5 Steps to a Successful Construction Cost Estimate

1.Collaboration – To paraphrase, “no successful cost estimator is an island”.  It is critical to understand the full scope of any project.   Collaboration spans discussions with Owners, Contractors, Subs/Trade, site visits, sharing estimates and jointly reviewing/refining and negotiating estimates, and more!

2. Transparency – Despite what you may hear, there is no “secret sauce” involved in cost estimating, and no “black magic” either.  It’s all about experience and the application of robust business process and appropriate use/re-use of available cost data, including so called “reference cost data” such as RSMeans.  All stakeholders must be able to understand the cost estimate thus transparency is a requirement.

3. Technology – Collaboration, transparency, accuracy, productivity and other factors are directly impacted by technology.  Using the appropriate tools for the job is just as important for cost estimating as it is for a  construction project.  The exclusive use of spreadsheets for multiple concurrent projects and/or larger projects is typically unproductive and error prone.  Don’t fall into the “spreadsheets can do anything” trap.  That said, there is no cost estimating software application that can do everything (residential, commercial, government, …) well.  So look for ‘best of breed’ applications that are built for your needs!

4. Information – Extensive  detailed line time cost databases, such as those from RSMeans, as well as historical costs and other third party sources are extremely important relative to productivity and accuracy.  They enable information re-use, data validation, and more.   That said, proper attention must be paid to the data architecture (how information is categorized, updated, and stored).

5. Localization – Every construction job, while sharing many similarities, is different.  Each cost estimate must be localized for physical site conditions, physical location, as well as local labor and material availability.

4. Granularity – A big word, I know… but understanding the inter-relationships and variability associated with material, equipment, and labor for each activity or task is critical.   Are you using union, open shop, Davis-Bacon…  what is the source of your information, what sample size are you using,  what could affect productivity, ….
5.  Parallel Approach – Top down or bottom up?  The answer is both!   Clearly one must understand the overall value associated with a certain project.  That said, detailed line items with associated labor, materials, and equipment, and an associated bill of materials (BOM) are requirements for transparency and to mitigate errors and omissions.

via http://www.4Clicks.com – Premier cost estimating and project management software for efficient project delivery – JOC, SABER, IDIQ, SATOC, MATOC, MACC, POCA, BOA, ….

BIM Evolution

In the long history of humankind, those who learned to collaborate and improvise most effectively have prevailed.
– Charles Darwin

BIM, the life-cycle management of the built environment supported by digital technology, requires a fundamental change in how the construction (Architects, Contractors, Engineers) and facility management (Owners, Service Providers, Building Product Manufactures, Oversight Groups, Building Users) sectors operate on a day-to-day basis.  

BIM, combined and  Cloud Computing are game changers.  They are disruptive technologies with integral business processes/practices that demand collaboration, transparency, and accurate/current information displayed via common terminology.

The traditional ad-hoc and adversarial business practices commonly associated with Construction and Facility Management are changing as we speak.    Design-bid-build and even Design-Build will rapidly go by the wayside in favor of the far more efficient processes of Integrated Project Delivery – IPD, and Job Order Contracting – JOC, and similar collaborative programs.  (JOC is a form of integrated project delivery specifically targeting facility renovation, repair, sustainability, and minor new construction).

There is no escaping the change.   Standardized data architectures (Ominclass, COBie, Uniformat, Masterformat) and cost databases (i.e. RSMeans), accesses an localized via cloud computing are even now beginning to be available.   While historically, the construction and facility management sectors have lagged their counterparts (automotive, aerospace, medical, …)  relative to technology and LEAN business practices, environmental and economic market drivers and government mandates are closing the gap.

The construction and life-cycle management of the built environment requires the integration off several knowledge domains, business “best-practices”, and technologies as portrayed below.   The efficient use of this BIG DATA is enabled by the BIM, Cloud Computing, and Integrated Project Delivery methods.

