Current and Future Use of BIM – 2013 – UK

The following  is from a Master’s thesis prepared by James Murray as part of the MSc individual project 2012/13, via: http://www.4Clicks.com –  Premier cost estimating and efficient project delivery software supporting JOC, SABER, IDIQ, SATOC, MATOC, MACC, POCA, BOA … and featuring integrated contract, project, document management, visual estimating/quanity take-off. QTO, and an exclusively enhanced 400,000 line itme RSMeans Cost database

The study centered upon the development of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the UK construction industry and its pontential affect  on the role of the client’s construction manager (CM).

BIM in the UK was not as advanced as claimed in the literature.

The majority of BIM use remained in the design, procurement and planning stages and as such, only isolated current impacts on the CM were suggested.

More guidance is needed, in order to place BIM in the future of UK construction…. if this does not occur, the development of BIM may stall.

Potential impacts to the CM range from increased efficiencies on site, to loss of project control and increased legislation.

The UK government 2016 deadline for BIM implementation on all UK public construction projects almost guarantees BIM in the future.


The problem with the Construction sector – ‘In a building project, each partner usually plays a specific role. This role follows from the partners’ primary interest, and results in a specific view on the building. A designer’s primary interest is for example the spatial structure, a structural engineer’s primary interest is the load bearing structure, while an energy engineer is interested in climate zones.
As a result of this, buildings and building parts are viewed differently by each partner…’(van Nederveen and Tolman in 1992)

The Origins of BIM -” BIM (Building Information Modelling/ Building Information Management) is a combination of 3D modelling technology and an open and sharing culture (Davies & Harty 2013). The first documented use of the term BIM can be dated back to 1992 (van Nederveen & Tolman). However, the theories behind the culture of BIM can be dated to 1975, when C.M Eastman suggested the use of integrated databases and standardized drawings to aid in project control (Eastman, Teicholz, Sacks & Liston 2008). The software vendor’s competition for BIM dominance began in 1997, after the launch of Autodesk’s Revit Architecture software (Hasan & Yolles 2009). This has since developed into a thriving market, which has resulted in a series of slightly different, competing BIM applications (Howell & Batcheler 2005).   The combination of culture and technology makes BIM unique. To perform BIM on a project, members of the team blend the use of modelling technologies, with behaviors and policies that run throughout a project lifecycle, from cradle to grave (Autodesk 2011).”

“The combination of culture and technology makes BIM unique. To perform BIM on a project, members of the team blend the use of modelling technologies, with behaviors and policies that run throughout a project lifecycle, from cradle to grave (Autodesk 2011).”

“The cultural aspect of BIM implementation requires all contributors to a project to openly share information they hold about the build with the other parties to the contract (Eastman et al 2008). It is this sharing culture that is considered revolutionary in the construction industry, as it is a move away from traditional trends of secretive parties and regular disputes (Davies & Harty 2013).”

Industry resistance to change   “ BIM requires a change in culture to implement the technology available. For example, the use of the BIM model to produce cost and time estimates has been identified as a paradigm shift (Gier 2008). A paradigm shift is a change from an established process and school of thought, to a new one, thus creating a change in cultures. It is in this paradigm shift where the barrier lies. As identified in the Egan report, 1998, the UK construction industry has a reputation of being slow to accept change (Egan 1998), which has caused it to lag behind the adoption of 3D modelling, when compared to other industries (Cabinet Office 2011).
This reluctance to change could also create resistance to overcoming the barriers of trust detailed above. To increase trust, a change away from the current culture of information hording, to one of sharing and transparency should be made.
These barriers of trust and culture could have secondary impacts on the CM, whereby if they are not removed the benefits of BIM may not be realised.”

BIM Levels:

4 Levels of BIM4 Levels of BIM Implementation


Market Share:  BIM Market Share

Definition of BIM – Building Information Modeling – Defintions from Various Sources

‘Building Information Modelling (BIM) is digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility creating a shared knowledge resource for information about it forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life cycle, from earliest conception to demolition.”

