity (IDIQ) facility maintenance contract which was first used by the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) in Belgium.

West Point managed to accomplish the following:

  1. Minimized the response time for facility construction.
  2. Reduced the workload on in-house design staff.
  3. Enhanced quality control.
  4. Lowered the contract administration costs.
  5. Reduced construction costs.
  6. Reduced the backlog of maintenance and repair.

[1999, Journal of Construction Education, Development of the Job Order Contracting (JOC) Process for the 21st Century, Dean T. Kashiwagi and Ziad Al Sharmani, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona]

Timeline (please comment/suggest additions and/or modifications)

1981  -“ Existing in federal procurement since 1981, and only recently making its way down to state and municipal levels, Indefinite Delivery (ID) contracting is a procurement mechanism designed to streamline the competitive bidding process for governmental owners. Invented by the Department of Defense for use by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, ID contracts have been used routinely and effectively by the DOD for installation maintenance, minor repair, and construction projects since its inception in 1981.” “Whether classified as an ID, JOC, or TOC contract, each shares certain similarities.” (2006, IDIQ Contracts, Denise Farris | March 30, 2006 | Construction)

1985 – West Point Academy

1986 – Air Force bases – SABER

1987 – Navy JOC

1988 – JOC  Implemented Army-wide (1997 – Improving the Army’s Job Order Contracting ProgramCE704R1, September 1997, Jordan W. Cassell, Linda T. Gilday)

1988 – When job order contracting was first developed in 1988, MCACES was the only estimating system available to JOC users. Since that time, the JOC concept has changed somewhat; contracting officers now have a choice of estimating systems. Current Army policy requires that all Army installations use the MCACES UPB as the estimating system under JOC. The Air Force uses the R.S. Means estimating system. The Navy uses both the R.S. Means and the MCACES UPB estimating systems.  (Improving the Army’s Job Order Contracting Program CE704R1 September 1997)

1990 – U.S. Navy publishes Job Order Contracting P068B, September 1990

1992 – Assistant Secretary of the Army for Installations, Logistics, and Environment, and the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research, Development, and Acquisition establish a Job Order Contracting Steering Committee to develop recommendations for policies, guidance, procedures, and training for the U.S . Army JOC Program

1995 – Army’s JOC policy manual, Job Order Contracting Guide, is published.

1996 – U.S. Army’s Center for Public Works (USACPW) Humphreys Engineer Center published the Job Order Contracting Directory (October 1996), and  supports a telephone hotline for JOC installations through a private contractor, U.S. Cost, Inc., and publishes a newsletter called “JOCkey”.

How NOT to run a Job Order Contract – JOC

How NOT to run a Job Order Contract

Job order contracting can delivery a significantly higher number of quality renovation, repair, and maintenance construction projects on-time and on-budget.

There can be major issues, however, if an Owner is not fully involved and doesn’t have the ability to create and manage a JOC Program per best management practices.

Here are few items that should NOT be done in a Job Order Contract:

  1. Do not use Job Order Contracting as means to bypass the procurement/purchasing department, or to execute construction jobs that otherwise would not normally have been approved.
  2. As an Owner, do not pay a fee to a JOC consultant based upon the amount of construction associated with the JOC program, if  the consultant project approval authority.  This can create a potential, if not overt conflict of interest.
  3. Do not use JOC for projects under or over established dollar thresholds per contract.
  4. Do not make JOC awards to contractors solely bases upon price and/or coefficient.
  5. Do not allow any JOC task order to be approved without a detailed review of the contractor’s construction cost estimate.
  6. Do not start a JOC project without a joint site visit (with the contractor) and a project kick-off meeting.
  7. Do not approve any JOC project/task order that has nonprepriced items (line item not obtained directly from the approved JOC Unit Price Book) totaling  more than 10% of the total project cost.
  8. Do not omit to conduct internal JOC line item estimates for project over a specified threshold.
  9. Do not conduct a JOC Program without regular audits.
  10. Do not conduct a JOC Program without annual training for all participants.
  11. Do not approve or implement a JOC Contract wihout a comprehensive written JOC Operations Manual and its mandated use as part of the contract.
  12. Do not create or implement a JOC without a thorough review of applicable law / regulations.
  13. Do not expect a contractor to be able to create a construction estimate without provide a sufficient statement of work – SOW.
  14. Do not approve a JOC without a project timeline.
  15. Do not assume a JOC unit price book is static.  At a minimum the UPB should be updated annually, and adjusted quarterly via an economic factor.
  16. Do not approve coefficients outside of a range of 0.80 to 1.20 unless there are mitigating factors.


