Strategic Facility Management Execution Plan

Asset Lifecycle Model
Facility / Infrastructure Total Cost of Ownership Management
Framework, Glossary & Definitions

  1. Life-cycle versus first-cost perspective
  2. Value-based procurement
  3. Outcome-focused LEAN management
  4. Collaborative construction delivery – Job Order Contracting, JOC and Integrated Project Delivery
  5. Common terms, definitions, and standardized data architectures
  6. Preventative versus reactive maintenance
  7. Data-driven decision support
  8. Key performance indicators – KPIs

job order contract

The consistent use outcome-focused and best value based LEAN collaborative business practices deliver robust, scalable and repeatable processes to drive efficient life-cycle management of the  built environment and associated renovation, repair, maintenance, sustainability, and new construction.

Collaboration, transparency, mutual respect, and common terminology enable effective communication among the various decision makers, building managers, operators and technicians involved with facilities and physical infrastructure investment and management.

Activities that occur over the lifetime of a physical asset – programming, design, construction, operations, maintenance, repairs and utilization – and there are requisite core skills or COMPETENCIES to perform these activities.  Owner must become better educated in order to perform in their role as stewards of the built environment.

These competencies are  aligned with multiple specialized asset management business processes and practices.  The level of collaborative leverage of Competencies and Asset Management Business Processes and Practices determines of effectively an asset’s life-cycle will be managed.

strategic facility management

Job order contacting relationship model

job order contracting value-based

job order contacting strategy

job order contracting

Competency: Space Planning, Utilization
Metrics/Cost Models
􀀹 Annualized Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) per building per gross area = Rate per square foot
􀀹 Annualized TCO per building/Current replacement value = Percent of Current Replacement Value (CRV)
􀀹 Annualized TCO per building/Net assignable square feet = Cost rate per net assignable square
feet per building
􀀹 Annualized TCO per building/Non-assignable square feet = Cost rate per non-assignable square
feet per building
􀀹 Annualized TCO per building/Building Interior square feet = Cost rate per interior square foot per
􀀹 Churn Rate
􀀹 Utilization Rate

Adequate Facility/Structure/Space
A facility/structure/space that is fully capable of supporting its current use without modification or repairs (beyond currently funded routine maintenance) and has an acceptable level of reliability.

Work required to adjust interior arrangements or other physical characteristics of an existing facility/structure so that it may be more effectively adapted to or utilized for a new or changed use.

Assignable Square Feet
A term used to describe areas that may be occupied and is acceptable for a designated purpose or function. It does not include walls, stairways, corridors, restrooms, parking facilities or mechanical space.

Area/Gross Square Footage (GSF)

A unit of measure representing the cumulative total of an organization’s building(s) inclusive of all floors to the outside faces of exterior walls. Defined as the sum of the floor areas on all levels of a building that are totally enclosed within the building. Measure exterior building gross area to the outside face of exterior walls, disregarding canopies, cornices, pilasters, balconies and buttresses that extend beyond
the wall face and courtyards that are enclosed by walls but have no roof. The building exterior gross area of basement space includes the area measured to the outside face of basement or foundation walls. Exterior bridges and tunnels that are totally enclosed, constructed areas connecting two or more buildings are included in building exterior gross area. This measurement indicates total constructed space and is useful for building efficiency and construction cost comparisons. (Source: ASTM E 1836-01)

Building Core and Service Area
Defined as the floor area of a facility, which is necessary for the operation of the facility and is not available for general occupancy. This may include the following: building lobbies, mechanical rooms, electrical rooms, telephone (communications) rooms, restrooms, custodial rooms, loading docks and utility tunnels that are not used for any other purpose. (Source: ASTM E 1836-01)

Building Projections
A convector, baseboard heating unit, radiator, or other building element located in the interior of a building adjacent to a wall that prevents the use of that space for furniture, equipment, circulation or other functions. (Source: ASTM E 1836-01)

Box Move
No furniture moved, no new wiring or telecommunication systems required. Files and supplies moved. (Source: Project Management Benchmarks, IFMA © 2002)

Bullpen Style Offices
Open office areas with no partitions. (Source: Project Management Benchmarks, IFMA © 2002)

Churn Rate
The total number of moves made within a 12-month period of time divided by the number of occupants during the same period. (Source: Project Management Benchmarks, IFMA © 2002)

Common Support Areas
Facility assignable area includes the area devoted to common support services. Common support area is the portion of the facility usable area not attributed to any one occupant but provides support for several or all occupant groups. Examples of common support areas are: cafeterias, vending areas, auditoriums, fitness facilities, building mail rooms and first aid rooms. These may be separately identified as a sub-category of facility assignable area if required. (Source: ASTM E 1836-01)

Construction Move
New walls, new or additional wiring, new telecommunication systems or other construction needed to complete the move. (Source: Project Management Benchmarks, IFMA © 2002)

Excluded Area
Fully enclosed spaces with adequate clear headroom that are not intended for, or are not suitable for occupancy by people or equipment, but not spaces that are temporarily unusable due to flood, fire damage, construction or renovation activity. (Source: ASTM E 1836-01)

Exterior Walls
Defined as the width of the walls as measured at the intersection of the plane of the finished floor and the finished interior surface of the walls. (Source: ASTM E 1836-01)

Facility Assignable Area
Calculated by measuring the portions of the floor used to house personnel, furniture, support areas and common support areas. Each assignable area is measured to the outside of the enclosing wall or furniture panel except in the case where a wall or furniture panel is common to more than one assignable area. In this case measurements are taken to the center of the wall or furniture panel. This measurement is useful for detailed programming, planning, allocating and layout of space. (Source:
ASTM E 1836-01)

Facility Interior Gross Area
Defined as the building exterior minus the thickness of the exterior walls. (Source: ASTM E 1836-01)

Facility Rentable Area
Calculated by subtracting major vertical penetrations, interior parking space and void areas from facility
interior gross area. (Source: ASTM E 1836-01)

Facility Usable Area
Calculated by subtracting the primary circulation and the building core and service areas from the facility rentable area. It is area that can be assigned to occupant groups. This measurement is useful for programming, planning and allocating space. (Source: ASTM E 1836-01)

Finished Surface
A wall, ceiling or floor surface (including glass) as prepared for tenant or occupant use. Excluding the thickness of any special surfacing materials such as paneling, furring strips and carpet. (Source: ASTM E 1836-01)

Furniture Move
Reconfiguration of existing furniture and/or furniture moved or purchased. Minimal telecommunication reconfiguration needed. (Source: Project Management Benchmarks, IFMA © 2002)

Interior Parking Space
Defined as space used for vehicular parking space that is totally enclosed within the (occupied) building envelope. (Source: ASTM E 1836-01)

Interstitial Area
The area of load-bearing surfaces, located above or below occupied building floors that are not available for general occupancy due to inadequate clear headroom, but may contain building mechanical or electrical systems predominantly serving adjacent floors or provide access to such systems. (Source: ASTM E 1836-01)

Major Vertical Penetrations
Includes stairs, elevator shafts, utility tunnels, flues, pipe shafts, vertical ducts and their enclosing walls.
(Source: ASTM E 1836-01)

Open Plan Offices
Office spaces divided by movable partitions. (Source: Project Management Benchmarks, IFMA © 2002)

Primary Circulation
Defined as the portion of a building that is a public corridor or lobby. Further defined as space required for access by all occupants on a floor to stairs, elevators, restrooms and building entrances or tenant space entry points on multi-tenant floors. (Source: ASTM E 1836-01)

Private Office
Enclosed office, enclosed floor to ceiling walls. (Source: Project Management Benchmarks, IFMA © 2002)

Secondary Circulation
Defined as the portion of a building or floor required for access to some subdivision of space that is not defined as primary circulation. Secondary circulation may or may not be surrounded by walls or furniture panels. (Source: ASTM E 1836-01)

Space Planning
Space Planning is the process of analyzing current and future requirements relative to physical assets (i.e., type, condition, size, capacity, with respect to their ability to support and advance programs and activities at a level deemed appropriate by appropriate parties in concert with associated regulations, codes, mandates, and acceptable levels of performance). Space planning typically involves identifying
each distinct type of activity covered by the program and defining the appropriate values relative to size, capacity, utilization rates, etc.

Swing Space
Temporary space dedicated to displaced workers until permanent space is finished. (Source: Project Management Benchmarks, IFMA © 2002)

Utilization Rate
An indicator used to determine how efficiently available space is being used. Usually time-based in terms of month, quarter or year.
Utilization Rate = Occupied Space
Facility Usable Area

Void Areas
Defined as rooms that are more than one story in height. Void areas exist on upper floors such as atriums, light wells or lobbies. (Source: ASTM E 1836-01)

Defined as any type of space designated for occupant usage (either open or enclosed area), where an
occupant can be seated. (Source: Project Management Benchmarks, IFMA © 2002)

Competency: Programming
Metrics/Cost Models
􀀹 AI (Adaptation Index) or PI (Programmatic Index) = PR (Program Requirements)
CRV (Current Replacement Value)
􀀹 Uptime or Downtime – Defined in percent, as amount of time asset is suitable for the program(s) served.

Adaptation Index or Adequacy Index (AI) or Programmatic Index (PI)
A comparative inter/intra sector metric/benchmark expressed a value from 0.0 to 1.0 that indicate the program/mission-based condition of a facility. AI is calculated by dividing the total value of deferred physical programmatic/adaptive requirements (PR) by the current replacement value (CRV) (i.e. AI=PR/CRV).
Program-based or programmatic requirements are facilities-specific needs that are established to meet the mission of the facility or organization, inclusive of evolving technological, programmatic or regulatory demands.
Taking an educational science laboratory as an example, while an existing lab may have zero physical deficiencies the configuration and equipment (e.g. fume hoods, lighting, computer networks, etc.) may not be suitable for current teaching methods. All of the physical, program-related needs therefore have a cost to remedy, and are considered as programmatic deficiencies. Similar to physical deferred maintenance, deferred programmatic requirements are those current needs that are not funded in the present fiscal year. Additionally, the facilities-specific programmatic requirements may include items such as space, configuration, adjacency, security, etc.

Adequate Facility/Structure/Space
A facility/structure/space that is fully capable of supporting its current use without modification or repairs (beyond currently funded routine maintenance), and has an acceptable level of reliability.

Work required to adjust interior arrangements or other physical characteristics of an existing facility/structure so that it may be more effectively adapted to or utilized for a new or changed use.

Assignable Square Feet
A term used to describe areas that may be occupied and is acceptable for a designated purpose or function. It does not include walls, stairways, corridors, restrooms, parking facilities or mechanical space.

Facility Usable Area
Calculated by subtracting the primary circulation and the building core and service areas from the facility rentable area. It is area that can be assigned to occupant groups. This measurement is useful for programming, planning and allocating space. (Source: ASTM E 1836-01)

Programming is the process of planning and organizing the quantitative physical requirements of resources needed to accomplish established goals. A program is an organized set of activities directed toward a common purpose or goal undertaken or proposed in support of an assigned area. A program is characterized by a strategy for accomplishing a definite objective(s), which identifies the means of accomplishment,
particularly in quantitative terms, with respect to manpower, materials, and facilities requirements. A program normally includes an element of ongoing activity and is typically comprised of technology-based activities,
projects, and supports an established level of reliability.

Competency: Design, Construction
Metrics / Cost Models
􀀹 Estimating Index (Source: SAM Initiative, APPA 2003)
􀀹 Delivery Speed, Cost Rate of Facility to Completion, Dollar per square foot per month (Source:
Selecting Project Delivery Systems, Sanudio/Konchar, 1999)
􀀹 Project Soft Cost Index (Source: SAM Initiative, APPA 2003)
􀀹 Total Cost (inclusive of construction, design, project management, etc.)/square foot vs. Regionalized Applicable Standard Reference Cost, Percent Variance

Architecture and Engineering Costs
All actual/projected costs charged by the architecture and engineering firms to a project. Total actual project costs represent the total actual cost to complete and close a project.

Any combination of engineering, procurement, erection, installation, assembly or fabrication activities involved
to create a new facility/structure or to alter, add to, or rehabilitates an existing facility/structure, and its support areas such as parking, grounds, roadways, service buildings for power generation, waste disposal, etc., and the costs to construct interior spaces including the costs of ceilings, lighting, life safety such as sprinklers,
heating, ventilation, air conditioning, floor systems, carpeting, walls, doors, hardware and special finishes.

Design begins with and is the analysis, understanding and response to the base of data, intentions, and impressions collected in the process of discovering what there is to know about a project. The combination of all this into a unified solution is the synthesis that is the core of design.