“BIM provides a common environment for all information defining a building, facility or asset, together with its common parts and activities.This includes building shape, design and construction time, costs, physical performance, logistics and more. More importantly, the information relates to the intended objects (components) and processes, rather than relating to the appearance and presentation of documents and drawings.More traditional 2D or 3D drawings may well be outputs of BIM, however, instead of generating in the conventional way ie. as individual drawings, could all be produced directly from the model as a “view” of the required information.” – RICS

Building information modeling (BIM) is a process involving the generation and management of digital representations of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. The resulting building information models become shared knowledge resources to support decision-making about a facility from earliest conceptual stages, through design and construction, through its operational life and eventual demolition.” – Wikipedia 12/25/2011

“The future of BIM modeling is to expand the information model to include more of the life cycle phases (ie: real property commerce, maintenance and operations, environmental simulation, etc.), to standardize life cycle process definitions and associated exchanges of information, and to standardize information content so that meanings and granularity are clear and consistent.” – NIBS, 6/25/2012

Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the process of generating and managing building data during its life cycle[1]. Typically it uses three-dimensional, real-time, dynamic building modeling software to increase productivity in building design and construction.[2] The process produces the Building Information Model (also abbreviated BIM), which encompasses building geometry, spatial relationships, geographic information, and quantities and properties of building components.” – Free Dictionary, 6/25/2011

Building Information Modelling (BIM) is the process of generating and managing data about the building, during its life cycle. Typically BIM uses three-dimensional, real-time, dynamic building modelling software to increase productivity in the design and construction stages. ” – NBS, 6/25/2012

“A Building Information Model (BIM) is a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. As such it serves as ashared knowledge resource for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life-cycle from inception onward. A basic premise of BIM is collaboration by different stakeholders at different phases of the life cycle of a facility to insert, extract, update or modify information in the BIM process to support and reflect the roles of that stakeholder. The BIM is a shared digital representation founded on open standards for interoperability.” – NIBS, buildingSMART, NIBS, 2006

via – Premier cost estimating and integrated project delivery software for Job Order Contracting – JOC, SABER, IDIQ, SATOC, MATOC, MACC, POCA, BOA.   Featuring exclusively enhanced 400,000 line itme RSMeans Cost Data and/or custom cost information.

What is BIM – Strategy, Process, or Technology ?

BIM is an integration of process and technology to enable the efficient life-cycle management of facilities (the latter including vertical and horizontal physical infrastructure… buildings, roadways, utilities, landscapes, etc.).  BIM is a digital integration of previously disparate processes and technologies to allow organization to better link the built environment to support physical and functional requirements, while at the same time optimizing return on investment and associated impacts upon the environment.  Considerations include design, procurement, construction delivery methods, construction management, condition assessment, repair, renovation, adaptation, utilization, capital planning and budgeting, life/safety, security, and sustainability.

BIM is divergent from the traditional antagonistic and inefficient architectural, design, engineering, construction,  and operations management process which have been responsibility for the lack of overall productivity in these sectors.  BIM is a collaborative process involving all stakeholders/shareholders and is supported by an integral digital framework.  The latter enables rapid, scalable deployment and consistent/transparent deployment and management.


BIM - Integration of Process and Technology to Enable Efficient Facility Life-Cycle Management


BIM requires a structured approach relative to terms, definitions, data architectures across multi-disciplinary knowledge domains to allow for efficient, transparent data sharing and re-use.  Some of the associated, currently silo-based competencies and activities are shown in the below graphic.

BIM requires the integration of currently disparate processes and technologies



Green-Washing and Cloud-Washing – Terms you must know relative to BIM – Not to mention BIM-Washing

BIM is the life-cycle management of facilities supported by digital technology – NIBS.   That said, BIM is critical to sustainability/green as is collaboration and cloud computing.

As BIM, Green/Sustainability, and Cloud Computing are considered “new” and not necessarily  “mainstream”.. and all three are “hot topics”, it’s not surprising that some organizations are engaging in BIM-washing, Green-washing, and Cloud Computing-washing.

These issues are extremely important, thus worthy of discourse.