Image

The greatest challenges to these positive changes are  the CULTURE of the Construction and the Facility Management Sectors.  Also, an embedded first-cost vs. life-cycle or total cost of ownership perspective.  An the unfortunate marketing spotlight upon the technology of 3D visualization vs. BIM.   Emphasis MUST be place upon the methods of how we work on a daily basis…locally and globally  − strategic planning, capitial reinvestment planning, designing collaborating, procuring, constructing, managing and operating.  All of these business processes have different impacts upon the “facility” infrastructure and  construction supply chain, building Owners, Stakeholders, etc., yet communication terms, definitions, must be transparent and consistently applied in order to gain  greater efficiencies.

Some facility life-cycle management are already in place for the federal government facility portfolio and its only a matter of time before these are expanded and extended into all other sectors.

BIM, not 3D visualization, but true BIM or Big BIM,  and Cloud Computing will connect information from every discipline together.  It will not necessarily be a single combined model.  In fact the latter has significant drawbacks.    Each knowledge domain has independent areas of expertise and requisite process that would be diluted and marginalized if managed within one model.   That said, appropriate “roll-up” information will be available to a higher level model.   (The issue of capability and productivity marginalization can be proven by looking a ERP and IWMS systems.  Integration of best-in-class technology and business practices is always support to systems that attempt to do everything, yet do not single thing well.)

Fundamental Changes to Project Delivery for Repair, Renovation, Sustainability, and New Construction Projects MUST include:

  • Qualifications Based or Best Value Selection
  • Some form of pricing transparency and standardization
  • Early and ongoing information-sharing among project stakeholders
  • Appropriate distribution of risk
  • Some form of financial incentive to drive performance / performance-based relationships

COBIE – BIM – Life-cycle Facility Managment

After a 3 month period of international review, the COBie Guide has just been published on the buildingSMART alliance website.  The COBie Guide can be considered the “commentary” to the COBie information standard “code”.  The Guide provides enforceable quality standards for the delivery of COBie data. To obtain a copy click COBie_Guide_-.

This version of the COBie Guide will be submitted for United States National BIM Standard balloting in the next round.  The Guide is organized to allow the specification of regional and client customization. As a result, it is hoped, that this document can be applied to accelerate the already rapid use of COBie world-wide. – Bill East, US Army October 9. 2012 – via FMOC

The quality standards identified in this Guide will be built into the bimserver.org COBie checking routines to provide anyone using COBie a free quality control tool.

The COBie Guide: a commentary to the NBIMS-US COBie standard
by Dr. Bill East, PhD, PE, F.ASCE1, Mariangelica Carrasquillo-Mangual 2
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Construction-Operations Building information exchange (COBie) format is the international standard for the exchange of information about managed facility assets. COBie does not add new requirements to contracts; it simply changes the format of existing deliverables from paper documents and proprietary formats, to an open, international standard format.
While COBie provides the format for the exchange of required asset information, it does not provide details on what information is to be provided when, and by whom. This Guide provides best-practice guidelines for these requirements. This Guide can be considered the “commentary” that accompanies the COBie format specification. To use this guide, customizations reflecting regional practices, specialized project types, and client’s requirements should be documented in Appendix A. The correct application of the COBie Guide may then be reference directly in appropriate specifications.
As of 2012 over twenty commercial software products support COBie. These products cover the entire facility life-cycle from planning, design, construction, commissioning to operations, maintenance, and space management. Software implementers will find the information in Appendix B helpful for low-level mapping of required properties.

via http://www.4Clicks.com – Premier cost estimating and efficient project delivery software – JOC – Job Order Contacting, SABER, IDIQ, SATOC, MATOC, MACC, POCA, BOA.  Exclusively enhanced 400,0000+ RSMeans detailed line items.

Cloud Computing 101 – The Internet – The Web

Cloud computing and BIM are disruptive technologies that will finally alter the culture and fundamental framework of how the AECOO sector (Architecture, Engineering, Construction, Owner, Operations) does business.   To appreciate this potential, however, requires a basic understanding of the following terms: The Internet – The Web – Cloud Computing – BIM.

The Internet is the substrate underlying the web and emerged from Darpa-funded (Defense Advanced Research Project Agency) work in the 1970s.  The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks   that use the standard protocols, for example,  TCP/IP, to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext   documents of the web (world wide web, www.) and the infrastructure to support email.