Estimating Index
The purpose of the estimating index is to measure the accuracy and credibility of the estimate as compared to actual work accomplished. The index is usually used for measuring performance for projects or reimbursable work orders. Different size projects may be accomplished so differently that they may be grouped into several
categories with an estimating index calculated for each. Deviations outside of a reasonable range of values should be examined for opportunities to learn and improve the estimating process. The use of this indicator should also encourage field personnel to be innovative in reducing actual time and costs. As with any cycle of improvement, consistent performance above or below 1.00 will indicate that the estimates are no longer credible and that the estimates need to be adjusted to reflect the actual level of productivity. The estimating index is the ratio of actual time or costs to do work divided by estimated time or costs. The unit of measurement should be the same for both actual and estimated. Time is usually measured in days and costs
are usually measured in whole dollars. When measuring the average performance over a period of time, such as monthly, the number of samples can vary so long as they contain a representative mix to provide reasonable accuracy. The index is usually represented as a decimal number. The estimating index will be greater than 1.00 when the actual time or costs exceeds the estimate. Similarly, the estimating index will be
less than 1.00 when the actual time or costs is less than the estimate.
Estimating Index = Actual Time or Costs
Estimated Time or Costs
(Source: SAM Initiative: APPA 2003)

job order contracting

Project Soft Cost Index
The purpose of this performance indicator is to determine the relative percentage of soft costs in a project. A smaller percentage implies a more efficient use of project funds. The performance indicator can be used to determine how efficiently project funds are utilized for individual projects or to trend cumulative results and
variances for numerous projects over time. These costs are related to those items in a project that are necessary to prepare and complete the non-construction needs of the project. Soft costs include such items as architecture, design, engineering, permits, inspections, consultants, environmental studies and regulatory
demands needing approval before construction begins. Soft costs do not include construction, telecommunications, furnishings, fixed equipment and expenditures for any other permanent components of
the project.
Project Soft Cost Index = Soft Costs
Adjusted Total Actual Project Cost
(Source: SAM Initiative: APPA 2003)

Construction Management At-Risk
Defining Characteristics:
• Separate contracts for design and construction.
• Final selection of builder is based on any combination of Total Construction Costs and other criteria.
Available Selection Options:
• Qualifications Based Selection.
• Best Value Bid.
Typical Characteristics:
• Builder selection occurs during design.
• Builder selection based on a “qualifications based selection” (that may or may not include fees and/or general conditions).
• Builder provides a cost guarantee Guaranteed Maximum Price (GMP) and a schedule guarantee either
during or after their final selection.
• Builder is able to provide input such as cost, schedule and constructability during design.
• Overlapping of design and construction phases (fast-tracking) of the project is typical.
• Cost guarantee provided in the form of a not-to-exceed Guaranteed Maximum Price (GMP).
• Selection of designer and builder are independent processes.
Note: For each of the project delivery methods found below, Design-Build, Design-Bid-Build, and Construction Management At- Risk, the method’s “defining” characteristics, the available selection options (based on definitions provided) and a few sample “typical” characteristics of each method are provided for clarification purposes.
“Defining Characteristics” – Prescribe a delivery method and uniquely distinguish a delivery method from the other delivery methods.
Available Selection Options (definitions):
• Low Bid – Builder’s final selection based 100% on lowest Total Cost and no other criterion.
• Best Value Bid – Builder’s final selection based on some weighting of the Total Cost and other criterion such as
• Qualifications Based Selection – Total Construction Cost not a factor in the builder’s final selection. The final selection of the builder is based on either:
o Pure qualifications based selection (qualifications only, no element of price) or
o A combination of qualifications and fees (possibly including general conditions).
“Typical Characteristics” – Typical characteristics may be “typical” characteristics of a delivery method, but are not required to define the delivery method.

Defining Characteristics:
• Separate contracts for design and construction.
• Final selection of builder is based usual on Total Construction Cost.
Available Selection Options:
• Low Bid Only (based on the “defining characteristics”).
• Best Value.
Typical Characteristics:
• Design is typically near 100% complete at time of final builder selection.
• The construction phase follows the design phase (after bid process) in linear fashion.
• Selection of designer and builder are independent processes.
Defining Characteristics
• A single contract for design and construction.
Available Selection Options:
• Qualifications Based Selection.
• Best Value Bid.
• Low Bid.
Typical Characteristics:
• Design-Builder able to provide input such as cost, schedule and constructability during design.
• Overlapping of design and construction phases (fast-tracking) of the project.
• Cost guarantee provided in the form of a not-to-exceed Guaranteed Maximum Price (GMP).

Competency: Operations
Metrics/Cost Models
􀀹 Facility Operating Gross Square Foot (GSF) Index (SAM Performance Indicator: APPA 2003)
􀀹 Custodial Costs per square foot
􀀹 Grounds Keeping Costs per square foot
􀀹 Energy Costs per square foot
􀀹 Energy Usage
􀀹 Utility Costs per square foot
􀀹 Waste Removal Costs per square foot
􀀹 Facility Operating Current Replacement Value (CRV) Index (SAM Performance Indicator: APPA 2003)

Energy Usage
This performance indicator is expressed as a ratio of British Thermal Units (BTUs) for each Gross Square Foot (GSF) of facility, group of facilities, site or portfolio. This indicator represents a universal energy consumption metric that is commonly considered a worldwide standard. This energy usage metric can be tracked over a
given period of time to measure changes and variances of energy usage. Major factors that effect BTU per gross square foot are outside ambient temperature, building load changes, and equipment efficiencies. The amount of energy it takes for heating, cooling, lighting and equipment operation per gross square foot. The
indicator is traditionally represented as total energy consumed annually or monthly. All fuels and electricity are converted to their respective heat, or BTU content, for the purpose of totaling all energy consumed.
Energy Usage = British Thermal Units = BTUs
Gross Area = GSF

Facility Operating Current Replacement Value (CRV) Index
This indicator represents the level of funding provided for the stewardship responsibility of an organization’s capital assets. The indicator is expressed as a ratio of annual facility maintenance operating expenditure to current replacement value (CRV). Annual facility maintenance operating expenditures includes all
expenditures to provide service and routine maintenance related to facilities and grounds. It also includes expenditures for major maintenance funded by the annual facilities maintenance operating budget. This category does not include expenditures for major maintenance and/or capital renewal funded by other accounts, nor does it include expenditures for utilities and support services such as mail, telecommunications, public safety, security, motor pool, parking, environmental health and safety, central receiving, etc.
Facility Operating CRV Index = Annual Facility Maintenance Operating Expenditures ($)
Current Replacement Value ($)

Facility Operating Gross Square Foot (GSF) Index
This indicator represents the level of funding provided for the stewardship responsibility of an organization’s capital assets. The indicator is expressed as a ratio of annual facility maintenance operating expenditure to the institutions gross area. Annual facility maintenance operating expenditures includes all expenditures to
provide service and routine maintenance related to facilities and grounds. It also includes expenditures for major maintenance funded by the annual facilities maintenance operating budget. This category does not include expenditures for major maintenance and/or capital renewal funded by other institutional accounts, nor
does it include expenditures for utilities and support services such as mail, telecommunications, public safety, security, motor pool, parking, environmental health and safety, central receiving, etc.

Facility Operating GSF Index = Annual Facility Maintenance Operating Expenditures ($)
Gross Area (GSF)

All activities associated with the routine, day to day use, support and maintenance of a building or physical asset; inclusive of administration, management fees, normal/routine maintenance, custodial services and cleaning, fire protection services, pest control, snow removal, grounds care, landscaping, environmental
operations and record keeping, trash-recycle removal, security services, service contracts, utility charges (electric, gas/oil, water), insurance (fire, liability, operating equipment) and taxes. It does not include capital improvements. This category may include expenditures for service contracts and other third-party costs.
Operational activities may involve some routine maintenance and minor repair work that are incidental to operations but they do not include any significant amount of maintenance or repair work that would be included
as a separate budget item.

Normal/Routine Maintenance and Minor Repairs
Cyclical, planned work activities funded through the annual budget cycle, done to continue or achieve either the originally anticipated life of a fixed asset (i.e., buildings and fixed equipment), or an established suitable level of performance. Normal/routine maintenance is performed on capital assets such as buildings and fixed equipment to help them reach their originally anticipated life. Deficiency items are low in cost to correct and are normally accomplished as part of the annual operation and maintenance (O&M) funds. Normal/routine maintenance excludes activities that expand the capacity of an asset, or otherwise upgrade the asset to serve
needs greater than, or different from those originally intended.

Predictive Maintenance/Testing/Inspection
Routine maintenance, testing, or inspection performed to anticipate failure using specific methods and equipment, such as vibration analysis, thermographs, x-ray or acoustic systems to aid in determining future maintenance needs. For example, tests to locate thinning piping, fractures or excessive vibration that are indicative of maintenance requirements.

Competency: Planned Maintenance
Metrics/Cost Models
􀀹 Planned/Preventive Maintenance Costs per square foot

Planned or Programmed Maintenance
Includes those maintenance tasks whose cycle exceeds one year. Examples of planned or programmed maintenance are painting, flood coating of roofs, overlays and seal coating of roads and parking lots, pigging of constricted utility lines and similar functions.

Preventive Maintenance
A planned, controlled program of periodic inspection, adjustment, cleaning, lubrication and/or selective parts replacement of components, and minor repair, as well as performance testing and analysis intended to maximize the reliability, performance, and lifecycle of building systems, equipment, etc. Preventive
maintenance consists of many check point activities on items, that if disabled, may interfere with an essential installation operation, endanger life or property, or involve high cost or long lead time for replacement.

Competency: User Requested Needs
Metrics/Cost Models
􀀹 Emergency Maintenance Costs as a percentage of Annual Operations Expenditures.
􀀹 Unscheduled/Unplanned Maintenance Costs as a percentage of Annual Operations Expenditures.

Emergency Maintenance
Unscheduled work that requires immediate action to restore services, to remove problems that could interrupt activities, or to protect life and property.

Unscheduled/Unplanned Maintenance
Reactive and non-emergency corrective work activities that occur in the current budget cycle or annual program. Activities may range from unplanned maintenance of a nuisance nature requiring low levels of skill for correction, to non-emergency tasks involving a moderate to major repair or correction requiring skilled

Competency: Repairs
Metrics/Cost Models
􀀹 Repair costs (man hours and materials) as a percentage of Annual Operations Expenditures

Work that is performed to return equipment to service after a failure, or to make its operation more efficient.
The restoration of a facility or component thereof to such condition that it may be effectively utilized for its designated purposes by overhaul, reprocessing, or replacement of constituent parts or materials that have deteriorated by action of the elements or usage and have not been corrected through maintenance.

Routine Repairs
Actions taken to restore a system or piece of equipment to its original capacity, efficiency or capability.
Routine repairs are not intended to increase significantly the capacity of the item involved. For example, the replacement of a failed boiler with a new unit of similar capacity would be a routine repair project. However, if the capacity of the new unit were double the capacity of the original unit, the cost of the extra capacity would
have to be capitalized and would not be considered routine repair work.

Emergency Repairs
Requests for system or equipment repairs that are unscheduled and unanticipated. Service calls generally are received when a system or component has failed and/or perceived to be working improperly. If the problem has created a hazard or involves an essential service, an emergency response may be necessary.
Conversely, if the problem is not critical, a routine response is adequate.

Unscheduled/Unplanned Maintenance
Requests for system or equipment repairs that – unlike preventive maintenance work – are unscheduled and unanticipated. Service calls generally are received when a system or component has failed and/or perceived to be working improperly. If the problem has created a hazard or involves an essential service, an emergency response may be necessary. Conversely, if the problem is not critical, a routine response is adequate.
Reactive and/or emergency corrective work activities that occur in the current budget cycle or annual program.
Activities may range from unplanned maintenance of a nuisance nature requiring low levels of skill for correction, to non-emergency tasks involving a moderate to major repair or correction requiring skilled labor, to emergency unscheduled work that requires immediate action to restore services, to remove problems that
could interrupt activities, or to protect life and property.

Competency: Retrofits/Upgrades
Metrics / Cost Models
􀀹 FCI (Facility Condition Index) = DM (Deferred Maintenance) + CR (Capital Renewal)
CRV (Current Replacement Value)
􀀹 Recapitalization Rate, Reinvestment Rate
􀀹 Deferred Maintenance Backlog
􀀹 Facilities Deterioration Rate

Capital Asset Management
The identification and prioritization of facility and infrastructure physical, functional, and budgetary needs, spanning a multi-year timeframe. Also includes the process of reinvesting funds into physical assets in support of the organizational mission, above and beyond normal routine operations and maintenance.

