Building Information Modeling, BIM, is the life-cycle management of the built environment supported by digital technology. As such, the core requirements of BIM include collaboration, standardized information, multiple domain competencies, and several supporting interoperable technologies.
Let’s face it, BIM continues to languish. Sure a lot of architects use it for pretty pictures to win business, and there are several “case studies” surrounding clash detection, etc. etc. However, life-cycle and/or ongoing facility management using BIM? No so much.
This is not only sad but economically and environmentally imprudent. The efficient life-cycle management of the built environment is critical to both global competitiveness and preserving sustainable resources.
Why is BIM of to a slow start? Too much focus on 3D visualization, too much “reinventing the wheel” trying to fit a square peg in a round hole, and virtually NO EMPHASIS upon the requirements for life-cycle management… associated competencies, domains, technologies, ongoing collaboration, integration, and continuous improvement.
Design-bid-build and “low bid” awards are the downfall of the Architecture, Engineering, Construction, Owner, and Operations sector. The method is antagonistic, wasteful, and typically delivers poor initial and ongoing results.
Focus upon CHANGE MANAGEMENT and building awareness relative to both COLLABORATIVE CONSTRUCTION DELIVERY METHODS AND LIFECYCLE, TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP MANAGMENT is the only thing that will “kick start” BIM.
Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) and Job Order Contracting (JOC) are both collaborative construction delivery methods that have been proven for decades, however, awareness remains low. IPD’s focus is upon major new construction, while JOC focuses upon the numerous renovation, repair, sustainability, and minor new construction projects so critical to efficient use of our current infrastructure.
The below diagram outlines the competencies, technologies, and process required for the lifecycle management of the built environment.
via http://www.4clicks.com – Premier cost estimating and efficient project delivery technology solutions for JOC, SABER, IDIQ, SATOC, MATOC, MACC, POCA, BOS, BOS… Featuring an exclusively enhanced 400,000+ line item RSMeans Cost database, document/contract/project management, and visual estimating / electronic quantity take-off, QTO.
By Peter Cholakis
Published in the March 2013 issue of Today’s Facility Manager
Emergent disruptive technologies and construction delivery methods are altering both the culture and day-to-day practices of the construction, renovation, repair, and sustainability of the built environment. Meanwhile, a shifting economic and environmental landscape dictates significantly improved efficiencies relative to these facility related activities. This is especially important to any organization dependent upon its facilities and infrastructure to support and maintain its core mission.
The disruptive digital technologies of building information modeling (BIM) and cloud computing, combined with emergent collaborative construction delivery methods are poised to alter the status quo, ushering in increased levels of collaboration and transparency. A disruptive technology is one that alters the very fabric of a business process or way of life, displacing whatever previously stood in its place. BIM and cloud computing fit the profile of disruptive technologies, individually, and when combined these stand to create a tidal wave of change.
BIM is the life cycle management of the built environment, supported by digital technology. While a great deal of emphasis has been placed upon 3D visualization, this is just a component of BIM. The shift from a “first cost mentality” to a life cycle cost or total cost of ownership is a huge change for many. Improving decision making practices and applying standardized terms, metrics, and cost data can also prove challenging. An understanding and integration of the associated knowledge domains important to life cycle management is required, resulting in what is now being referred to as “big data.”
Cloud computing is also a disruptive technology, and it’s one that impacts several areas. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) definition of cloud computing is as follows, “Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. The cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.”
It is perhaps helpful to define cloud computing in terms of its benefits. Cloud computing enables far greater levels of collaboration, transparency, and information access previously unavailable by traditional client/server, database, or even prior generation web applications. Multiple users can work on the same data set with anyone, anywhere, anytime, in multicurrency, multilanguage environments. All changes can be tracked to “who did what” within seconds (potentially the best form of security available), and information is never deleted.