The Web  (world wide web, www.) was invented by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN (Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire /European Organization for Nuclear Research)  in the early 1990s.  The web is a system  of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet.  With a browser (Explore, Chrome, Firefox…) one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and between them via hyperlinks.

Having worked with both, including deploying on of the first truly web-based FM applications in 1998, I appreciate the scope of these two words.  Many, if not most, do not.

Now on to Cloud Computing, the delivery of standards-based computing, applications, and storage as a service to a public or private community of recipients.  It is the the delivery of   a standards-based method of providing service in a wide variety of virtual and physical domains that is a key aspect.   Computers now existing  in our homes, offices, cars, and pockets, and virtual computers exist in the cloud.  Computers have traditionally have worked within data networks as clients;  consuming but not provide services. This is changing rapidly, Computers that live in the cloud provide as well as consume services. This differentiation may be of little importance to many/most businesses whose computers are being “virtualized”, the processed of simply moving data/IT centers off-premises.   In this case, day to day processes, and fundamental business practices are not being affected.

Standards and services, and the unparalleled level of collaboration resulting from integration the Internet, Web, and Cloud Computing are converging to create a wave of change that is  now upon us. 

The cloud is social... on a very personal level.  For example, computers performing services for us live in the cloud, alongside computers that work for other people in the same and within other organizations.  People doing the same, similar, or related tasks in different locations, languages, currencies, etc.   How effectively your computers can work for your depends on how well they provide services accessible to those other computers.  This requires data standards, common processes, common lexicon, …..  If computers and people they don’t use common, robust terms/formats/processes, they can’t provide those services, and so they can’t efficiently, accurately, securely, and transparently do their jobs.

So, what’s cloud computing?  Computers and people working collaboratively and providing enhanced productivity, speed, accuracy, security, and transparency for you.  Everything working together and “playing nicely”, with virtually no bandwidth  limitation within an ecosystem of standards-based services. worth.   Thus, don’t fall for “cloud-washing”, the practice of taking legacy applications and porting them to virtual servers in the cloud.  You gain nothing.   Do your homework and look for standards-based true cloud computing applications that can “play nice” with everyone and deliver a better, faster, and actually fun way of doing work!

Now for BIM.  BIM, building information modeling, is the efficient life-cycle management of the built environment.  BIM requires standards, common terms/lexicon, collaboration, cloud-computing, robust processes, efficient delivery methods, and so much more. The below graphics highlight components of a BIM framework.

BIM Framework

National BIM Standard – United States™ (NBIMS-US™) Version 2 (V2) – Released May 2012

National Institute of Building Sciences buildingSMART alliance™ has released The National BIM Standard-United States™ (NBIMS-US™) Version 2 (V2).  The document is intended to cover the full life cycle of buildings—from planning, design and construction to operations and sustainment.

via http://www.4Clicks.com – Premier cost estimating and efficient project delivery software – JOC, IPD, SABER, IDIQ, SATOC, MATOC, MACC, POCA, BOA – exclusively enhanced 400, 000 line item electronic RSMeans Cost Data.

Integrated Project Delivery – IPD, Job Order Contracting – JOC, BIM, and Efficient Project Delivery

Project delivery methods set the tone and largely dictate the relative success of any facility construction, renovation, repair, or sustainability project.  Project delivery methods must therefore be a component of BIM, a fact many/most 3D visualization software vendors appear to have ignored.

It is the project delivery method that is largely responsible for the fact that productivity within our AEC sector is abysmal compared to any other.

Below is are related article that I hope you find of interest.

Integrated Project Delivery and JOC by Rick Farrag (CJE Newsletter, 2010)

In the last few years, Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) has emerged as an accepted delivery method along with
Design/Build, CM, CM@R and, of course,Job Order Contracting. Recently, several organizations collaborated together and published a white paper titled Integrated Project Delivery for Public and Private Owners. The paper was authored by NASFA, COAA, APPA, the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, AGC and AIA, and described the IPD delivery method and explained that it is a collaborative alliance among project stakeholders – owners, designers, contractors and other participants – to optimize the project results.