Capital (Major) Maintenance/Repairs
Previous or future repairs or replacement, paid from the capital funds budget and not funded by normal
maintenance resources received in the annual operating budget cycle.
• Repairs – work to restore damaged or worn-out assets/systems/components (e.g., large scale roof
replacement after a wind storm) to normal operating condition.
• Replacement – an exchange of one fixed asset for another (e.g., replacing a transformer that blows up and shuts down numerous buildings) that has the same capacity to perform the same function.
Minimum dollar threshold levels for capital renewal are set by the building owners/manager, however typically
in excess of $5,000 or $10,000.

Deferred Maintenance/Deferred Maintenance Backlog/Accumulated Deferred Maintenance Backlog
The total dollar amount of existing maintenance repairs and required replacements (capital renewal), not accomplished when they should have been, not funded in the current fiscal year or otherwise delayed to the future. Typically identified by a comprehensive facilities condition assessment/audit of buildings, grounds,
fixed equipment and infrastructure. These needs have not been scheduled to be accomplished in the current budget cycle and thereby are postponed until future funding budget cycles. The projects have received a lower priority status than those to be completed in the current budget cycle. For calculation of facility condition index
(FCI) values, deferred maintenance does not include grand fathered items (e.g., ADA), or programmatic requirements (e.g, adaptation).

Deferred Maintenance Backlog Deterioration/Plant (Facilities) Deterioration Rate
Facilities and equipment are in a constant state of degradation. While identified deficiencies/requirements are being corrected, other deficiencies/requirements are continuously being created over time. The rate of deterioration may be expressed as a percentage of current replacement value per year. While degradation
rates vary as a function of multiple variables such as building type, current conditions, geographic location, etc., a benchmark deterioration rate for a reasonably well maintained facility is approximately 2.5% per annum.
Varying annual capital reinvestments into the physical plant and equipment may alter the degradation rate. The facility condition index (FCI) can be used as comparative metric to help monitor degradation rates.

Deficiency/Requirement (Facility/Structure/Asset)
The quantitative difference, typically in terms of dollars amount and associated physical requirements, between an assets current physical or functional condition, and an established minimum level of condition/performance.
Any problem or defect with materials or equipment.

Facility Condition Assessment (FCA)/Audit
The structured development a profile of existing facilities conditions, typically placed in an electronic database format, and populated with detailed facility condition inspection information. A detailed facility condition assessment (FCA’s) typically involve an assessment team of three professionals (architect, mechanical
engineer, electrical engineer), and depend up robust, scalable methodologies to assure accurate and consistent information. It is recommended that FCA’s be done on a regular basis, approximately every three years, or conducting a portion of the overall portfolio annually. The FCA identifies existing deficient conditions
(requirements), in logical grouping and priorities, and also, associated recommended corrections and corrective costs. Costs are generally based upon industry standard cost databases (e.g., Building News, Craftsman Book Company, Richardson General Construction Estimating Standards, RSMeans).

Facility Conditional Assessment Program (Facility Capital Planning and Management Program)
A continuous systematic approach of identifying, assessing, prioritizing, and maintaining the specific maintenance, repair, renewal, and replacement requirements for all facility assets to provide valid documentation, reporting mechanisms, and budgetary information in a detailed database of facility issues.

Facility Condition Index (FCI)
A comparative industry indicator/benchmark used to indicate the relative physical condition of a facility, group of buildings, or entire portfolio “independent” of building type, construction type, location or cost. The facility condition index (FCI) is expressed as a ratio of the cost of remedying existing deficiencies/requirements, and
capital renewal requirements to the current replacement value (i.e., FCI=(DM+CR)/CRV). The FCI provides a
corresponding rule of thumb for the annual reinvestment rate (funding percentage) to prevent further accumulation of deferred maintenance deficiencies. The FCI value is a snapshot in time, calculated on an annual basis. Forecasted FCI values for a building in the future, for example, would include the current deferred maintenance items, plus projected values of capital renewal requirements. The FCI is represented on
a scale of zero to one, or 0% to 100%, with higher FCI values, representing poorer facility’s condition. While property owners/managers establish independent standards, a “fair to good facility” is generally expressed as having an FCI of less than 10-15%.

(FCI) = Deferred Maintenance + Capital Renewal (see definition for Deferred Maintenance)

Current Replacement Value (see definition for Current Replacement Value)

Programmed Major Maintenance: Includes those maintenance tasks whose cycle exceeds one year. Examples of programmed major maintenance are painting, roof maintenance, (flood coating), road and parking
lot maintenance (overlays and seal coating), utility system maintenance (pigging of constricted lines) and similar functions.

Recapitalization/Reinvestment Rate
A facility, system, or component with existing deficiencies will deteriorate at a faster rate than a component that
is in good condition. The level of annual funding for facility renewal and deferred maintenance expressed as a percentage of facility replacement values. Altering the recapitalization/reinvestment rate has direct impact upon the facility condition index (FCI) and associated deferred maintenance levels over time.

Systems Lifecycle Costing
An estimating procedure used to determine the cost of facility system/component renewal based on the average useful life of an individual component. This procedure is typically based upon visual observations, via a facilities conditions assessment/audit, to determine the remaining useful life of a system and the development of cost models for the facility. This process enables multi-year modeling of future replacement
costs and timing.

Competency: Improvements
Metrics / Cost Models
􀀹 FCI (Facility Condition Index) = DM (Deferred Maintenance) + CR (Capital Renewal)
CRV (Current Replacement Value)
􀀹 AI (Adaptive Index) or PI (Programmatic Index) = PR (Program Requirements)
CRV (Current Replacement Value)
􀀹 FQI (Facility Quality Index) or Quality Index or Index = FCI (Facility Condition Index)+ AI (Adaptive Index)

The improvement, addition or expansion of facilities by work performed to change the interior alignment of space or the physical characteristics of an existing facility so it can be used more effectively, be adapted for new use, or comply with existing codes. Includes the total amount of expenditures required to meet evolving
technological, programmatic or regulatory demands.

Adaptation Index or Adequacy Index (AI)/Programmatic Index (PI)
A comparative inter/intra sector metric/benchmark expressed a value from 0.0 to 1.0 that indicate the program/mission-based condition of a facility. AI is calculated by dividing the total value of deferred physical programmatic/adaptive requirements (PR) by the current replacement value (CRV) (i.e., AI=PR/CRV).
Program-based or programmatic requirements are facilities-specific needs that are established to meet the mission of the facility or organization, inclusive of evolving technological, programmatic or regulatory demands.
Taking an educational science laboratory as an example, while an existing lab may have zero physical deficiencies the configuration and equipment (fume hoods, lighting, computer networks, etc.) may not be suitable for current teaching methods. All of the physical, program-related needs therefore have a cost to remedy and are considered as programmatic deficiencies. Similar to physical deferred maintenance, deferred
programmatic requirements are those current needs that are not funded in the present fiscal year. Additionally, the facilities-specific programmatic requirements may include items such as space, configuration, adjacency,
security, etc.

A change or addition to an asset that improves its performance or appearance and/or extends its useful life.

Replacement of Obsolete Items
Refers to work undertaken to bring a component or system into compliance with new codes or safety regulations or to replace an item that is unacceptable, inefficient, or for which spare parts can no longer be obtained.

Competency: Replacements
Metrics / Cost Models
􀀹 FCI (Facility Condition Index) = DM (Deferred Maintenance) + CR (Capital Renewal)
CRV (Current Replacement Value)
􀀹 AI (Adaptive Index) or PI (Programmatic Index) = PR (Program Requirements)
CRV (Current Replacement Value)
􀀹 FQI (Facility Quality Index) or Quality Index or Index = FCI (Facility Condition Index)+ AI (Adaptive Index)
􀀹 Capital Renewal Index (SAM Performance Indicator: APPA 2003)

Capital Project/Construction
A new facility, rehabilitation/renovation or major maintenance that increases the value of the location/site/campus (e.g., a new building) or extends the useful life of a facility. This work includes construction and purchase of fixed equipment. (e.g., a replacement chiller). Minimum dollar threshold levels for capital projects are set by the building owners/managers, however typically in excess of $5,000 or $10,000.

Capital Renewal (CR)/ Replacement
The systematic management process of planning and budgeting for known future cyclical repair and replacement requirements that extend the life and retain the usable condition of facilities and systems, not normally contained in the annual operating budget. This includes major activities that have a maintenance
cycle in excess of one year (e.g., replace roofs, paint buildings, resurface roads, etc.). The cyclical replacement may be for all or a significant portion (e.g., the replacement of 50% or more of a building system component (lighting system, roof system, etc.) as it reaches the end of its useful life, of major components or infrastructure systems, at or near the end of their useful service life. These activities may extend the useful life
and retain the usable condition of an associated capital asset (e.g., replacement of an HVAC system, extending the usable life of a facility). Replacement may be capitalized based on the Governmental Accounting Standards Board/Financial Accounting Standards Board (GASB/FASB) definition. A depreciation model calculates a sinking fund for this maintenance activity. Costs are estimated by a current replacement
value that is derived by industry standard cost databases, (e.g., Building News, Craftsman Book Company, Richardson General Construction Estimating Standards, RSMeans).

Capital Renewal Index
This indicator shows the relative funding effectiveness in addressing identified capital renewal and renovation/modernization needs. The numerator of this ratio is a total of the annual capital renewal expenditure and the annual renovation/modernization expenditure. Annual Capital Renewal Expenditures are all expenditures over and above facility maintenance operating budget expenditures required to keep the physical plant in reliable operating condition for its present use. These expenditures are over and above normal maintenance for items with a lifecycle in excess of one year and are not normally contained in an annual facility operating budget. This is a separately funded, uniquely identified program that renews, replaces, or renovates building systems on a schedule based on lifecycle recommendations and on assessment of expected remaining useful life. This is typically represented as a total expenditure for capital
renewal of an organization’s capital assets. Plant renewal focuses on maintaining the operability, suitability, and value of capital assets. It is accomplished through the replacement and rework of those components of a building that wear out even though those components are routinely maintained. Capital or plant renewal is a time-driven process with specific useful life cycles for heating and ventilation systems, etc. This is often provided in the form of capital funding for “major maintenance” before it becomes “deferred.”

Capital Renewal Index = Annual Capital Renewal and Renovation/Modernization Expenditure ($)
Current Replacement Value ($)
(SAM Performance Indicator: APPA 2003)

Current Replacement Value (CRV)
The total expenditure in current dollars required to replace any facility at the institution, inclusive of construction costs, design costs, project management costs and project administrative costs. Construction costs are calculated as replacement in function vs. in-kind. The value of design (6%), project management (10-12%),
and administrative costs (4%) can be estimated at 20% of the construction cost. The value of property/land however is excluded, and insurance replacement values or book values should not be used to define the current replacement value. Costs for the replacement value are typically generated using a cost models based upon the use of reference cost databases using the building construction type, user and use categories, quality level, buildings systems and or subsystems/components/units, and local experience. The property owner/manager may decide, for internal purposes, to base the current replacement value (CRV) on “replacement in kind” (duplicate constructions techniques), vs. “replacement in function” (e.g., six story office
space). The CRV’s for associated infrastructure, such as utility systems, and generating plants, roadways, non-building structures (e.g., dam, bridges, etc.) are developed in a similar manner.

Replacement of Obsolete Items
Refers to work undertaken to bring a component or system into compliance with new codes or safety regulations or to replace an item that is unacceptable, inefficient, or for which spare parts can no longer be obtained.

Facility Quality Index (FQI)/Quality Index (QI)/Index
An overall metric of facility quality inclusive of both physical and facility-specific programmatic requirements.
Expressed in a value of 0.0 to 2.0 the facility quality index is calculated as follows:
Facility Quality Index (FQI) = Deferred Maintenance (DM)+Capital Renewal (CR)+Program Requirements (PR)
Current Replacement Value ($)

Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)/Lifecycle Cost Management
Total cost of ownership (TCO) is a dollar per square foot value ($#/square foot) associated with a facility. It is a calculation of all facilities-specific costs (not including furnishings or non-facility specific equipment) divided by estimated lifespan of the building (30 or 50 years), and the total gross area. Facilities specific costs include
all construction, preservation, maintenance, and operations costs. A strategic asset management practice that considers all costs of operations and maintenance, and other costs, in addition to acquisition costs. TCO, therefore includes the representation of the sum total of the present value of all direct, indirect, recurring and non-recurring costs incurred or estimated to be incurred in the design, development, production, operation, maintenance of an facility/structure/asset over its anticipated lifespan. (Inclusive of site/utilities, new construction, deferred maintenance, preventive/routine maintenance, renovation, compliance, capital renewal, and occupancy costs.) Again, note that land values are specifically excluded.

Sustainability of DOD Buildings – Reuse of Existing Buildings

Reusing existing buildings achieves a 15%+ higher return on investment and 20% reduction in greenhouse gases.   It is less  costly and more sustainable to reuse existing buildings.