JOC, SABER, IDIQ – Efficient Construction Project Delivery – Job Order Contracting

Early and ongoing information sharing, from concept thru warranty and beyond, is the single most important aspect to achieving optimal construction outcomes.

Few experienced architects, engineers, contractors, or owners would disagree with the above statement.  Yet, the importance of the construction delivery method in enabling the above and driving greater productivity and satisfaction is rarely understood.

Collaboration, transparency, communication, actionable & current information, and skilled teams are fundamental requirements for renovation, repair, maintenance, or new construction projects.   All, however, require robust, LEAN best management practices and technology for appropriate support and consistent implementation.

While design-built (DB) and integrated project delivery (IPD) are suitable LEAN delivery methods for major new construction, they are not properly scaled for the numerous and ongoing renovation, repair, sustainability, and minor new construction projects that account for the bulk of real property management activities.

Fortunately collaborative construction delivery methods for smaller projects have been implemented and proven for over a quarter of century.  They go by various names, such as JOB ORDER CONTRACTING – JOC, SABER, IDIQ, TOC, etc.    All may be implemented is varying manners tailored to Owner requirements and market sectors, however, all stand ready to support the increased focus upon maintaining existing buildings and other forms of physical infrastructure.

Despite the availability of LEAN construction delivery methods for renovation, repair, and maintenance, few real property owners outside of the Federal Government sector apply them on a widespread and/or appropriate basis.  The negative result of lack of education, awareness, and best practice implementation on a widespread basis is a continuance of waste and low productivity endemic to the construction sector.

All real property owners and oversight groups, whether in federal/state/county/local government, education, healthcare, transportation, utilities, etc., would benefit from the cost and time benefits provided by collaborative construction delivery, especially JOB ORDER CONTRACTING – JOC.

The Federal Government developed and leads in the implementation of Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) construction delivery and procurement approaches, and specifically JOC.    JOC is a long-term contract (typically 3-5 years).  Work is delivered under multiple task orders, and the specific project needs are undefined at contract acquisition. A JOC does have a detailed, line item unit price book – UPB that is organized using industry standards such as CSI’s Masterformat.   The Contractor(s) is selected for the duration of the contract and is awarded work based upon performance and need.  A minimum and maximum dollar values is associated with the contract.  Benefits of this approach are clear.  The contractor(s) is more experienced with the owner’s buildings, requirements, and work methods/processes and both procurement and overall project delivery times are significantly reduced.   Higher quality and satisfaction also are benefits as both owners and contractors have a better understanding of actual job scope as well as mutual expectations.

Job Order contracting best supports ongoing renovation, repair, maintenance, sustainability, and minor new construction projects vs. other project delivery methods.

Individual JOC task orders average under $1 million, yet JOC contracts can range to $350M+.

The following graphic outlines a typical JOC process.

job order contracting

Owners request a contractor proposal, a joint site visit assures full understand of job scope, detailed line item costs are developed by the contractor and by the owner (based upon size of the job), owner issues a notice to proceed, and work is completed and approved.

Technology supports and embeds the JOC process and is mandatory for enabling optimal efficiencies. JOC-specific software versus spreadsheets drives collaboration, accuracy, transparency, information use and re-use, and assure appropriate reporting.


Job Order Contracting – JOC – Certificate Program

The Alliance For Construction Excellence



ACE Job Order Contracting (JOC) Certificate Program

Mondays,  4:30 – 8:00 p.m.