During the Construction Owners Association
of America Fall Conference last November, I had the opportunity to attend a one-hour breakout session dedicated to IPD. Two case studies were presented on projects executed by the Corps of Engineers.

So what is IPD? Numerous papers and articles have recently been published about IPD detailing this delivery method. In summary, IPD advocates pulling together the owner, contractor, designer, and others to achieve higher project results, which in turn increases the overall value to the owner. It promotes collaboration and partnership; it is about integrating design excellence with a constructor’s expertise during the conceptual stage of a project life cycle. Accordingly, the risk profile and allocation change significantly from other traditionaldelivery methods. It is intended for large-size projects.
IPD and Job Order contracting (JOC) have several things in common (JOC is actually a form of “IPD-lite”, created for renovation, repair, sustainability, and minor new construction projects). Aside from the typical size of IPD projects, one may find several similarities between the two delivery methods.
For example, JOC is also based on close collaboration between all stake holders. Just as partnering is a prelude to IPD, it is the foundation that a successful JOC program is built on. Traditional construction delivery methods typically have an adversarial relationship. JOC, on the other hand, is a longterm contract of three to five years which promotes a close and effective working relationship between contractor, client and subcontractors. A JOC contract is inherently
built on partnering for the long-term relationship to succeed.

Early involvement of the construction manager and the contractor with the owner and the designer in the conceptual phase of the project is another similarity with IPD that brings value to the owners. Joint scope of work development
under the JOC program is a typical feature as the starting point for each project (task order) under the contract. Bringing the JOC contractor together with the owner and the designer, when applicable, provides a higher level of common understanding of the scope of work. This helps to eliminate potential disputes and change orders that traditional construction delivery methods are known to experience.

Another advantage that early involvement brings under a JOC contract is the ability of the contractor to provide input
about the potential cost, constructability, and value engineering that aids the designer in making more efficient and cost-effective decisions.
Common processes are yet another similarity between JOC and IPD. Establishing shared processes that govern the flow of information and communication between all project participants is critical in both delivery methods.
These processes develop an effective and transparent transfer of information in all directions with the goal of creating and building trust. After all, a JOC program is only as successful as the ability of all participants to trust each
other. An effective and successful JOC contractor focuses its efforts onbuilding and maintaining
the trust with his clients and subcontractors. Lastly, risk sharing is another advantage both
delivery methods bring to the owner. As scopes of work are jointly developed, discussed, agreed upon and finalized, a JOC contract is much less likely to have claims, change orders, and disputes than other traditional delivery methods.
Granted, JOC is not intended for multimillion dollar projects; and in most cases is limited to renovation, rehabilitation and minor new construction projects. However, this does not detract from the fact that JOC, if implemented
properly, is a great example of Integrated Project Delivery that has proven to be successful for over 25 years.

Second article:

JOC – The Stimulus Ready Delivery Method
By Robert Gair, RS Means  (CJE Newsletter 2010)

On August 22 CJE Member 4Clicks-Solutions sponsored a webinar on Job Order Contracting – The Stimulus Ready Delivery Method. The webinar was hosted by Reed Construction Data / RS Means moderated by Robert Gair, Principal Means Business Solutions with distinguished speakers Allen Henderson, consultant, formerly Facilities,
Manager Texas State University; John Murray, Director of Facilities Management, State of Missouri; Mark Bailey, President & CEO Centennial Contractors.

The intent of the webinar was to provide a broad perspective on JOC and to identify the benefits of using the JOC
Delivery Method and the specific value it provides for the Federal Stimulus Bill.