The disruptive technologies of BIM and cloud computing will accelerate the adoption of emergent construction delivery methods and foster new frameworks. Design-bid-build, the traditional construction delivery method for decades, is inherently flawed. As a lowest bid deployment it immediately sets up adversarial relationships for involved parties. Owners prepare a solicitation for construction projects based on their understanding of them1, with or without third-party A/E assistance, and in most cases they go out in search of the lowest bidder. Then without a thorough understanding of the owner’s facility, bidders base their responses on the owner’s solicitation, plans, and specifications. Owners typically allow a period of time for bidders’ questions and clarifications; but the quality of this interchange is at best questionable if based solely on a written scope, plans and specifications, and/or a meeting with suppliers.
Design-build, arguably a step in right direction, falls short of bringing all stakeholders together. More responsibility of design and construction is shifted to the contractor and/or A/E. However, the dual level participation structure doesn’t assure the interests of all parties are equally addressed. Furthermore, the design-build process is typically reserved for major new construction projects versus the numerous sustainability, repair, renovation projects, and minor new construction projects typically encountered by facility managers (fms).
Because BIM brings together previously disparate information into a framework that enables decision support, using the technology requires a collaborative construction delivery method. The integration of the domain knowledge and robust processes required to allow fms, A/Es, and other stakeholders to achieve heightened levels of information sharing and collaboration is enabled by methods that include Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) and Job Order Contracting (JOC).
Key characteristics of these emergent construction delivery methods include: choices based on best value; some form of pricing transparency; early and ongoing information sharing among project stakeholders; appropriate distribution of risk; and some form of financial incentive to drive performance.
Both IPD and JOC allow, if not require, owner cost estimators and project managers to “partner” with contractors, subcontractors, and A/Es to conceptualize, create, cost, prioritize, start, and report upon projects—in the very early phases of construction.
IPD, JOC, and Simplified Acquisition of Base Civil Engineering Requirements (SABER)—the U.S. Air Force term for applying JOC practices—are practiced simultaneously by a growing number of organizations and supported by digital technologies. These construction delivery processes are embedded within software to allow for rapid, cost-effective, and consistent deployment as well as the associated level of collaboration and transparency.
BIM and cloud computing are disruptive technologies that will accelerate the adoption of emergent construction delivery methods such as IPD and JOC. Construction delivery methods set the tone and level of interaction among project participants and can be viewed as the management process framework. When supported by BIM and cloud computing, the life cycle management of the built environment, and the associated management of big data, can be expected to become commonplace for many construction projects.
Cholakis is chief marketing officer for 4Clicks Solutions, LLC, a Colorado Springs, CO provider of cost estimating and project management software. With expertise in facilities life cycle costs and total cost of ownership in various market segments, he is involved in numerous industry associations and committees including the American Society of Safety Engineers, Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering, Society of American Military Engineers, BIM Library Committee-National Institute for Building Sciences (NIBS), and National Building Information Model Standard Project Committee.
1 “The Art of Thinking Outside the Box;” Vince Duobinis; 2008.
BIM requires some form of Integrated Project Delivery… Period. Why you say?
Simple. BIM is the life-cycle management of the built environment supported by digital technology. BIM therefore, requires the integration of multiple knowledge domains, stakeholders and supporting technologies… from strategic and capital planning, through design, construction, operations, utilization, repair, renovation, adaptation, maintenance, and deconstruction.
Efficient project delivery methods such as IPD and Job Order Contracting (JOC) are integral components of efficiently managing the built environment over time. The help define the specialized framework needed to enable Owners, AEs, Contractors, Oversight Groups, and other Stakeholders share information and collaborate to enable the appropriate distribution of resources needed to optimize the physical and function conditions of the built environments.
Via http://www.4Clicks.com – Premier cost estimating and efficient project delivery software supporting IPD, JOC, SABER, IDIQ, SATOC, MACC, POCA, BOA and featuring and exclusive 400,000 line item enhancement of RSMeans cost data with modifiers and full descriptions as well as integrated visual esimating/QTO, and contract, project, and document management…. all in one application.
Webinar: Job Order Contracting
Job Order Contracting (JOC) is an innovative delivery method focused on the renovation and repair of large facility infrastructure under a long-term contract. JOC has been around for a long time but is experiencing an upswing in an era of limited capital dollars and greater efficiency. Like IPD, JOC focuses on relational contracting, an integrated team, and performance incentives, but JOC is unique in its unit-price structure and repetitive delivery order process. This webinar will demystify unit pricing, coefficient development, job order scoping and estimating process, and skillsets needed to succeed in JOC. The current JOC market will be framed, with an emphasis on serving owners throughout the building life-cycle.