Here’s an informal poll relative to Green-washing.   The question, asked on Linked-In was “Labels + Certificates = Sustainability. Yes. No. Or?”   The question and responses bring to mind “LEED”… a great marketing tool perhaps, but it’s value remains uncertain, especially when considering long-term/life-cycle aspects.  Also what due labels really mean… who polices product labels?  Is bamboo really green if you consider it is transported halfway around the world.  Is mercury-based lighting sustainable?  Oh and yes…. the Prius and other vehicles have the nasty little batter disposal problem to deals with…



Cloud computing is NOT taking legacy applications and moving them to the cloud via a virtual server.  Cloud computing consists of three tier technology.

Cloud Layers

Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS).

Cloud computing is viewed as a means to break down traditional data and process stovepipes.  Cloud computing encompasses four different deployment models, and in these preliminary stages of cloud development, organizations are free to determine which model best serves their needs.  The four models, as defined by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (“NIST”), include: (1) private clouds, for the use of a single agency; (2) community clouds, shared by multiple agencies; (3) public clouds, largely for the public’s use and benefit; and (4) hybrid clouds, facilitating the sharing of data and utilities across two or more unique clouds of any type.

(Peter Mell and Tim Grance, Nat’l Inst. of Standards and Tech., The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing – 2009)

Cloud computing will enable collaborative, secure, and transparent applications and the rapid deployment of robust business process.. both so sorely needed in the AECOO sector (architecture, engineering, construction, owner, operator).

Major Shifts in Information Technology



Ok folks.  I’ve said it before, and I will say it again.  3D visualization is NOT BIM !!!   The integration all aspects and processes of facility life-cycle management is BIM.   Will all this occur in Revt, Archcad, or some IWMS system… absolutely NOT!    Cloud computing, however, integrated with existng knowledge-domains such as CPMS, Construction Project Delivery (IPD, JOC), CMMS, CAFM, GIS, BAS, ….   now that’s BIM!

BIM Strategy and Framework

What is BIM … It’s not Revit, Archicad, Bentley …

BIM and Cloud technologies/processes will redefine the relationships between all construction professionals.

BIM is the life-cycle management of the built environment supported by digital technology.  While 3d visualization, aka Revit, Archicad, Bentley, et al is a valuable component of BIM it is neither the primary component, or necessarily a requisite component.   These 3d visualization tools and their suppliers have primarily targeted architects and designers.  Why is that?   It’s simple, 3d visualization helps in the visual design and “selling” of structures.  When combined with MEP, it also can save money relative to crash/collision detection.

The true value of BIM, however, lies within business management and process change/adaptation.  The integration of previously disparate silos of construction and facility management information and processes into a collaborative, transparent environment is what BIM offers.

How do we get there?  Simple really, the combination of BIM with CLOUD technology will result in disruptive, positive change.  Affordable, scalable technology is now available to embed robust business processes.

For example, Integrated Project Delivery (IPD), and Job Order Contracting (JOC), the latter being IPD for facility renovation, repair, sustainability and minor new construction, are both efficient, proven construction delivery methods.  The are now both available embedded within technologies to support the collaborative needed of Owners, Contractors, AEs, BPMs (business product manufactures), and the relevant other Community members.

The linking of efficient construction delivery methods like IPD and JOC, with CPMS, CMMS, CAFM, BAS, GIS… to name a few… has already begun.

Valuable information On-Demand to enable efficient construction and facility management is BIM… part technology, part process, 100% collaborative.

Terms of equal import to BIM?   ” Adaptive Project Delivery” and “Adaptive Construction Management”.

BIMF - The Framework for BIM

via – Premier software for efficient project delivery – JOC, IPD, SABER, SATOC,IDIQ,  MATOC, MACC, POCA, BOA …

The Top Ten Truths About BIM

The BIM Top Ten

One:  BIM, in conjunction with Cloud Technology enables efficient building life-cycle management

Two:   BIM embeds robust life-cycle management PROCESSES within technology to enable rapid implementation, scalability, transparency, collabration and assure consistency.