Allen Henderson

Allen Henderson led the presentation providing quality information on the JOC process and the interaction that occurs between an Owner and Contractor. Allen pointed out that JOC is unique from other delivery methods as the bidding process is not project specific, but takes on an IDIQ approach by issuing a contract to the best qualified contractor based the contractor’s
coefficient applied to a fixed price book. The coefficient remains constant through the life of the contract that may be one year with renewable option years up to four additional years. Inflation factors most often are based on the
annual or quarterly adjusted prices as provided by the price book. The awarded contractor is then available to the Owner on an on-call basis to perform renovation and repair projects. The Texas State experience showed that the
types of projects ranged from (1) interior renovations, (2) exterior building rehab, such as door, window and roof replacement (3) hardscape and landscape, (4) mechanical, electrical and plumbing upgrades, and (5) routine
maintenance and emergency work. To start a program Allen suggested beginning with a small, specific type of project work that is readily accomplished to get a feel for the JOC program. It is critically important to select a contractor that
is service oriented, who is quick to respond to owners requests, can submit sufficiently accurate job order proposals, can meet budget and timelines, and that the contractor become familiar with the owners needs and expectations.
Allen further noted that JOC has proven to be a delivery method that supports local contractors
which can provide professional quality workmanship. There may be a nationally based general contractor in charge of the overall program, but local contractors are hired to perform the work. With a successful program, the contractor will be rewarded with a contract extension and will have a reliable book of business which becomes a winning formula for
owner and contractor.
Allen cautioned that not all JOC contracts are the same. Contracts with no price restrictions(usually related to Division 1 General Requirements of the price book) will have a lower coefficient bid than contracts with restrictions,
which will commonly have a higher coefficient bid. Allen noted that contracts with restrictions are more predictable. He also noted, for the contractor to understand, that change orders are kept to a minimum with JOC – thus, the contractor’s coefficient bid is very important for their long-term profitability success. Successful JOC programs promote and adhere to a partnering philosophy between Owner and Contractor. The ways for the Owner and
Contractor to partner includes:
• Examine the internal project planning process
• Examine the job order review and award process
• Generate a list of the commonly used material and equipment
• Bring contractor in early in the design phase
• Provide access to all applicable record documents
• Accommodate contractor access to proposed project site
• Assist with permitting process, if needed
• Discuss access and staging issues
• Address issues to minimize the impact on existing operations
Regarding JOC proposals, Allen strongly suggested that reviewers should be experienced and well trained in general contracting and should have walked the job with the contractor so they mutually understand the project scope. He noted that the owner and contractor should be using the same software to develop and compare cost proposals.
He also felt that in-house trades personnel can be useful in the review process. Allen concludes that JOC is an effective delivery method when used on the right type of projects with a committed partnering contractor.

State of Missouri

John Murray provided the attendees with some very interesting facts and results from the State
of Missouri JOC Program. The State of Missouri passed legislation in 2005 allowing JOC as a delivery method for project work orders up-to $100,000. John felt that it was a beginning, but might be a limiting work order
dollar value for the long-term success of the JOC program. In 2007 the State changed the Statute to
a maximum of $300,000 on small, relatively simple projects with design limited to design
development.
John pointed out that the success of the State JOC program has grown and was clearly helped by the Statute increase affected in 2007. During the first two years for the program, April 2006 to April 2008, 34 projects were completed with a total projects value of $3,029,593. Under the second two-year contract April 2008 to April 2010, 86 projects were completed with a total dollar value of $5,012,086. The current contact is for one year with four one-year renewable
options.
John pointed out that the process in place at the
State is:
1. Owner Scope and Design
2. Walk Through with the Contractor
3. Contractor proposal
4. Owner Review
5. Negotiation
6. Notice to Proceed
7. Performance of Work
John agreed with the earlier comments from Allen noting that the partnering philosophy and the importance of having the owner and contractor using the same software program have been strong attributes to the success of the State’s program. The State of Missouri and their contractor both use RS Means JOCWorks software.
John’s conclusion was that the State of Missouri is very satisfied with its JOC Program with key elements being a strong working relationship with the Contractor, responsiveness of the Contractor and trust that is developed with success.