During this webinar, participants will learn about:
- Compare Job Order Contracting (JOC) to other well-known delivery methods.
- Describe the pricing structure of JOC, identify strategies for developing a coefficient, and understand the basics of line item estimating.
- Discuss the JOC delivery order process, including scoping, proposal preparation, and execution.
- Identify current JOC market opportunities and dynamics, including market segments, contract structure, unit price books, consultants, etc.
- Determine skillsets and culture to be a successful JOC contractor..
Consultant, LEED AP
Vice-President of Airport Development and Engineering, DFW Airport
Vice-President of Job Order Contracting Division, F.H. Paschen
Any questions or changes to your registration should be made via email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
via http://www.4Clicks.com – Premier Cost Estimating and Efficient Project Delivery Technology for JOC, SABER, IDIQ, IPD, SATOC, MATOC, POCA, BOA.
Is focus upon the 3D component of BIM an unfortunate distraction?
BIM, Building Information Modeling is the ability to create a dynamic information model of the built environment (above and below ground, inside and out, horizontal and vertical physical infrastructure) for use in all real property related activities: concept, rapid prototyping, planning, design, engineering, construction, physical and functional condition monitoring and management, financing, capital reinvestment, insurance, facility management, renovation, repair, sustainability, utilization, leasing, valuation, procurement, sale and decommissioning with appropriate shared, secure, and collaborative information access and use.
The advent of Cloud Computing, combined with the cost to capture, store, and process information falling to near zero, is enabling new capabilities for secure, real-time collaboration.
The altered world landscape relative to the built environment is upon us all. In addition to technology changes that are altering the ways we interact and conduct business on fundamental basis, there are economic and environmental imperatives. All of which lead to the AECOO (Architecture, Engineering, Construction, Operations and Owner) sector and its stakeholdings needing to collaborate to achieve better, quicker outcome, at less cost, and with less risk.
Key challenges to BIM in terms of its true potential, the life-cycle management of the built environment, include:
– The development of uniform standard process, terminology, and technology environments for the new BIG DATA world , encompassing all ‘built environment related knowledge domains, competencies, and activities.
– Clear organization and classifications of information and associated access rights and rights to use, enabling appropriate, uniform basis intra and international use.
– Workflow-based Cloud-computing services environments, and plug-ins that are vs. monolithic traditional software frameworks which are web enabled via virtual server, or even traditional 3-tier web applications such as .NET. 4-tier applications are needed with the ability to link and reuse information in any manner relative to identity/location, building, area, floor, room, occupancy, use, physical and functional conditions, standardized and actual costs (material, equipment, and labor), et al… – to provide common ‘highly secure’ models for short and long term decision support.
– The acceptance and increased use of collaborative construction delivery methods such as Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) and Job Order Contracting (JOC). The latter a form of IPD specifically targeting facility renovation, repair, sustainability, and minor new construction projects.
– AUTHENTICATION, ACCESS CONTROL, COLLABORATION, AND STANDARDS … 4Clicks Solutions is about to release a powerful new Cloud Computing solution called CEASEL. It focuses upon transparent construction cost estimating and efficient project delivery. Each user to controls their own ‘domain’ and access policies (ie ‘who’ can access ‘what’ data, ‘when’ and ‘how’ ). Data in NEVER deleted and ALL user access and activities are tracked.. .the best form of security. “Data independency” and appropriate access for all asset owners, managers, and service providers is supported. Project development time is reduced because users don’t need to create an identity store and access control system for each project, and projects, estimates, etc. can easily be updated and re-used.
New authentication methods or new kinds of user credentials can be adopted by upgrading just the authentication service. Associated contracts, projects, and estimates don’t need to be re-coded. Changes to access control policy can be made quicker and more easily because it is consolidated in the one place.
Dedicated and focused security service leads to better overall security – compared with each organization having a part-time resource for security management.
Security improvements benefit all projects at the same time.