Three:  The ‘I’ within BIM, INFORMATION, in terms of standardized definitions, data architectures, taxonomies, metrics, etc. is a core component of BIM.

BIM Survey - What is BIM?

Four:  BIM and CLOUD processes/technologies are disruptive and will alter the AEC sector significantly. Everyone’s role changes, as well as how we work and communicate with each other.

Five:  Owners must take the lead, they pay the bills… period.  Government can play a role relative to mandates.

Six:  Efficient, collaborative, and integrated construction delivery methods are central to BIM – Integrated Project Delivery (IPD), Job Order Contracting (JOC).. the latter is IPD for renovation, repair and sustainability projects.

Seven:  BIM is NOT 3-D visualization, however 3-D visualization is a valuable component of BIM. BIM is a combination processes from mulitple domains, technology, and product solutions

Eight:  BIM is the integration of CPMS, CMMS, CAFM, ACD (Adaptive Construction Delivery), GIS, BAS, and BPM (bulding product manufactures) methods and data.

Nine:  Software interoperability is a requirement.

Ten:  BIM will make the world of planning, architecture, design, engineering, contruction, operations, and maintenance of the built environment FLAT

This is BIM

BIM for FM – Life-cycle Facility Management

Building information modeling (BIM) is a disruptive new technology in the construction industry and altering way structures are managed from concept thru deconstruction.  The processes in which Owners, Contractors, Architects, Engineers, Engineers, Overight Groups, Users Business Product Manufacturers, manage the built environment will dramatically change.

Collaboration, communication, and transparency will drive improved productivity and decision support.  Utilization, sustainability, security and life-safety, as well as long term economics will all be improved.

BIM models, communicating with multiple other knowledge domains, such as CPMS, CMMS, CAFM, BAS, GIS, and efficient contruction delivery methods such as JOC – Job Order Contracting, and IPD – Integrated Project Delivery will enable the improved, standardized information usage.

Life-cycle management supported by digital technology and robust, domain specfic, supportive knowledge area is the hallmark of BIM.

Life-cycle BIM - Bulding Information Modeling Framework


Collaboration Levels - Contruction Delivery Methods are Integral to BIM

BIM is 10% Technology 90% Sociology

BIM for FM – BIMF – Change on the Horizon – FINAL

Culture and process drive BIM, the begining and the end of the story. 

Those that understand this will also understand the importance IPD (Integrated Project Delivery) and JOC (Job Order Contracting).

The the number one problem of BIM (as well as IPD and JOC),  is not technology, but personality (Randy Deutsch).    All three have been around for a decade or longer, and only recently are they begining to be understood and implemented on an acclerated basis.

What is BIM – Software, Business Process? – BIM Definition – NIBS – National BIM Standard – BIM Standards

Both….  BIM is a digital technology and a business process for life-cycle facility management, from concept thru disposal.

The below figure represents components of a BIM strategy.

What is a BIM?

The National Building Information Model Standard Project Committee defines BIM as:

Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility.  A BIM is a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life-cycle; defined as existing from earliest conception to demolition.

A basic premise of BIM is collaboration by different stakeholders at different phases of the life cycle of a facility to insert, extract, update or modify information in the BIM to support and reflect the roles of that stakeholder.

The US National BIM Standard will promote the business requirements that BIM and BIM interchanges are based on:

  • a shared digital representation,
  • that the information contained in the model be interoperable (i.e.: allow computer to computer exchanges), and
  • the exchange be based on open standards,
  • the requirements for exchange must be capable of defining in contract language.

As a practical matter, BIM represents many things depending on one’s perspective:

  • Applied to a project, BIM represents Information management—data contributed to and shared by all project participants.  The right information to the right person at the right time.
  • To project participants, BIM represents an interoperable process for project delivery—defining how individual teams work and how many teams work together to conceive, design, build & operate a facility.
  • To the design team, BIM represents integrated design—leveraging technology solutions, encouraging creativity, providing more feedback, empowering a team.¹

NBIM standard will incorporate several elements described later in this document but the focus will be on standardized processes which define “business views” of data needed to accomplish a particular set of functions.