Centennial Contractors

Mark Bailey provided the attendees with the contractor’s perspective on JOC. Mark noted that JOC requires a different contractor skillset and mindset from the traditional Bid/Build process. The contractor to be successful using
JOC needs to embrace a collaborative spirit and process that emphasizes partnering and teamwork that is focused on a long-term relationship that is responsive to the owners’ needs. These attributes are created by delivering quality results and showing improved performance over time. To the owner, Mark provided this incite; ensure that JOC is the right fit for your organization, ensure that there is an adequate program volume that will be attractive to a qualified JOC contractor and be sure to consider your JOC bandwidth that generally fits between the inhouse trades that handle T&M contracts and the larger capital projects. (The project/task order values in this bandwidth fall between $10,000 and $1M, with a few exceptions ranging to $45M). Mark also noted that the owners should select JOC ‘able’ projects (Allen provided a good list in his presentation) and select the right contractor on a “Best Value” or a qualificationsbased
process. Mark provided a valuable incite into a successful JOC
program start-up. He feels strongly that a higher level of investment needs to be put in the working
relationship insuring that the alignment between the owner and contractor is well established. The contractor needs to insure that the owner’s and contractor’s simple projects with design limited to design
development.
John pointed out that the success of the State
JOC program has grown and was clearly helped
by the Statute increase affected in 2007. During
the first two years for the program, April 2006 to
April 2008, 34 projects were completed with a
total projects value of $3,029,593. Under the
second two-year contract April 2008 to April
2010, 86 projects were completed with a total
dollar value of $5,012,086. The current contact
is for one year with four one-year renewable
options.
John pointed out that the process in place at the
State is:
1. Owner Scope and Design
2. Walk Through with the Contractor
3. Contractor proposal
4. Owner Review
5. Negotiation
6. Notice to Proceed
7. Performance of Work
John agreed with the earlier comments from
Allen noting that the partnering philosophy and
the importance of having the owner and
contractor using the same software program have been strong attributes to the success of the State’s program. The State of Missouri and their contractor both use RS Means JOCWorks software.
John’s conclusion was that the State of Missouri is very satisfied with its JOC Program with key elements being a strong working relationship with the Contractor, responsiveness of the Contractor and trust that is developed with success.
Mark Bailey provided the attendees with the contractor’s perspective on JOC. Mark noted that JOC requires a different contractor skillset and mindset from the traditional Bid/Build process. The contractor to be successful using JOC needs to embrace a collaborative spirit and process that emphasizes partnering and teamwork that is focused on a long-term
relationship that is responsive to the owners’ needs. These attributes are created by delivering quality results and showing improved performance over time.
To the owner, Mark provided this incite; ensure that JOC is the right fit for your organization, ensure that there is an adequate program volume that will be attractive to a qualified JOC contractor and be sure to consider your JOC bandwidth that generally fits between the inhouse trades that handle T&M contracts and the larger capital projects. The project/task order values in this bandwidth fall between $10,000 and $1M, with a few exceptions ranging to $45M). Mark also noted that the owners should select JOC ‘able’ projects (Allen provided a good list in his presentation) and select the right contractor on a “Best Value” or a qualificationsbased process.
Mark provided a valuable incite into a successful JOC program start-up. He feels
strongly that a higher level of investment needs to be put in the working relationship insuring that the alignment between the owner and contractor is well established. The contractor needs to insure that the owner’s and contractor’s structure. A contractor who is familiar with the federal paperwork requirements and utilizes small local business will help to support and meet the stimulus hiring goals. JOC gives the owners a “shovel readiness” tool to maximize
funding from any source.
In conclusion, Mark noted what he called the added value of JOC:
1. Flexibility-matching project scope/goals to available budget
2. Targeted design; the right level of design for the project needs
3. Helping owners think plan and find solutions
4. Building safety into the project
5. Ensuring the local small business community benefits from the project dollars
6. Creating a financial incentive for the contractor that aligns with the owners goals for contractor performance

European Facility Management Data Standard – EN 15221 – 3

Common taxonomy is critical to productivity, transparency, collaboration, and information re-use/management.  Within the facility management where process, technology, and productivity lags, common taxonomy must be at the forefront.

Various standards are in place and evolving.  Here’s a quick view of FM data standards for Europe.