Less time and effort is devoted to security administration as administrators only need to understand and use one security framework rather than a different one for each project.
Errors are reduced because there is no duplication of identity data and access control policy.A unified view of identity and access control policy is achieved for each user, without breaching the security of other users.
Simplified , auditing and reporting.
If you are interesting in being a pilot user of this new capability, please contact me directly.
In the long history of humankind, those who learned to collaborate and improvise most effectively have prevailed.
– Charles Darwin
BIM, the life-cycle management of the built environment supported by digital technology, requires a fundamental change in how the construction (Architects, Contractors, Engineers) and facility management (Owners, Service Providers, Building Product Manufactures, Oversight Groups, Building Users) sectors operate on a day-to-day basis.
BIM, combined and Cloud Computing are game changers. They are disruptive technologies with integral business processes/practices that demand collaboration, transparency, and accurate/current information displayed via common terminology.
The traditional ad-hoc and adversarial business practices commonly associated with Construction and Facility Management are changing as we speak. Design-bid-build and even Design-Build will rapidly go by the wayside in favor of the far more efficient processes of Integrated Project Delivery – IPD, and Job Order Contracting – JOC, and similar collaborative programs. (JOC is a form of integrated project delivery specifically targeting facility renovation, repair, sustainability, and minor new construction).
There is no escaping the change. Standardized data architectures (Ominclass, COBie, Uniformat, Masterformat) and cost databases (i.e. RSMeans), accesses an localized via cloud computing are even now beginning to be available. While historically, the construction and facility management sectors have lagged their counterparts (automotive, aerospace, medical, …) relative to technology and LEAN business practices, environmental and economic market drivers and government mandates are closing the gap.
The construction and life-cycle management of the built environment requires the integration off several knowledge domains, business “best-practices”, and technologies as portrayed below. The efficient use of this BIG DATA is enabled by the BIM, Cloud Computing, and Integrated Project Delivery methods.
The greatest challenges to these positive changes are the CULTURE of the Construction and the Facility Management Sectors. Also, an embedded first-cost vs. life-cycle or total cost of ownership perspective. An the unfortunate marketing spotlight upon the technology of 3D visualization vs. BIM. Emphasis MUST be place upon the methods of how we work on a daily basis…locally and globally − strategic planning, capitial reinvestment planning, designing collaborating, procuring, constructing, managing and operating. All of these business processes have different impacts upon the “facility” infrastructure and construction supply chain, building Owners, Stakeholders, etc., yet communication terms, definitions, must be transparent and consistently applied in order to gain greater efficiencies.
Some facility life-cycle management are already in place for the federal government facility portfolio and its only a matter of time before these are expanded and extended into all other sectors.
BIM, not 3D visualization, but true BIM or Big BIM, and Cloud Computing will connect information from every discipline together. It will not necessarily be a single combined model. In fact the latter has significant drawbacks. Each knowledge domain has independent areas of expertise and requisite process that would be diluted and marginalized if managed within one model. That said, appropriate “roll-up” information will be available to a higher level model. (The issue of capability and productivity marginalization can be proven by looking a ERP and IWMS systems. Integration of best-in-class technology and business practices is always support to systems that attempt to do everything, yet do not single thing well.)
Fundamental Changes to Project Delivery for Repair, Renovation, Sustainability, and New Construction Projects MUST include:
- Qualifications Based or Best Value Selection
- Some form of pricing transparency and standardization
- Early and ongoing information-sharing among project stakeholders
- Appropriate distribution of risk
- Some form of financial incentive to drive performance / performance-based relationships
BIM is not about software or technology but about CULTURE CHANGE and CHANGE MANAGEMENT.
BIM is about simplifying and adding visibility to the life-cycle management of the built environment. You are either “on-board” or “not”. It’s up to you.
BIM and FM are synonymous. Unfortunately there are very few instances of BIM.
The biggest mistake made by most people new to BIM is to assume that BIM is all about technology, and so focus all their efforts on mastering the technology rather than considering the impact that the application of this technology will have on the processes among Owners, AEs, Contractors, Subs, Business Product and Service Providers.