With 345,000 buildings, with over 105,000 buildings more than 50 years old, the importance of efficient renovation, repair, and sustainability of existing buildings is paramount.

DoD Building Treatment Terms
•“Adaptive reuse & rehabilitation” are terms of art outside DoD
•The DoD term for “major rehabilitation” is “modernization”
•Modernization means: “the alteration or replacement of facilities solely to implement new or higher standards to accommodate new functions or to replace a building component that typically lasts more than 50 years.”
•This study compares the costs and GHG of modernization with new construction

Sustainment/Status Quo
•Formulated for measuring baseline energy consumption
Demolition and New Construction
•LEED Silver certifiable construction – 2009 LEED for New Construction and Major Renovations
Full Modernization with Strict Application of Historic Preservation Standards (HPS)
•Full modernization with a strict application of Historic Preservation Standards ( HPS) and other DoD facility design standards
•LEED Silver
Full Modernization with Strict Application of AT/FP
•Full rehabilitation/modernization but with strict application of Anti-terrorism/ Force Protection requirements through building hardening, seismic and other DoD facility design standards
•LEED Silver

Applicable design standards include:

  • Whole Building Design
  • UFC 1-200-01 General Building Requirements
  • UFC 4-610-01 Administrative Facilities
  • UFC 1-900-01 Selection of Methods for the Reduction, Reuse and Recycling of Demolition Waste
  • UFC 3-310-04 Seismic Design for Buildings
  • DoD Minimum Antiterrorism Force Protection Standards for Buildings
  • Secretary of Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation of Historic Buildings


  • DoD’s Pre-War masonry buildings are an underutilized resource for meeting DoD GHG carbon reduction goals
  • ATFP and Progressive Collapse requirements tend to be rigidly and prescriptively applied, raising construction costs and introducing additional Scope 3 GHG emissions
  • Prior modernization treatments result in loss of original energy saving design features in Pre-War Buildings
  • Differences in GHG in alternatives resulted from the amount of new building materials introduced and transportation of demolition debris
  • Cost estimates and construction bid requests should include materials quantities in addition to costs to evaluate and validate GHG impacts.
  • Design professionals with practical experience with archaic building materials and systems are critical to the development of accurate planning level specifications
  • GHG emission tradeoffs of proposed new materials and building options should be evaluated early in the conceptual design process


  • Incorporate life-cycle GHG emissions analysis into DoD MILCON and SRM programs
  • Invest in formulation of carbon calculator system
  • Place more emphasis on existing buildings as viable project alternatives to meet mission requirements
  • Identify characteristic strengths and vulnerabilities by class of building
    Place more emphasis on existing buildings to meet DoD energy reduction goals
  • Avoid modernization treatments that result in loss of original energy saving design features in Pre-War Buildings

Green House Gas - Benefits of Building Re-use vs. New Construction

Efficient project delivery methods are of critical importance to the task of sustainability and life-cycle management of the built environment.   Job Order Contracting ( JOC ), and SABER are proven project delivery methods for renovation, repair, sustainability, and minor new construction.  JOC and SABER are a form of Integrated Project Delivery for existing buildings and infrastructure.

JOC and SABER provide the following advantages to building portfolio Owners:

•Fast and timely delivery of projects.
•Consolidation of procurement – lower overhead cost and procurement cost.
•Contractor and owner efficiencies in prosecution of the work.  Development of a partner relationship based on work performance.
•Virtual elimination of legal disputes, claims and mitigation of change orders.
•Standard pricing and specification utilizing a published unit price book (UPB), typcially RSMeans-based, resulting in efficient and effective estimating, design, and fixed price construction.
A bit more about JOC –
  1. “IPD Lite” for Existing Buildings.
  2. Consolidates procurement to shorten Project Timelines and reduce procurement costs.
  3. Transparency of pricing and procurement compliance through Unit Price Book.  Owner creates internal estimating (IGE)
  4. Long Term Facility Relationship increases productivity and enables reiterative process improvements.
  5. Quality and performance incentivized through IDIQ form of contract with minimal guarantee and clear maximum volume.

Traditional Project Delivery vs. Integrated Project Delivery – Premier cost estimating and efficient project delivery software and services for JOC, SABER, SATOC, IDIQ, MATOC, MACC, POCA, and BOA.  Featurings:

  • Exclusive 400,000 line item enhancement of RSMeans Cost Data
  • Automated Technical Evaluations
  • Contract, Project, Estimating, Document Management
  • Visual Estimating

TCO - Green House Gas

Legal and Policy Framework
•National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 ( Amended)
•Energy Policy Act of 2005
•Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007
•Executive Order 13423: Federal Environment, Energy, and Transportation Management (2007)
•Executive Order 13514: Federal Leadership in Environment, Energy, Economic Performance (2009)

AGC – Job Order Contracting Webinar – March 12, 2013

Webinar:   Job Order Contracting

Tuesday, March 12, 2013 – 2:00pm to 3:30pmJOC Process

Job Order Contracting (JOC) is an innovative delivery method focused on the renovation and repair of large facility infrastructure under a long-term contract.   JOC has been around for a long time but is experiencing an upswing in an era of limited capital dollars and greater efficiency.   Like IPD, JOC focuses on relational contracting, an integrated team, and performance incentives, but JOC is unique in its unit-price structure and repetitive delivery order process.  This webinar will demystify unit pricing, coefficient development, job order scoping and estimating process, and skillsets needed to succeed in JOC. The current JOC market will be framed, with an emphasis on serving owners throughout the building life-cycle.

During this webinar, participants will learn about:

  • Compare Job Order Contracting (JOC) to other well-known delivery methods.
  • Describe the pricing structure of JOC, identify strategies for developing a coefficient, and understand the basics of line item estimating.
  • Discuss the JOC delivery order process, including scoping, proposal preparation, and execution.
  • Identify current JOC market opportunities and dynamics, including market segments, contract structure, unit price books, consultants, etc.
  • Determine skillsets and culture to be a successful JOC contractor..


Lisa Cooley
Consultant, LEED AP

Perfecto Solis
Vice-President of Airport Development and Engineering, DFW Airport

Leo Wright
Vice-President of Job Order Contracting Division, F.H. Paschen



Any questions or changes to your registration should be made via email to

via – Premier Cost Estimating and Efficient Project Delivery Technology for JOC, SABER, IDIQ, IPD, SATOC, MATOC, POCA, BOA.

NIBS – Building Innovation 2013 Conference

I am writing this from Washington, D.C. while participating in the NIBS Building Innovation 2013 Conference.   The buildingSMART alliance conference is part of this gathering under the title “Integrating BIM: Moving the Industry Forward.”

BIM education and practice requires focus upon process and associated return-on-investment.   Robust communication and adoption of standard and/or “best practice” construction planning and delivery methods specific to efficient life-cycle management of the built environment are sorely needed.

It is amazing that Integrated Project Delivery – IPD, and “IPD-lite”… the latter being Job Order Contracting and SABER which are forms of IPD specifically for renovation, repair, sustainability and minor new construction…  are not being brought to the forefront as critical aspects of BIM.    It is the construction planning and project delivery method that sets the tone of any project and ultimately dictate relationships and associated successes or failures.

Collaboration, transparency, and performance-based win-win relationships are necessary components of a BIM-based philosophy.  Yet, these and other critical aspects; including  defensible, accurate, and transparent cost estimating and standardized construction cost data architectures, are neither in  forefront of current thinking nor receiving an adequate allocation of resources.


Far too much emphasis continues to be place on the 3d visualization component aspect of BIM, IFC format pros and cons, and other “technology” areas.


Technology is NOT what is holding back BIM, it is the apparent lack of understanding of … and associated failure to adopt … facility life-cycle management processes… combined and what can only be described as a pervasive “not invented here” attitude.

Many of of our peers are reinventing the wheel over and over again at tremendous cost to all stakeholders…Owners, AEs, Contractors, Subs, Oversight Groups, Building Users, Building Product Manufacturers, …not to mention our Economy and our Environment, vs. sharing information and working toward common goals.

BIM Evolution

In the long history of humankind, those who learned to collaborate and improvise most effectively have prevailed.
– Charles Darwin

BIM, the life-cycle management of the built environment supported by digital technology, requires a fundamental change in how the construction (Architects, Contractors, Engineers) and facility management (Owners, Service Providers, Building Product Manufactures, Oversight Groups, Building Users) sectors operate on a day-to-day basis.  

BIM, combined and  Cloud Computing are game changers.  They are disruptive technologies with integral business processes/practices that demand collaboration, transparency, and accurate/current information displayed via common terminology.

The traditional ad-hoc and adversarial business practices commonly associated with Construction and Facility Management are changing as we speak.    Design-bid-build and even Design-Build will rapidly go by the wayside in favor of the far more efficient processes of Integrated Project Delivery – IPD, and Job Order Contracting – JOC, and similar collaborative programs.  (JOC is a form of integrated project delivery specifically targeting facility renovation, repair, sustainability, and minor new construction).

There is no escaping the change.   Standardized data architectures (Ominclass, COBie, Uniformat, Masterformat) and cost databases (i.e. RSMeans), accesses an localized via cloud computing are even now beginning to be available.   While historically, the construction and facility management sectors have lagged their counterparts (automotive, aerospace, medical, …)  relative to technology and LEAN business practices, environmental and economic market drivers and government mandates are closing the gap.

The construction and life-cycle management of the built environment requires the integration off several knowledge domains, business “best-practices”, and technologies as portrayed below.   The efficient use of this BIG DATA is enabled by the BIM, Cloud Computing, and Integrated Project Delivery methods.


The greatest challenges to these positive changes are  the CULTURE of the Construction and the Facility Management Sectors.  Also, an embedded first-cost vs. life-cycle or total cost of ownership perspective.  An the unfortunate marketing spotlight upon the technology of 3D visualization vs. BIM.   Emphasis MUST be place upon the methods of how we work on a daily basis…locally and globally  − strategic planning, capitial reinvestment planning, designing collaborating, procuring, constructing, managing and operating.  All of these business processes have different impacts upon the “facility” infrastructure and  construction supply chain, building Owners, Stakeholders, etc., yet communication terms, definitions, must be transparent and consistently applied in order to gain  greater efficiencies.

Some facility life-cycle management are already in place for the federal government facility portfolio and its only a matter of time before these are expanded and extended into all other sectors.

BIM, not 3D visualization, but true BIM or Big BIM,  and Cloud Computing will connect information from every discipline together.  It will not necessarily be a single combined model.  In fact the latter has significant drawbacks.    Each knowledge domain has independent areas of expertise and requisite process that would be diluted and marginalized if managed within one model.   That said, appropriate “roll-up” information will be available to a higher level model.   (The issue of capability and productivity marginalization can be proven by looking a ERP and IWMS systems.  Integration of best-in-class technology and business practices is always support to systems that attempt to do everything, yet do not single thing well.)

Fundamental Changes to Project Delivery for Repair, Renovation, Sustainability, and New Construction Projects MUST include:

  • Qualifications Based or Best Value Selection
  • Some form of pricing transparency and standardization
  • Early and ongoing information-sharing among project stakeholders
  • Appropriate distribution of risk
  • Some form of financial incentive to drive performance / performance-based relationships

IFMA 2012 – World Workplace and BIM

On my way back from IFMA 2012, which included the initial meeting of the BIMLO committee/group.  This is a group focused upon BIM and life-cycle operation of the built environment.

Interestingly enough IFMA’s definition of facility management is virtually equal to that of BIM.   I am hopeful that IFMA will leverage it’s potential to finally get BIM moving in the right direction, and away from the the “3d distraction”.   The true value of BIM is in the development, communication, and on-going improvement of robust business processes supporting life-cycle management of the built environment, supported by standardized terms, information, data, metrics, and supporting technologies.
Lastly, collaborative construction project delivery methods are critical to BIM, including Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) for new construction, and Job Order Contracting (JOC) for renovation, repair, sustainability, and minor new construction.

Definition of Facility Management (IFMA) – Facility management is a profession that encompasses multiple disciplines to ensure functionality of the built environment by integrating people, place, process and technology.

BIM Framework and BIG DATA for Life-cycle Management of the Built Environment

Public Law 111-308 – Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act – FBPTA – CORE COMPETENCIES

Via – Premier software for cost estimating and efficient project delivery for renovation, repair, and sustainability – JOC, SABER, IDIQ, SATOC, MATOC, MACC, POCA, BOA ….

In accordance with Public Law 111-308, The Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act, GSA identified the core competencies contained in the attachment for personnel performing building operations and maintenance, energy management,  safety and design functions. The core competencies identified include competencies relating to building operations and maintenance, energy management, sustainability, water efficiency, safety (including electrical safety) and building performance measures. The core competencies will be updated annually per the law.