EN 15221-1: Facility Management – Part 1: Terms and Definitions  Version EN 15221-1:2006

This draft European standard gives relevant terms and definitions in the area of Facility Management. It also provides a structure of facility services.

EN 15221-2: Facility Management – Part 2:

Facility Management — Agreements -Guidance on how to prepare Facility Management agreements Version EN 15221-2:2006

This document is a working and standardized tool intended for parties who wish to draw up the Facility Management agreement within the European Common Market. It offers headings, which are not exhaustive. Parties may or may not include, exclude, modify and adapt these headings to their own contracts.

Definition of Facility Management – an integrated process to support and improve the effectiveness of the primary activities of an organization by the management and delivery of agreed support services for the appropriate environment that is needed to achieve its changing objectives.

FM Model

 

EN 15221-3: facility management – Part 3:

Guidance how to achieve/ensure quality in facility management

Provides guidance how to measure, achieve and improve quality in FM. It gives complementary guidelines to ISO 9000, ISO 9001 and EN 15221-2 within the framework of EN 15221-1.

Scope

Normative references

Terms and definitions

Basics of quality management

4.1      Importance of quality in FM

4.2      Criteria, background, elements and influences to quality

4.3      Type of characteristics

4.4      Pathway from needs to experiencing Delivery

4.5      Quality management

Process of quality management

5.1      General introduction of the process

5.2      Demand

5.3      Determining and defining requirements

5.4      Service Level (SL)

5.5      Developing measurement metrics (hierarchy of indicators)

5.6      Quality aspects by organizing delivery of fm products

5.7      Quality aspects by delivering fm products

5.8      General introduction into performance management

5.9      Measurement and calculation

5.10    Analyze deviation

5.11    Actions based on deviation

5.12    Continuous improvement

Quality:

degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements

 

 

Requirement:

need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory

Characteristic: distinguishing feature

A characteristic can be inherent or assigned and can be qualitative or quantitative. There are various classes of characteristics, such as the following:

— physical (e.g. mechanical, electrical, chemical or biological characteristics);

— sensory (e.g. related to smell, touch, taste, sight, hearing);

— behavioral (e.g. courtesy, honesty, veracity);

— temporal (e.g. punctuality, reliability, availability);

— ergonomic (e.g. physiological characteristic, or related to human safety);

— functional (e.g. maximum speed of an aircraft).

Product:

result of a process

product categories, as follows:

– services (e.g. transport);

– software (e.g. computer program, dictionary);

– hardware (e.g. engine mechanical part);

grade

Category or rank given to different quality requirements for products, processes or systems having the same functional use.

service level

Complete description of requirements of a product, process or system with their characteristics.

The described set of characteristics in the SL can be graded within boundaries suitable for measurement and analysis.

indicator

Ceasured or calculated characteristic (or a set of characteristics) of a product according to a given formula, which assess the status or level of performance at defined time.

key performance indicator

Indicator that provides essential information about performance of the client´s organization.

The key performance indicators have to be given by the client´s organization, based on its strategic goals pursuing the development of the primary activities.

FM-indicator

Indicator that measures the quality of fm products.

They are used on different levels (e.g. strategic, tactical or operational Level).

FM-key performance indicator (fm kpi)

Indicator directly impacting the primary activities and the objectives of the client´s organisation.

Fm-indicator linked to client’s organisation objectives and related product which directly impacts the primary activities.

FM Need or Expectation
FM Process Overview
Gap Model
Gap Analysis

EN 15221-4: facility management – Part 4: Taxonomy of facility management

Focused on the concept of classified facility products / services by defining relevant interrelationship of service elements and their hierarchical structures, associated terms and cost allocation

EN 15221-5: facility management – Part 5:

Guidance on the development and improvement of processes

Provides guidance to FM organizations on the development and improvement of their processes to support the primary activities.

EN 15221-6: facility management – Part 6:

Space measurement

Area and space measurement for existing buildings

 

via http://www.4Click,s.com – premier software for cost estimating and efficient project delivery methods and management – JOC, SABER, IDIQ, IPD, SATOC, MATOC, MACC, POCA, BOA ….