 October 29th – March 4th (15 weeks)
Four Monday classes will not be held due to the holidays
Location: To be Confirmed 

The ACE Job Order Contracting (JOC) Certificate Program is an in-person, 56 hour program that will result in attendees receiving their JOC Professional Certification upon completeion of the program and the passing of the Certification exam.
Sessions will cover:

  • Different Project Delivery Methods and their applications
  • Basic elements of JOC
  • Requirements of a Successful JOC Program and is it the right method
  • JOC Operations including how to set up a JOC Program
  • Roles and Responsibilities of those involved
  • Individual Job Order to include Preconstruction Services, Scope of Work, Price schedule and change orders
  • How to manage a JOC Program to include training, reporting, communication tools, relationship building techniques and audits
  • Job Order Pricing
  • JOC Selection Process
  • Legal considerations and contracts which are key to a successful JOC Program
  • JOC Operations Manual
  • Collaborative Thinking to ensure win-win-win results
  • Case Studies weaved throughout the 15 weeks take students into real-life experiences

Instructors to Include:

Gary Aller, Director, Alliance for Construction Excellence

Charlie Bowers, LEED AP, Centennial Contractors Enterprises

Hank Traeger, Retired, Alliance for Construction Excellence

Mark Powell, LEED AP, Kosten Technik International


ACE JOCCP is perfect course for:

Developers, Owners, Construction Managers, Project Managers, Architects, Engineers, Contractors, Subcontractors, and Residential, Civil, & Commercial Construction Professionals
There are no prerequisites to enroll in this program, but basic knowledge about the construction process will be assumed. A certificate of completion will be awarded for successful completion of the course and 5.6 noncredit CEU’s will be awarded for those who attend and successfully complete the 56 hours of instruction (3 absences are allowed to receive full CEU’s).



Registration Fee
ACE Members — $3295    l     Non-Members  — $3635
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If you have any questions, contact the ACE office at 480-965-4246.


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Job order contracting – JOC –  is an innovative procurement technique designed to provide more responsive facility maintenance, repair, sustainability,  and minor construction.  It is intended to significantly reduce engineering and procurement lead-times by awarding a competitively bid, firm-fixed-price, indefinite-quantity, multitask contract (IDIQ)  to a single general contractor. The contract consists of detailed task specifications for a multitude of real property maintenance activities encountered within a specific geographic area.

Use of a job order contract (JOC) avoids separate design, specification, and construction contracting actions. Prepriced units of work are used to help streamline the process. The contracts are awarded by competitive procedures. Upon award, a contractor receives individual task orders, also called delivery orders, based on continued levels of high performance. This incentive mechanism is unique to JOCs.

JOCs are based on a proprietary or commercially available unit price book (UPB) that lists all tasks encompassed by a contract with a corresponding unit price. The vast majority of JOC contracts use RSMeans Cost Data in some manner.  4Clicks Solutions, LLC offers  exclusively enhanced 400,000+ line item RSMeans Cost Data access inclusive of full line item descriptions and modifiers.  This UPB can be localized and supplemented with client specific line items and place within a power, easy-to-use software solution that automates many aspects and helps to assure consistency of JOC implementations.
In making offers on the JOC contract, offerers propose multipliers  or coefficients  for work performed during normal working hours, and for work performed during other than normal hours.
Multiplying the UPBs unit prices by the appropriate coefficient determines the total price. Should the task order include supplemental items that the UPB does not identify, the contractor and the owner jointly determine a fair price for these items. These items are added to the UPB work for a total cost of completing a task order. The items that are not included in the UPB are called either non-prepriced items (NPIs) or non-prepriced work (NPP).

(above adapted from Logistics Management Institute – Improving the Army’s Job Order Contracting Program, via

Job Order Contracting – JOC ( Integrated Project Delivery for Renovation, Repair, Sustainability, and Minor New Construction)Requires Owner and Contractor Expertise, Commitment, Trust, and More.

Of the two dedicated Job Order Contracting Solutions available in the United States, one provides and recommends an open, transparent, and mutually collaborative approach, including an independent, nationally recognized and vetted cost database, developed and customized as required to client requirements, from RSMeans Company LLC.

A recent Audit Report by the New York City Comptroller on a non-RSMeans based system, highlights some critical aspects of any JOC – Job Order Contracting – program.