Congress passed FBPTA to ensure that the Federal building operations workforce is adequately trained, and that Federal buildings are maximally productive and properly serviced to achieve the highest possible return on investment over projected operating life.  The Act requires GSA, in collaboration with the Department of Defense and the Department of Energy, to identify the necessary core competencies for Federal building operations and management personnel, the methods required for demonstrating these core competencies, and a recommended course curriculum for all personnel involved in building operations and management, energy management, sustainability, water efficiency, safety, design, and performance measurement.

…”described by House and Senate Republicans as “green” legislation to create cutting edge energy conservation technology jobs.”

…”the bill is supposed to cut federal government energy costs and train the federal building maintenance work force in the use of high performance technologies for energy conservation in federal buildings.”

Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act

Core Competencies June 2012                                                                                                           

In accordance with the Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act 2010 (FBPTA), the enclosed core competencies are identified for personnel performing building operations and maintenance, energy management, sustainability, water efficiency, safety (including electrical safety), building performance measures and design functions.

Law requires an annual update of this curriculum, allowing it to evolve over time. This release represents the results of significant consultation with representatives from Federal departments and agencies, relevant professional societies, industry associations and apprenticeship training providers, as well as subject matter experts from academic institutions. Our Program to implement the FBPTA will continuously evolve; through lessons learned from this initial release and successive updates, in response to technological breakthroughs and improvements, in order to highlight transformational policies, processes and procedures, and in response to changes in funding and philosophical constraints. We will remain in constant consultation with the stakeholders mentioned above.

Legislative Intent:

Taxpayer investment in Federal facilities must be protected and leveraged through the cost savings involved in maximizing building performance. Achieving this level of performance requires a government-­‐wide program that stresses training and continuing education in the implementation of industry best practices and lifecycle operations and management. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works Report-­‐ paraphrased  



The evolution of the enclosed core competencies began with a Federal listening session and the modification of a Department of Energy

Workforce Standardization Project. We modified the energy job task analyses to include facilities operations and management activities. We also held an additional Federal listening session and an Industry Symposium. The completed Job Task Analyses (JTA) were released for public review and comment. Comments revealed that the JTAs were so comprehensive that no single person could acquire all of the skills and experience captured – even over a lifetime in the profession. This lead to the development of a paired down version of the knowledge, skills and abilities (core competencies) arranged into three levels with associated pay grades and military ranks.

The Facility Manager section was then put out for public comment in the FedBizOpps and sent to more than 200 representatives from government, industry and academia. Comments were transformative in that they made it very clear that a government-­‐wide Program to implement the FBPTA, must be agnostic to GS job series or pay grade. Departments and Agencies across the Federal government have personnel operating and managing facilities from many different job series. Any meaningful organization of core competencies needs to account for the variability of pay grades performing at the same level and with the same basic roles and responsibilities that are department/agency, region and even facility dependent.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1

The next significant area of comment centered on how departments and agencies deploy their personnel.

Reviewers admired the system’s three levels of increasing knowledge, skills and abilities as a “concept”, but did not believe it was implementable government-­‐wide. Departments and agencies deploy their personnel according to the scope and scale required by the facilities being operated and managed, and according to their own organizational idiosyncrasies. One agency may have a dedicated facility manager for a large stand-­‐ alone building, while another agency may have a number of individuals whose area of expertise is deployed across numerous facilities coming together in a “department” to accomplish all facilities operations and management tasks.


We developed a system that focused on the highest impact core competencies common to every agency -­‐ remaining job series and pay grade

agnostic. This system establishes (7) Core Competency Areas referenced in the law, along with (5) additional Core Competency Areas universally recognized for their impact on facilities operations and management. Further, we introduced an industry standard framework and nomenclature to better align core competencies with existing courses, certifications, degrees, licenses and registrations. It arranges the system into: Core Competency Areas, Core Competencies and Performances. We determined that most functions performed above the Facility/Cantonment Area level differed mainly in scope and scale rather than in content including: program management; policy development and implementation; performance measurement; providing subject matter expertise; budget formulation, advocacy and execution; and funding allocation. While important, these management and support functions are not the focus of the FBPTA and thus, are not the focus of our initial Program release.

The Program/system provides departments and agencies the maximum flexibility to implement the FBPTA according to how they are truly organized and deployed across their portfolios. Inherent to this level of flexibility, is the necessity for interaction between individuals and their supervisors at an operational level. Using the “performances”, individuals and their supervisors will need to determine what core competencies are vital to performing their roles within the organization. A web-­‐tool is being developed with OPM that allows individuals to enter, and choose from a menu of certifications, degrees, licenses and registrations which ones they currently hold. Qualifications will be mapped automatically to the core competencies that they demonstrate. This plus any courses the individual has completed, establishes their baseline. The difference between the individual’s baseline and the core competencies required by the individual will form a “GAP”. This GAP analysis will provide the individual and their supervisor the ability to create development plans and justify funding for training. Unfortunately, the extreme variability across department and agency systems makes it impossible to allow data to be “pushed” into the web-­‐tool.


The web-­‐tool and this process presents an incredible opportunity to create a one-­‐of-­‐a-­‐kind database that can be used to measure the

effectiveness of our training programs by mapping them to a series of building performance measures that we will be asking for when personnel establish their account, and at the six and twelve month time periods following completed training. We will include inquiry into whether the measures are impacted by any extreme conditions – record hot summer, record cold winter, moving into a 24hr operations posture etc. This

direct and observable correlation of training to building performance will be a powerful vehicle for both public and private facilities operations and management personnel as they make the case for training budgets or as evidence of the efficacy of their products.


This Program is designed to pursue and present state-­‐of-­‐the-­‐art knowledge and concepts per the law. As such, some of the terms and concepts may not be familiar to all personnel using this document. Where the potential for that exists, the term has been defined and a reference location given. In some cases, knowledge of a term or concept represents a “performance” under a core competency. To receive credit for this performance in the system, an individual will certify that they have reviewed the reference indicated – the honor system applies.

During the development of this Program, the question of how to deal with (On the-­‐Job-­‐Training = OJT) came up frequently. Our intention is to give credit where appropriate. However, the number of personnel that will be seeking OJT and the areas they will be seeking it in, could not be determined prior to the identification of the core competencies. Now that we have the core competencies, the web-­‐tool is being designed to capture OJT requests so that the volume an scope can be analyzed and a program developed to provide vehicles for these organization to ensure their personnel possess the competencies that they are claiming credit for.


The identification of the enclosed core competencies represents a significant amount of research and has been done in consultation with our industry, government and academic partners. This is a very complex system seeking to implement transformational concepts across the Federal government. We look forward to continuing our work with all the outstanding individuals and organizations that contributed to this effort.


Competency Area Core Competency Competency Area Core Competency
1. Facilities Operationsand Management o Building Systems o Building Interior o Building ExteriorOther Facility Systems 9. Project Management o Initiate o  Execute o Closeout o Training
2. Facilities Operations,Maintenance and


Operating and Maintaining HVAC SystemsOperating and Maintaining Electrical and

Mechanical Systems

o Operating, Maintaining and Testing Life Safety


o General Building Maintenance

Best Practices and Innovation

10. Business, Budget andContracting Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)Life-­‐Cycle Assessment (LCA)


Budget Formulation and Execution

3. Technology Technology SolutionsBuilding Automation Systems (BAS)

Maintenance Management System (MMS)

11. Leadership andInnovation Communication and AdministrationPersonnel


Enterprise Knowledge and Strategic

Decision Making

4. Energy Management Systems and Demand ReductionAssess Initial Conditions


Planning, Project and Program Management

Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPC)

o Coordinate with Public Utilities

12. Performance Measures FBPTAAcquiring Data

Establishment and implementation

5. Safety Basic RequirementsInfrastructure

Contract Management

Occupant Interface

6. Design PlanningInfrastructure Systems
7. Sustainability BackgroundRegulations and Requirements Implementation
8. Water Efficiency Regulations, Goals and Best PracticesWater Audit

Large FACILITY/Stand-­‐alone Facility(ies)/Cantonment Area(s)

Core Competency Area: 1. Facilities Operations and Management
Core Competency Performances:
Building Systems 1.   Demonstrate familiarity with Building Systems: HVAC, Electrical (and Standby generators), Lighting,Mechanical/Plumbing (and Fire protection systems), Vertical transportation, Structural, Roofing, Building


2.   Demonstrate ability to work with Facilities team to assess a facility’s need for building systems.

3.   Demonstrate ability to oversee the acquisition, installation, and operation of building systems.

4.   Demonstrate ability to work with Facilities Team to establish practices and procedures.

5.   Demonstrate ability to work with Facilities Team to determine and administer the allocation of building systems’ resources.

6.   Demonstrate ability to monitor and evaluate how well building systems perform.

7.   Demonstrate ability to manage corrective, preventive and predictive maintenance.

8.   Demonstrate ability to work with Facilities Team to develop emergency procedures for building systems.

9.   Demonstrate knowledge of how to implement disaster recovery plans for building systems as required.

Building Interior 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of how to evaluate building structures and permanent interiors.2.   Demonstrate ability to manage the service/repair requests and maintenance and cleaning needs of building structures and permanent interior elements.

3.   Demonstrate ability to evaluate furniture and equipment performance.

4.   Demonstrate ability to manage the maintenance and cleaning of furniture and equipment.

Building Exterior 1.   Demonstrate familiarity with managing grounds and exteriorso     Parking structures

o     Site utilities

o     Landscaping and grounds

o     Exterior envelope (roof, brick, masonry, etc.)

2.   Demonstrate ability to assess the effect of climate and extreme environmental conditions.

3.   Demonstrate ability to evaluate the performance of grounds and exterior elements.

4.   Demonstrate ability to assess the need for alterations in grounds and exterior elements.

5.   Demonstrate ability to manage the maintenance and custodial needs of grounds and exterior elements.

Other Facility Systems 1.   Demonstrate ability to manage vehicles and related equipment as required.
2.   Demonstrate ability to work with Security Personnel as required on:o     Personnel ingress/egress

o     Controlled access systems

o     Backup power requirements

o     Emergency Lighting

3.   Demonstrate ability to manage pest control and waste systems.

4.   Demonstrate ability to work with interior communications (phone, computer, video conferencing)

personnel to ensure facility requirements are met and service interruption procedures are in place.

Core Competency Area: 2. Facilities Operations, Maintenance and Engineering
Core Competency Performances:

Operating and

Maintaining HVAC Systems

1.   Demonstrate ability to collecting Operating Data on system.o     Read required: pressures, temperatures, control panels and other operating parameters as required. (Using gauges, meters and computer systems as necessary)

o     Check oil levels and other required levels

o     Log equipment reading and report any inconsistencies

2.   Demonstrate ability to adjust System Parameters as required.

3.   Demonstrate understanding of indoor air quality – how to test and adjust. (Air pollutant sources, biological contaminants, air sampling, CO2 measurement, mold, control strategies, system balancing, ventilation)

4.   Demonstrate ability to analyze HVAC system performance. (chillers, boilers, ventilation, pressure,

temperature, amperage, voltage, air flow, water flow)

o     Collect trends of operational parameters

o     Conduct performance tests and collect data

o     Compare trends and data

o     Report findings

5.   Demonstrate ability to coordinate HVAC system changes.

6.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to maintain all HVAC Systems (clean, change and perform preventative maintenance…)

7.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to repair all HVAC Systems (calibrate, change, fabricate, recover, replace and trouble shoot as required…)

o     Ability to perform advanced trouble shooting techniques using appropriate tools.

8.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to optimize HVAC controls. (ex calibrated energy savings, reduced

ventilation where possible, hot/cold water resets, economizer control, start/stop timers, demand load shedding)

Operating andMaintaining Electrical and

Mechanical Systems

1.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability with Lighting Systems – trouble shoot lighting systems, adjust lightingprogramming, replace lamps, replace ballasts, maintain lamps and ballast inventory,

2.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to change: electrical fuses, control boards, electrical fixtures, and electrical relays.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to replace electric motors.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to maintain plumbing fixtures, sewage injectors, and water heaters.

5.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to identify irrigation leaks.

6.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to all drains and backflow preventers

7.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to maintain pressure-­‐reducing valves.

8.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to replace water filters.

9.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to winterize irrigation systems if necessary.

Operating, Maintaining

and Testing Life Safety


1.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to operate Fire Alarm panels and test the entire fire alarm system.2.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to test the emergency generators.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to test fire pumps and sprinkler systems.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to test smoke and heat sensors.

5.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to inspect fire extinguishers.

General BuildingMaintenance 1.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to maintain door hardware.2.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to maintain roof systems.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to maintain ceiling tiles.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to maintain flooring systems.

5.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to maintain window systems.

6.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to perform minor wall repairs.

Best Practices andInnovation 1.     Demonstrate knowledge of the “Ten Steps to Operational Efficiency” – FEMP O&M Best Practices Guide Rev3.0 pg 291. (

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of (DOE/PNNL) “Retuning Project” and how it could be applied – (Re-­‐tuning is intended to provide building operators, building managers and energy service providers with the necessary skills to identify no-­‐ and low-­‐cost operational problems that plague commercial buildings and provide the skills necessary to take corrective action.)

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of and the ability to perform “predictive maintenance” (Predictive maintenance attempts to detect the onset of a degradation mechanism with the goal of correcting that degradation prior

to significant deterioration in the component or equipment.) FEMP O&M Best Practices Release 3.0 pg 59(

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of ALL types of commissioning, and what is required in the Energy Independence and Security Act 2007 (EISA).

5.   Demonstrate knowledge of metering and sub-­‐metering for energy and water and how they contribute to systems optimization.

6.    Demonstrate knowledge of O&M Frontiers like those found in FEMP O&M Best Practices Guide Rev 3.0 pg 287.


7.   Demonstrate knowledge of advanced trouble-­‐shooting techniques on a systems-­‐wide basis.

Core Competency Area: 3. Technology
Core Competency Performances:
Technology Solutions 1.   Demonstrate ability to monitor information and trends related to facility management technologies.2.   Demonstrate ability to identify and interface with internal and external accountable resources, e.g., external vendors, internal or external IT systems owners.

3.   Demonstrate ability to identify evaluation criteria, evaluate, and recommend facility management

technologies solutions.

4.   Demonstrate ability to assess how changes to facility management technologies will impact current infrastructure, processes, and building systems.

5.   Demonstrate ability to plan for and oversee the acquisition, installation, operation, maintenance, upgrade, and disposition of components supporting facility management technologies.

6.   Demonstrate ability to recommend and communicate policies. Establish practices and procedures.

7.   Demonstrate ability to develop and implement training programs for facilities staff and ancillary resources.

8.   Demonstrate ability to monitor performance of facility management technologies and make appropriate recommendations when modifications are needed.

9.   Demonstrate ability to manage corrective, preventive, and predictive maintenance.

10. Demonstrate ability to develop, test and implement, when necessary, emergency procedures and disaster recovery plans.

Building AutomationSystems (BAS) 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of a Building Automation System (BAS) and Maintenance Management Systems(MMS)

o     How equipment is entered into BAS

o     Participate in the establishment of control strategies

o     Monitor and implement overrides when necessary, alarm procedures

o     Monitor, analyze and report trendso     How BAS and MMS inter-­‐relate for operations and accounting systems

2.   Demonstrate understanding of the bridge between the technical and business aspects of facilities


3.   Demonstrate ability to conduct trouble-­‐shooting procedures at the equipment, system and building levels.

4.   Demonstrate ability to conduct trouble-­‐shooting of critical systems: access control systems, fire alarm and suppression systems, elevator systems, emergency lighting systems, and emergency communication systems.


Management System


1.   Demonstrate knowledge of Maintenance Management Systems -­‐ Computer Assisted Facilities Management(CAFM) AND Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS)

2.   Demonstrate understanding of MMS AND CMMS:

o     Understand how to setup the program and input data on equipment and items to measure

o     Establish baselines with standards and priorities and backup requirements

o     Establish maintenance schedules

o     Setup reports, frequency, levels and user access

o     Establish inter-­‐operability with accounting system

o     Establish inventory thresholds/levels and determine maintenance tasks

o     Determine user roles (access levels) and identify system administrators

o     Establish close-­‐out procedures

o     Process departmental charge-­‐backs

o     Determine costs/pricing structure (labor, materials, overhead, etc.)

o     Ensure system maintenance back up data and develop data archiving strategy

o     Train users, setup dashboard and identify in-­‐house skills inventory

Core Competency Area: 4. Energy Management
Core Competency Performances:
Systems and DemandReduction 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of building systems and how they affect energy use:o     HVAC System

o     Electrical Systems

o     Motors and drives

o     Lighting Systems

o     Building Envelope

o     Fuel Systems -­‐ Fuel Selection

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems and distributed generation.3.   Demonstrate knowledge of Renewable Energy Systems – Solar (Thermal and Photovoltaic), Wind, Biomass, Hydropower.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of Thermal Energy Storage systems – (ex. chilled water storage, ice storage, potential energy storage etc)

5.   Demonstrate knowledge of Building Automation Systems (BAS) and Control Systems.

6.   Demonstrate knowledge of Enhanced Automation (EA) – “the variety of potential strategies to increase the capability of the existing energy or building management systems to control current, and plan for future, building energy costs while maintaining the comfort and productivity of all building occupants.”

7.   Demonstrate knowledge of Energy Management Systems (EMS) and Energy Information Systems (EIS).

8.   Demonstrate knowledge of re-­‐programming current systems and expanding network of sensors and control devices to optimize HVAC, lighting and other automated systems.

9.   Demonstrate knowledge of how to incorporate occupancy sensors, task lighting, thermostatic set-­‐points with weather forecasting and other demand linked strategies to optimize building performance.

Assess Initial Conditions 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of how to perform and Energy Savings Assessment: Example

o     Role of Energy Audits

o     Energy Audit – Types I, II, III

o     Utility Bill Analysis

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of laws, regulations and Executive Orders that pertain to energy management,

status of compliance and existing energy management plans. See FEMP website of list of laws and regulations:

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of applicable Codes and Standards – (ex. ISO 50001, ASHRAE/IESNA Std 90.1-­‐2010, ASHRAE 62.1-­‐2010, Model Energy Code, ASHRAE Standard 135-­‐2008, ASHRAE Std 189.1-­‐2009 etc)

Commissioning and

Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPC)

1.   Demonstrate knowledge of all types of Commissioning: initial commissioning, retro-­‐commissioning, re-­‐commissioning, Continuous (on-­‐going) Commissioning – the differences, and commissioning requirements in laws and executive orders.

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of commissioning requirements for: measurement and verification, phasing and commission agent duties.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of the Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) procedures and


o     Measurement and verificationo     Energy Savings Companies (ESCO)

o     Regulations pertaining to ESPCs

o     Utility Financing

o     Demand side managemento     Savings determination

o     Risk Assessment

o     Loans, Stocks and Bonds

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of Shared Savings Contracts, Power Purchase Agreements (PPA), Utility EnergyService Contracts (UESC) and Enhanced Use Leases (EUL).

Coordinate with Public


1.   Demonstrate knowledge of utility service providers for facility (ies).2.   Demonstrate knowledge of utility meters – location, reading and data management.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of utility billing and rate structure.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of local utility programs – special rate programs and incentives.

5.   Demonstrate the ability to work with Facilities team to negotiate rates and discounts.

6.   Demonstrate knowledge of how to work with utility departments to locate lines.

7.   Demonstrate knowledge of utility emergency procedures and contacts.

Planning, Project and

Program Management

1.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to develop an Energy master plan.2.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to develop a metering Program.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to develop energy account database.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to provide planning support for energy budget.

5.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to identify and develop low-­‐cost and no-­‐cost energy efficiency opportunities.

6.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to provide operational support to energy management control systems.

7.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to develop/assist in project identification and justification.

8.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to develop UESC and ESPC projects.

9.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to monitor facility energy projects.

10. Demonstrate knowledge and ability to provide peak load management.

11. Demonstrate knowledge and ability to manage an energy awareness program and establish/support an

awards program recognizing energy efficiency efforts.

12. Demonstrate knowledge and ability to develop and distribute energy articles, newsletters, notices, posters and signs.

13. Demonstrate knowledge and ability to coordinate Energy Awareness Week/Month.

14. Demonstrate the ability to calculate and respond appropriately to established energy metrics such as Power

Utilization Efficiency (PUE).

o     Where and how to take measurements

o     How to interpret the datao     How to explain the results to people in operations and upper management

o     How to develop an improvement strategy

15. Demonstrate the ability to recommend and/or acquire certifications for specific skills

Core Competency Area: 5. Safety
Core Competency Performances:
Basic Requirements 1.   Complete Department/Agency required Safety training that meets or exceeds the requirements of OSHA,General Industry and/or Construction 10 and 30 hr programs.

2.   Complete Electrical Safety course and be familiar with electrical codes and regulations and best practices.

Infrastructure 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of control systems for: mold, asbestos, Histoplasmosis, PCB in transformers.2.   Demonstrate knowledge of proper water treatment to prevent Legionnaire’s Disease.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of ventilation systems and prevention of contaminant introduction and cross contamination.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of fire prevention systems in hazardous locations/operations; food preparation areas; electrical transformers.

5.   Demonstrate the ability to manage compliance with NFPA 70E -­‐2012 for determining incident energy and marking the electrical components for the hazard distance and proper arc rated protective equipment

6.   Demonstrate knowledge of control of electric vehicle battery fires, internal use, occupant use and visitor vehicles.

7.   Demonstrate the ability to ensure that all building confined spaces are evaluated and marked.

8.   Demonstrate the ability to ensure proper maintenance of special purpose, unique design or antiquated fire alarm and suppression systems.

9.   Demonstrate the ability to manage Compliance with elevator inspection requirements.

Contract Management 1.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to protect occupants with signs, barriers, and fencing and allow NOrenovation of occupied space.

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of permit system for hot welding work and for confined space work.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of fall protection of people and tools/materials for contractor and occupants.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of proper disposal of hazardous, toxic and biologic materials.

5.   Demonstrate knowledge of protection of electrical hazards to employees and to building infrastructure; arc rated clothing, lock out/tag out program.

6.   Demonstrate knowledge of compliant protective equipment for contract and sub contract workers

7.   Demonstrate knowledge of adequate fall protection working from ladders/heights8.   Demonstrate knowledge of, and ability to manage compliance with OSHA 1910 and 1926 standards and

Army Corps of Engineers construction safety manual EM 385-­‐1-­‐1.

Occupant Interface 1.   Demonstrate ability to ensure tenant renovations have adequate design, does not interfere with othertenants, local code compliance, high quality of work

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to manage proper storage of hazardous, toxic and biologic materials

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to manage proper disposal of hazardous (such as kitchen grease) and biologic materials (medical or research)

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to manage prohibition of fire hazards.

5.   Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to manage adequate ventilation of work spaces, adequate exhaust and makeup air, no short circuit designs

6.   Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to manage adequate cleanliness of indoor firing ranges-­‐ventilation,

cleanup of lead dust.

7.   Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to manage adequate electric vehicle battery charging stations to prevent fires (as required).

8.   Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to manage prohibition of non UL-­‐rate unsafe electrical equipment.

9.   Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to manage the documentation of occupant safety and health complaints and their resolution.

10. Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to manage/conduct:

o     Creation of fire and life safety plans

o     Fire, HAZMAT and life safety drills

o     Creation and posting of evacuation routes

o     Creation of a personnel accountability system

o     Inspection of all components of the fire and life safety systems – (ex. exit lights, fire extinguishers, fire

suppression systems, incident announcement systems etc)

Core Competency Area: 6. Design
Core Competency Performances:
Planning 1.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability of conduct an assessment of “needs” that will evaluate whether currentfacilities can respond to a new requirement or whether a “project” must be developed to respond to the new requirement.

2.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to utilize Agency/Department planning tools (ex DD form 1391 or

Prospectus) and funding thresholds to define project requirements, propose project site, estimate project

costs, justify need, and develop scope.3.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to perform due diligence analysis regarding:

o     Best site selection according to transportation connectivity

o     Interrelationships between physical, climatic, environmental, economic, political, sustainability, historic

preservation, archeological and social elements

o     Interrelationships between Federal, State and local policies – codes, laws and regulations

o     Long-­‐range vice short-­‐range development plans

4.   Demonstrate understanding of the concept of “Deep Energy Retrofits (DER)” and how and when to initiate.

WorkingConceptDefinition: An integrated team, Implementing a deep energy retrofit should piggyback efficiency improvements on already planned capital improvements and breaks in occupancy, take advantage of advanced energy modeling and life cycle cost analysis methods to identify situations in building’s life cycle that trigger DER design and analysis, verify savings and continuously improve energy performance.

5.   Demonstrate knowledge of certification systems used by the Federal government and industry (ex.

Leadership Energy Environmental Design –LEED, Green Globes etc)

6.   Demonstrate knowledge of the Sustainable Facilities Tool –

7.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to use Geographic Information System (GIS) and other Dept/Agency software programs in preparation of all required documents.