(Report Beginning)

Audit Report on Job Order Contracting by the Department of Design and Construction (note: This is one of many audits over the past several years, with few problems resolved).
JUNE 28, 2012


Download the Complete Report (pdf 214 KB)

The Department of Design and Construction (Department) manages the design and construction of more than $6 billion new and renovated City facilities such as firehouses, libraries, courthouses, sewers, and water mains.  The Department uses job order contracting (JOC), a construction procurement method, for performing small- or medium-sized construction projects.  Under a job order contract, the Department’s Job Order Contracting Unit (JOC Unit) can direct a contractor to perform individual tasks as needed rather than awarding individual contracts for each small project.  The cost of JOC work is based on previously established unit prices for specific items (e.g., roofing, drywall, etc.).  Using the established unit prices, the JOC Unit will issue a job order to a job order contractor to carry out the work based on specific tasks.

The Department’s use of JOC began in 1996 when the Department employed a consultant, The Gordian Group, to develop and implement the Department’s JOC program that included creating a catalog of unit prices, software (PROGEN), and training and ongoing management throughout the life of the contract.

In Fiscal Years 2009 and 2010, the Department utilized 19 job order contracts authorizing  up to $74 million in construction expenditures.  Under these contracts, the Department executed   139 specific job orders totaling $24,549,827.

Audit Findings and Conclusions

The Department is unlikely to attain between $2 million and $3.7 million in cost savings from the JOC program because the program is not being administered as effectively as it should be.   Had the program been administered more effectively, the Department might have achieved a cost saving that, according to the Department’s JOC Training and Reference Manual, could  “save a typical facility owner 8-15% [highlighted in the manual] in overall project costs as compared to traditional contracting methods.”  Specifically, we found that job orders are not developed in a timely manner, cost estimates are not reliable indicators of the actual cost of work, and construction work is not carried out in a timely manner.  Moreover, there is a lack of guidelines that spell out the circumstances and monetary threshold for job order work and a lack of standards for measuring whether the JOC program is, in fact, achieving anticipated cost savings.

Furthermore, when job order work was delayed, the Department did not impose liquidated damages totaling more than $450,000.  Additionally,  problems with the Department’s PROGEN database impede the Department’s ability to effectively monitor the status of JOC project work and ensure that projects are proceeding expeditiously.  Finally, our observation of sampled job order projects and a review of file documentation leads us to conclude that the quality of work overall was satisfactory. 

Audit Recommendations

This report makes a total of 12 recommendations, including that the Department:

  • Formulate measurement criteria to assess whether the JOC program is attaining its goal of achieving savings in overall project costs.
  • Complete development and submit job orders for registration within the required 45-day timeframe.
  • Provide independent estimates for job order work.
  • Ensure that JOC contractors complete work on schedule.
  • Develop and implement written guidelines that stipulate the circumstances and monetary threshold under which the use of job order contracts would be appropriate.
  • Ensure that all job orders contain provisions for liquidated damages.  Determine whether liquidated damages should be assessed for the cases noted in this report.
  • Ensure that accurate and complete information is recorded in the PROGEN system.

(Report End)

What JOC should be….

“Job Order Contracting (JOC) is a method of managing multiple details of renovation, rehabilitation, repair, and other construction projects on a predetermined set of pricing and standards. By using JOC customers take advantage of a process that is fast and responsive to their needs while providing excellent quality construction.”

–Center for Job Order Contracting Excellence (\

Benefits that could be realized by implementing a robust job progam:

Faster project delivery (3-9 months less), Streamlined engineering and design, Cost visibility/transparency, Better contractor performance, Integrated Team – Partnering/collaborative owner/contractor relationship, More opportunities for local business, Effective use of year-end funds, Higher overall satisfaction

Items to Consider for a Robust, Transparent, and Successful JOC Program:

Assess in-house capabilities
   Project Management Capacity
      Line-item estimating, or ability to review  estimates, Proactive definition of scope, In-house maintenance crews
Training Plan
How will JOC interface with your design professionals?
Flowcharting how JOC process will interface with purchasing, management and board approvals
Contractor Requirements{
  Company culture of high performance needed to succeed in JOC?
  Ability and capacity to create productive teams?
  Proactive rather than reactive?
  Line item estimating capabilities?
Additional items for consideration for implementing or improving a JOC – Job Order Contracting or SABER Program:
o Your specific requirements, implementations, responsibilities, level of involvement, and rules for youre JOC or SABER Project Delivery Program
o Basic elements of JOC
o Requirements of a Successful JOC Program and is it the right method
o JOC Operations including how to set up a JOC Program
o Roles and Responsibilities of those involved
o Individual Job Order to include Preconstruction Services, Scope of Work, Price schedule and change orders
o How to manage a JOC Program to include training, reporting, communication tools, relationship building techniques and audits
o Job Order Pricing
o JOC Selection Process
o Legal considerations and contracts which are key to a successful JOC Program
o JOC Operations Manual
o Collaborative Thinking to ensure win-win-win results
o Review of past experiences / case studies of others
o Role of Technology and selecting appropriate JOC Program Partners
o The Value / Importance of Objective third-party cost data / UPBs
via – Premier providers of cost estimating and project management software for efficient project delivery – Job Order Contracting – JOC, SABER, IDIQ, SATOC, MATOC, MACC, POCA, BOA.

Job Order Contract – Job Order Contracting – JOC

Job Order Contracting – JOC (also known as SABER in the Air Force)  is an efficient way of getting the numerous, commonly encountered renovation, repair , remodeling and smaller construction projects done faster and collaboratively under a single contract.

JOC is collaborative process, a form of Integrated Project Delivery – IPD,  embracing partnering and teamwork between Owners,Contractors and AEs.  JOC provides a robust, prove process methodology to execute a wide variety of indefinite delivery, indefinite quantity – IDIQ , fixed price, multiple simultaneous orders for renovation, rehabilitation, repair, and sustainability work for large facilities and infrastructures – DOD, non-DOD Federal Departments and Agencies, State/County/Local Government, Education, Healthcare, Transportation/Airports…

Job Order Contracting provides increased productivity, accurate reporting mechanisms and transparency.

via – Premier software for efficient project delivery – JOC, SABER, IDIQ, SATOC, MATOC, MACC, POCA, BOA …


Advantages of using a JOC program (source-JOC Wiki)

The major advantages of job order contracting include:

  1. Fast and timely delivery of projects.
  2. Low overhead cost of construction procurement and delivery.
  3. Development of a partner relationship based on work performance.
  4. Virtual elimination of contract disputes.
  5. Fewer change orders.
  6. Standard pricing and specification utilizing a published unit price book (UPB), i.e. RSMeans Cost Data, resulting in efficient and effective estimating, design, and fixed price construction.

Top-performing JOC contractors achieve a high percentage rate for completion of projects on time and on budget. Also, the JOC process provides for a single contract to be used for the delivery of multiple or repeated work orders without having to re-bid the same work as required in other commonly used delivery systems. It allows for back and forth communication and development efforts throughout a project. This differs greatly from the one way, antagonistic methods such are design-bid-build.  JOC provides the greatest advantage in situations involving recurring work when delivery times, type of work and quantity of work are indefinite. While JOC is not used for major new construction, it is best for minor new construction, adjustments, renovation, repair and maintenance of facilities.

Other advantages include:

  • Partnering and performance incentives result in high-quality construction and service and enhanced quality control. Quality JOC contractors have reduced and even eliminated punch lists.
  • Simplified design documents and acquisition processes negate the need for complicated and repetitive contract documents and reduce contract administrative costs.
  • The speed of JOC contracting ranges from 10 days to 21 days from request to construction start, since JOC projects don’t demand soliciting and acquiring a contract along with detailed plans and specifications.
  • Facility owners do not have to provide a complete design, but rather rely on the JOC contractor to produce any essential drawings for the design.
  • Employment of smaller subcontractors in the area to perform the work, allowing for the majority of the project funds to be spent locally.
  • Minimal risk for the owner in the event of problems with the contractor because the owner can stop using the contract at any time. If a performance-based system is also used, the JOC contractor can be terminated for lack of performance.
  • A win–win attitude or motivation for both the contractor and the facility owner produced by and through the long-term relationship.