Infrastructure Systems 1.   Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of Architectural and Engineering Systems:o     Roofing Systems

o     Building Envelope Systems

o     Window Systems

o     HVAC Systems

o     Electrical Systems

o     Telecommunication Systems

o     All Lighting Systems

o     Fire Protection Systems

o     BAS

o     IT Systems – installation arrangement and energy requirements

o     Interior Design

o     Landscape Architectural Systems

o     Plumbing Systems

o     Occupant needs and requirements/controls

o     Resource flows – energy, water and waste
Core Competency Area: 7. Sustainability
Core Competency Performances:
Background The term Sustainability applies within the definition of High Performance Buildings from EISA 07.“A building that integrates and optimizes on a lifecycle basis all major high performance attributes, including

energy [and water] conservation, environment, safety, security, durability, accessibility, cost-­‐benefit, productivity, sustainability, functionality, and operational considerations” (Energy Independence and Security Act 2007 401 PL 110-­‐140).

Within this definition, Sustainability is recognized to mean “development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” -­‐ from the Brundtland Report, Our Common Future (1987). Experts within the Facilities Management industry have used the triple bottom line

-­‐ balancing environmental, economic and social goals (Hodges 2009; Lewis et al 2009) to take the philosophical definition and make it practical.

The nature of “Sustainability” is interdisciplinary and will contain elements from environmental, operations, maintenance, contracting and management etc.

Regulations andRequirements 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of the Guiding Principles for Federal High Performance and Sustainable Buildings. and Federal Mandates

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of Dept/Agency Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP).

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of Dept/Agency Resiliency and Adaptation Plan.

Implementation 1.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to develop and/or coordinate:o     A recycling program

o     A HAZMAT reduction program

o     A green purchasing program

o     Alternative transportation and workplace strategies

o     Sustainability audit and inspection programs

o     Universal Waste Audit

o     Water Audit

o     Energy Audit

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of how the above comes together in the “Sustainability Section” of the FacilityMaster Plan.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of the Sustainable Facilities Tool –

4.   Demonstrate ability to work with subject matter experts to calculate the “qualitative impacts” of sustainability program.

o     Waste reduction

o     Greenhouse Gas reduction

o     Operational impacts

o     Community impacts

5.   Demonstrate knowledge of implementing a “recognition program” for sustainability efforts.

Core Competency Area: 8. Water Efficiency
Core Competency Performances:
Regulations, Goals andBest Practices 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of water efficiency principles that are applicable in both the public and privatearena.

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of Federal water policy and goals found in Laws and Executive Orders:

o     Executive Order 13123, Guidance to Federal Agencies for Determining Baseline Water Usage


o     Executive Order 13123, Guidance to Establish Water Efficiency Improvement Goal for Federal Agencies


o     EO 13423, 13514, Energy Policy Act 2005 and Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA 07).

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of Water Efficiency Goal Guidance for the Federal Government.


4.   Demonstrate knowledge of current Dept/Agency water guidance – Uniform Facilities Code (UFC), Department or agency guidebooks.

5.   Demonstrate knowledge of how the following affect water use and efficiency and ability to make recommendations based on lifecycle analysis and best practices to facilities team:

o     Distribution System Audits, leak detection and repair

o     Water-­‐efficient landscaping with focus on Xeriscaping -­‐ Defn: landscaping method that employs

drought-­‐resistant plants in an effort to conserve resources, especially water)

o     Toilets and Urinals

o     Showerhead and Faucets

o     Boilers and Steam Systems

o     Single-­‐pass Cooling Equipment

o     Cooling Tower Managemento     Any miscellaneous high water-­‐using processes

o     Water Reuse and Recycling

Water Audit

1.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to conduct both a Top-­‐down and Bottom-­‐up water audit:

o     Top-­‐down:

•    Focus on the total system to set priorities

•    Comprehensive scope

•    Goals, objectives, procedures are then pushed down to the individual parts

o     Bottom-­‐up:

•    Focus on the specifics of each end-­‐use

•    Sum the parts to define the whole

•    Goals, objectives, procedures are developed at the lower levels and pushed upward

Core Competency Area: 9. Project Management
Core Competency Performances:


1.   Demonstrate ability to work in integrated project teams (Facility Managers, Building Operating Engineers,Planners, Contracting Officers, Contractors, Occupants etc) to execute, small, medium and large projects.

2.   Demonstrate ability to:

o    Follow Project Management processes and procedures per your organization’s preferred methodology

(ex. ISO 9000, PMI, WBS, in-­‐house system etc)

o    Conduct needs assessment and define project requirements o    Estimate costs and develop Project Plan and Project timeline o    Develop project communications plan

o    Obtain any required project permits

o    Develop project accounting procedures

o    Ensure regulator compliance

3.   If Project will be completed by contractors, demonstrate the ability to:

o    Develop Scope Of Work (SOW) and the Request For Proposal (RFP)

o    Work with procurement team to select contractor

o    Review Contractor Plans

o    Work with Contracting Officer on all contract administration requirements


1.   Demonstrate ability to:
o     Ensure facility services are maintained during project executiono     Assign project resources

o     Inspect project work

o     Manage impacts of project on existing facility

o     Conduct project meetings

o     Report project progress

o     Monitor project costs

o     Monitor project schedules

2.   If Project will be completed by contractors, demonstrate the ability to:

o     Produce project change orders

o     Attend site reviews

o     If Contracting Officer Representative -­‐ approve project payments/draws

o     Resolve project issues

o     Obtain maintenance contracts

o     Secure project warranties

o     Arrange staff training for new equipment

o     Develop spare parts lists

Closeout 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to:o     Obtain project as-­‐builts

o     Perform project close-­‐outs

o     Create and complete project punch-­‐lists

o     Obtain certificate of occupancy

o     Accept beneficial use

o     Commission the project

o     Review lessons learned

o     Work with contracting personnel to:

•    Obtain lien waivers/release of liens if required

•    Issue final payment

•    Create budget variance report


1.   Demonstrate knowledge of PM software and scheduling software, where to find technical resources on PM.

o     Demonstrate ability to train those junior to you in these PM aspects and on these tools

o     Demonstrate ability to develop and implement a project Quality Assessment (QA) Program to ensure

Initial Costs – Acquisition, Construction etc Residual Values – Resale values, Disposal costs
Fuel Costs Other Costs -­‐ Finance Charges(interest payments) etc
O&M and Repair costs Non-­‐Monetary Benefits or Costs
Replacement Costs
Net Savings (or Net Benefits) Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) or Benefit-­‐Cost Ratio
Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Payback Period
that projects are completed as designed with the specified materials by qualified personnel.
Core Competency Area: 10. Business, Budget and Contracting
Core Competency Performances:

Total Cost of Ownership


1.   Demonstrate knowledge of the mission of the Facilities’ Occupants and how the facilities enhance thatmission.

2.   Demonstrate knowledge that the TCO is best determined through Life-­‐Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) for


3.   Demonstrate knowledge of how to find/calculate the basic costs required for an LCCA:

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of additional methods for calculating TCO and other economic analysis can be used if they use the same parameters and time period.

5.   Demonstrate knowledge of available LCCA software.

o     Building Life-­‐Cycle Cost (BLCC) Program -­‐ FEMP

o     ECONPAK – Army Corps of Engineers

o     Energy 10 – has a cost estimating feature

o     SuccessEstimator – from U.S. Cost

Life-­‐Cycle Assessment


1.   Demonstrate knowledge of the difference between a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and an LCCA.2.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to use a LCA to estimate the environmental impacts of a material, product or service through its entire life cycle.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of ISO 14040.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of an ability to use LCA Software:

o     Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES)

o     ATHENA Environmental Impact Estimator

Contracting 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of Contracting Officer Representative (COR) duties, responsibilities, training,certification and maintenance of certification.

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of rules and requirements for purchasing products and services.

3.   Demonstrate ability to assess technical requirements needed to ensure delivery and quality of services/products.

4.   Demonstrate ability to create an effective Statement Of Work (SOW) for COR or Contracting Officer to ensure proper procurement of a product or service.

5.   Demonstrate knowledge of and ability to effectively govern/oversee a contract to ensure compliance and full value of the service or product being provided.

o    Quality Assurance Audits and Indicators o    Required Measurement and Verification o    Performance Audits and Surveys

o    Customer Satisfaction Surveys

o    Compliance with Federal, State and Local regulations

o    Compliance with all Safety laws and requirements

o    Benchmarking Progress

Budget Formulation andExecution 1.   Demonstrate ability to develop and manage a project/program budget.2.   Demonstrate knowledge of budget submission requirements.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of historical budget records and costs and how to use in forecasting.

4.   Demonstrate ability to quantify potential for cost savings and cost avoidance.

5.   Demonstrate ability to use LCCA in budget preparation.

6.   Demonstrate ability to identify quantitative and qualitative risks.

7.   Demonstrate ability to advocate for funding using economic analysis.

8.   Demonstrate ability to prioritize projects/programs based on funding levels.

9.   Demonstrate ability to manage operating budget and produce required financial reports.

10. Demonstrate knowledge of invoice/expenditure approval processes.

11. Demonstrate ability to recommend/conduct funding reallocation based on changing priorities.

12. Demonstrate ability to conduct periodic financial reviews and produce required reports.

Core Competency Area: 11. Leadership and Innovation
Core Competency Performances:
Communication andAdministration 1.   Demonstrate ability to:o     Write clear, concise, and well organized documents
o     Speak in a clear, concise, and well organized manner (public and interpersonal)o     Listen effectively and communicate understanding

o     Give direction

o     Actively clarify interpretations and confirm understanding

o     Make oral presentations

o     Present information visually

o     Use communication technologies

o     Conduct effective meetings

o     Comprehend written and graphic information

o     Comprehend financial and technical information

o     Negotiate for services, resources, information and commitments

o     Establish personal and professional networks

2.   Demonstrate ability to supervise personnel as required:

o     Plan staffing needs and requirements

o     Hire, contract, reassign, retrain, right-­‐size

o     Coordinate personnel assignments

o     Coordinate work performed as contracted services

o     Evaluate performance

o     Support personnel development

o     Provide leadership

3.   Demonstrate ability to perform administrative duties:

o     Administer policies, procedures and practices

o     Administer the acquisition, distribution and use of material resources

o     Maintain documentation systems


1.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to:

o     Evaluate and manage the facility’s support of organizational goals and objectives.

o     Monitor changes in laws and regulations.

o     Assure the facility and its operation complies with laws and regulations

o     Monitor and assure changes in the facility function and services

o     Monitor information and trends about human and environmental concerns

o     Ensure training is conducted to maintain safe and effective use of the facility

o     Conduct due diligence studies

2.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to:o     Develop or participate in the development of emergency plans

o     Assure people are trained in emergency procedures

o     Assure all emergency systems and procedures are tested as planned

o     Assure emergency drills and conducted

o     Develop or participate in the development of recovery plans

Innovation 1.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to investigate ways to improve facility services.2.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to assess risks and opportunities.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to conduct pilot tests when developing new procedures.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge of the on-­‐line National Science Foundation library of Federal Facilities related publications – (ex Core Competencies for Federal Facilities Asset Managers Through 2020, Predicting Outcomes of Investment in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities)

5.   Demonstrate knowledge of Federal government “Knowledge Hubs” – (Whole Building Design Guide, Fed

Center) and

6.   Demonstrate knowledge of the offices, programs and National Labs at DOE that drive innovation in Facilities operation and management. [ex Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL)]

7.   Demonstrate knowledge of GSA’s Green Proving Ground Program -­‐

8.   Demonstrate knowledge of the training and certifications provided by Industry Associations and

Professional Societies in Facilities Operations and Management, Energy Management, Sustainability, Project

Management etc.

9.   Demonstrate knowledge of University Facilities Management degrees and certifications.

10. Demonstrate ability to translate innovative ideas into actionable tasks:

o     Work with occupants, and facilities’ team to analyze and ensure alignment of Facilities with the mission of Dept/Agency on a macro level and the specific occupant’s deliverables on a micro level

o     Work with occupants, and facilities’ team to integrate people, places, processes and technologies throughout all interconnected organizations

o     Using knowledge gained from the above sources and ingenuity born from day-­‐to-­‐day in the field operations, find ways to innovate across traditional macro and micro organizational boundaries

Enterprise Knowledge andStrategic Decision Making 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of “continuous retuning” and the potential savings represented by a government-­‐wide shift to this operating mode (ex A 10-­‐30% reduction in electricity use across Federal facilities represents a savings of between $700,000 million and $2.1Billion annual – in 2009 dollars)

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of the National Security role that Federal Facilities play – housing Fed

Dept/Agencies for operations, training, disaster response and energy/resource use.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to drive a “Change Management” process -­‐ a structured approach to shifting/transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations from a current state to a desired future state.

4.   Demonstrate knowledge and ability to move from the Operational (the who and when of things getting done) to Tactical (what we do) to the Strategic (why we do what we do).

5.   Demonstrate ability to strategically allocate all forms of “capital” – human(people), physical(facilities), economic(money) and environmental(land and resources).

6.   Demonstrate ability to provide decision makers with better information about the total long-­‐term costs and consequences of a particular course of action.

7.   Demonstrate ability to participate in the organization’s strategic planning at the executive level in order to translate between the organization’s missions and its facilities portfolio and clearly communicate how real estate and facilities can support these missions.

Core Competency Area: 12. Performance Measures
Core Competency Performances:
Federal BuildingsPersonnel Training Act 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of the requirements under the Federal Buildings Personnel Training Act 2010.2.   Demonstrate knowledge of how to use to view core competencies, methods to demonstrate them, curriculum and to report compliance with the law.
Acquiring Data 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of the differences between quantitative and qualitative data and how togather/calculate each.

2.   Demonstrate knowledge of key building performance measures, where and how to read them, and reporting requirements.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of what data is necessary to enable “continuous retuning.”

4.   Demonstrate ability to determine what records provide the “best fit” data for strategic decision making –

situation and desired outcome dependent.

Establishment andImplementation 1.   Demonstrate knowledge of Performance Measurement concepts (ex. SMART – Specific, Measureable,Actionable, Time-­‐bound)

2.   Demonstrate ability to use measures to inform decision-­‐making and resource allocation.

3.   Demonstrate knowledge of cascading Key Performance Indicators (KPI) that can be used to measure how well mission, management, program and individual goals are being met.

4.   Demonstrate ability to establish baselines from which progress toward attainment of goals can be measured.

5.   Demonstrate ability to establish feedback systems to support continuous improvement of an organization’s processes, practices, and results (outcomes).

6.   Demonstrate knowledge of how to combine single building metrics into a system to measure the performance of buildings portfolio in support of the organization’s overall mission.

7.   Demonstrate understanding that investments in training, and in facilities in general, are not often immediately visible or measurable, but that they are manifest over a period of years.

8.   Demonstrate ability to perform a sensitivity analysis on proposed measures to determine the how much

affect various controllable and uncontrollable drivers are:

o     Funding, weather, retirements, individual performance, training etc

9.   Demonstrate knowledge of current portfolio-­‐level performance indicators like the following:

o     Facilities Condition Index or Asset Utilization Index (measures portfolio against mission)

o     Current Replacement Value (total amount of money invested in portfolio)

o     Plant Replacement Value (cost to replace facilities assets in today’s dollars and using today’s methods)

o     Sustainment Rate (adequacy of funding maintenance and repair)

10. Demonstrate ability to understand a base set of key performance indicators for measuring the outcomes of

investments and the data to be provided for:

o     Total number and size of facilities

o     Facility types, age and location

o     Plant Replacement Value (PRV)

o     Facilities Condition Index (FCI)/Installation Readiness Report

o     Deferred Maintenance/Facilities Revitalization Rate

o     Asset Utilization Index

o     Recapitalization Rate

11. Demonstrate ability to understand, provide input for, and use additional (KPI) developed by organization to

measure the qualitative aspects of facilities operations and management:

o     Cost effectiveness

o     Customer satisfaction

o     Process efficiencies

” Evidence-based ” Life-cycle Federal Facility Management, BIM, and the Status Quo – NIBS, FFC

Yesterday (6/19/2012), the National Academies Federal Facility Council hosted a timely, and potentially watermark event “Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair of Federal Facilities“.

It is my hope that this event and those similar to it  be expanded as much as possible to assist all real property owners, architects, contractors, subcontractors, building product manufactures, oversight groups, and the community truly practice facility life-cycle management, referred to more recently as BIM (building information modeling / management).

Key Topics / Take Aways:

Identify and advance technologies, processes, and management practices that improve the performance of federal facilities over their entire life-cycle, from planning to disposal.

Predicting Outcomes of Investments in Maintenance and Repair for Federal Facilities
-Facility risks to Organizational Mission
-Potential to quantify
-Ability to predict outcomes vs. investment
-Communication strategies
-The “how” of measuring investment successes

1. You can’t manage what you don’t measure.

2. Requirements for facility life-cycle management, efficient repair/maintenance/sustainability, BIM

3. Inventory of Built Environment

4. Physical and Functional Condition of Assets (Portfolio, Site, Building/Area, System, Sub-system, Component Levels)

5. Expected Life-cycle and Deterioration Rates for Physical Assets

6. Ranking of Facilities/Built Environment relative to Organizational Mission

Mission Criticality / Risk Matrix















7. Associated Capital Reinvestment Requirements and Ability to run multi-year “What-if ” scenario analyses

8. Collaborative, Efficient Project Delivery Methods ( IPD – Integrated Project Delivery, JOC – Job Order Contracting)


Strategic approaches for investing in facilities maintenance and repair to achieve beneficial outcomes and to mitigate risks. Such approaches should do the following:

• Identify and prioritize the outcomes to be achieved through maintenance and repair investments and link those outcomes to achievement of agencies’ missions and other public policy objectives.
• Provide a systematic approach to performance measurement, analysis, and feedback.
• Provide for greater transparency and credibility in budget development, decision making, and budget execution.

• Identify and prioritize the beneficial outcomes that are to be achieved through maintenance and repair investments, preferably in the form of a 5- to 10-year plan agreed on by all levels of the organization.
• Establish a risk-based process for prioritizing annual maintenance and repair activities in the field and at the headquarters level.
• Establish standard methods for gathering and updating data to provide credible, empirical information for decision support, to measure outcomes from investments in maintenance and repair, and to track and improve the results.

Vehicles for Change—
• Portfolio-based facilities management (aka asset management)
•Technology (tools, knowledge, risk)
• Recognition of impacts of facilities on people, environment, mission (i.e., prioritizing)
• Changing of the Guard

Best Practices … Partial Listing
• Identification of better performing contractors or service providers
• GIS mapping tools
• Facility condition assessments – surveys, vendors, frequencies, costs
• Maintenance management systems
• Predictive maintenance tools
• Organizational structures
• Budget call process
• Master Planning processes
• Improve relationships with the facility end users and foster a “One Community”
• Energy management


Doug Ellsworth_USACE


John Yates_DOE

Get Moy_Portfolio Mgmt

Peter Marshall_FFC_Chair


Component-section (a.k.a. section): The basic “management unit.” Buildings are a collection of components grouped into systems. Sections define the component by material or equipment type and age.
Condition Survey Inspection (a.k.a. Condition Survey; Inspection): The gathering of data for a given component-section for the primary purpose of condition assessment.
Condition Assessment: The analysis of condition survey inspection data.
Component Section Condition Index (CSCI): An engineering – based condition assessment outcome metric (0 – 100 scale) and part of the Building Condition Index (BCI) series.

Condition Survey Inspection Objectives
1. Determine Condition (i.e. CSCI) of Component-Section
2. Determine Roll-Up Condition of System, Building, etc.
3. Provide a Condition History
4. Compute Deterioration Rates
5. Calibrate/Re-calibrate Condition Prediction Model Curves
6. Compute/Re-compute Remaining Maintenance Life
7. Determine Broad Scope of Work for Planning Purposes
8. Quantify/refine Work Needs (incl root cause analysis, if needed)
9. Establish when Cost Effective to Replace (vs. Repair)
10. Compute/Re-compute Remaining Service Life
11. QC/QA (Post-work Assessment)

Condition Survey Inspection Types
Deficiency: The “traditional” inspection discussed previously.
Distress Survey: The identification of distress types (i.e. crack, damage, etc.), severity (low, medium, high) and density (percentage) present. Data directly used in the calculation of the CSCI. No estimate of cost or priority.
Distress Survey with Quantities: Same as distress survey except that distress quantities are measured or counted. The resulting density is more accurate than a distress survey, thus the CSCI is more precise.
Direct Rating: A one-step process that combines inspection and condition assessment. An alphanumeric rating (three categories, three subcategories each) is assigned to the component-section by the inspector. Rating is directly correlated to a CSCI value, but is less accurate than a CSCI derived from a distress survey. Quick, but no record of what’s wrong.







































About The Federal Facilities Council

The Federal Facilities Council (FFC) was established at the National Academies in 1953 as the Federal Construction Council. The mission of the FFC is to identify and advance technologies, processes, and management practices that improve the performance of federal facilities over their life-cycles, from programming to disposal. The FFC is sponsored and funded by more than 20 federal agencies with responsibilities for and mutual issues related to all aspects of facilities design, construction, operations, renewal, and management.

The FFC fulfills its mission by networking and by sharing information among its sponsoring federal agencies and by leveraging its resources to conduct policy and technical studies, conferences, forums, and workshops on topics of mutual interest. The activities to be undertaken in any given calendar year are approved by a committee composed of senior representatives from each of the sponsor agencies.

Much of the work of the FFC is carried out by its 5 standing committees, each of which meets quarterly. The majority of meetings include presentations by guest speakers from the federal community, academia, and the private sector and these presentations are open to the public. The presentation slides are posted on the Events page of this website. If you would like to automatically receive notices of new reports or upcoming events, please subscribe to the FFC listserv.
Within the National Academies, the FFC operates under the auspices of the Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment (BICE) of the National Research Council. The BICE provides oversight and guidance for FFC activities and serves as a link between the sponsoring federal agencies and other elements of the building community, both national and international.

via – Premier software for efficient construction project delivery – renovation, repair, sustainability – JOC, SABER, IDIQ, SATOC, IPD, MATOC, MACC, POCA, BOA …

BIM and The Role of a Construction Cost Estimator

Professional construction cost estimators are critical to any collaborative, transparent, and productive  BIM solution.   BIM, facilities life-cycle management supported by digital technology will create a high demand cost estimators with a thorough understanding of building systems and associated repair, renovation, sustainability and construction techniques, materials, equipment, and labor.   Experienced cost estimators who appropriately leverage technology and embrace collaboration will excel.  Navigating the current AEC sector-wide paradigm shift from antagonistic ad-hoc processes such as design-bid-build, excessive change-orders, and even modest attempts at improvement such as design-build, to collaborative, efficient project delivery methods such as integrated project delivery – IPD, and job order contracting – JOC will be a challenge for some, but a willing change for most.

A team approach, support by technologies such as domain-specific cloud-computing solutions (cost estimating, capital planning, maintenance/repair, …)  integrated with 3D visualization tools..aka Revit will become commonplace.  Owners, AEs, Contractors, Sub-Contractors, Oversight Groups, Business Product Manufacturers- BPMs, and the Community will all gain higher visibility into life-cycle needs and impacts of the built environment.

All who collaborate openly to exceed client’s expectations, and produce efficient, quality construction, renovation, repair, and sustainability on-time, and on-budget will thrive, while non-participants will fall by the wayside.

The AECOO’s (architecture, engineering, construction, owner, operations) legacy of fragmented, unproductive approaches,  ad hoc practices, and associated lack of trust will crumble, to be replaced by OPEN, transparent, and collaborative PROCESSES supported by robust technology.


BIM Construction Cost Estimating – Top Ten List

First and foremost BIM is the life-cycle management of the built environment supported by digital technology.  While the industry is currently fixated upon 3D visualization tools, aka Revit, Archicad, Bentely… they only represent components of a BIM solution.

Construction cost estimating, and facility life-cycle cost estimating are critical components of any facility design, project delivery, repair, renovation, sustainability, or planning function.

Here’s a list of BIM Construction Cost Estimating Requirements:

1.  Collaboration – involvement of all stakeholders – Owners, AE’s, Contractors, Oversight Groups, Community …

2. Transparency – Appropriate access to cost information, and associated comparison to published independent third-party costs such as RSMeans Cost Data.

3. Consistent Format and Terminology – Use of a standard set of terms and data architectures such as Uniformat, Masterformat, Omniclass.

4. Metrics and Benchmarks – Time, Accuracy, Cost

5. Proper allowances for local conditions – geographic, weather, productivity of labor, …

6. Appropriate level of technology to assure productivity, collaboration, security, audit trail.

7. Robust Process – The application of a robust process and business “best-practices” with a focus upon continuous improvement.

8. Appropriate knowledge of all “levels” of construction cost estimating and their potential accuracy – Square Foot / Conceptual / Building Level Construction Cost Estimating, Assembly / System Level Construction Cost Estimating, Unit Line Item Construction Cost Estimating.

9. Knowledge of the impact of the Construction Cost Delivery Method upon construction costs and life-cycle costs – Design-Bid-Build, CM@Risk, Design-Build, Job Order Contracting, Integrated Project Delivery

10. Fundamental understanding of Total Cost of Ownership and Facility Life-cycle Management – Physical and functional conditions, Operations, Sustainability, Renovation, Repair, Efficient Project Delivery Methods ( IPD-Integrated Project Delivey, JOC – Job Order Contracting )