IFMA BIM Lifecycle Operations Community of Practice (BIMLO COP) Kickoff Meeting Video – http://www.gosee.tv/bimlco/
- Organizational Commitment
- Collaborative, Efficient Project Delivery Methods (IPD- Integrated Project Delivery, JOC – Job Order Contracting …)
- Standards (OMNICLASS, COBie, IFC), Common Terms, Definitions, Metrics, Cost Data (Standardized Cost Data, example-RSMeans)
- Life-cycle Information
- Open digital technology supporting the above
- Continuous Training and Improvement
via http://www.4Clicks.com – Premier software and services for construction cost estimating and efficient project delivery – IPD, JOC, SABER, IDIQ, SATOC, MATOC, MACC, POCA, BOA…featuring the best representation of RSMeans Cost Data, exclusively enhanced 400,000 line item database.
BIM (Building Information Modeling) is the life-cycle management of the built environment supported by digital technology. 3D visualization vendors have marketed BIM poorly. Their focus has generally been upon 3D modeling and associated visual objects vs. the collection and use of valuable and enabling INFORMATION. Sure 3D visualization is a great tool, and a useful component of BIM, however, it’s not even the most important aspect.
Many, if not most organizations will require significant “change management” in order to successfully implement life-cycle management / BIM. Owners, AEs, Contractors, Oversight Groups, Business Product Manufacturers, and Software Vendors will need to adopt a better understanding of several, currently disparate knowledge domains / competencies and technologies and work towards efficient, transparent information sharing and collaboration among all area, professionals, and stakeholders.
Cloud computing / social media, BIM, and other ‘disruptive technologies’ combined with market demands driven but altered environmental and economic global landscapes will likely help to drive change, however, timing is uncertain.
There is a serious hole in the Architectural, Engineering, Construction and Owner Sectors’ level of understanding of building performance and legacy beliefs and process simply don’t work. – adaptation of work by Melanie Thompson of Get Sust!
We must initiate a wider discussion on what constitutes an appropriate, progressive life-cycle management of the built environment.
“We are moving from the era of ‘talking about deployment’ to the era of ‘deployment’ – over the next few decades there will be billions spent on energy-efficiency retrofit projects and it is crucial for policies to be underpinned by reliable technical data and strong evidence of the benefits that can be achieved.” – Bob Lowe, Deputy Director of University College London’s Energy Institute
The effectiveness and efficiency of this deployment will be dependent upon people asking the right questions. Efficient project delivery methods such as Job Order Contracting – JOC, a form of Integrated Project Development – IPD, that specifically targets renovation, repair, sustainability and minor new construction will be integral to successful BIM or life-cycle management based solutions. Collaboration and longer term relationships are primary components of JOC and equally central to BIM processes.
“… We are in a war-like situation and therefore have to accept a two-stage process: do the best we can with what we’ve got, plus keep on researching.” – Jim Skea, Chair – Sustainable Energy, Imperial College of London
Behaviors across all AECO (Architecture, Engineering, Construction, Owner) professions, building users, and oversight groups must change. Ad-hoc, inefficient, and adversarial construction delivery methods such as Design-Bid-Build represent a serious impediment to efficient use of resources. Additionally, life-cycle management must be addressed on portfolio and local levels within the context specific buildings (or structures), inclusive of type, activity, and utilization. For this we need a fundamental shift in approach, applying the proven as well as yet to be developed methodologies and tools developed.
The impacts of social media and social sciences will expand exponentially. ” Conventional building researchers are ‘positivistic’ (measuring and monitoring objects and systems) while the social scientists, who inhabit a world of case studies and qualitative data, are ‘interpretivist’. Interpretivist research include studies of:
- occupants and their engagement with technologies;
- technologies and policy mechanisms in-use (implementation); and
- changes in business models, supply chains, the distribution of risk and responsibility, professional identities, the division of labor and so on.
|The Alliance For Construction Excellence||
Definition of JOB ORDER CONTRACTING – JOC
Job order contracting – JOC – is an innovative procurement technique designed to provide more responsive facility maintenance, repair, sustainability, and minor construction. It is intended to significantly reduce engineering and procurement lead-times by awarding a competitively bid, firm-fixed-price, indefinite-quantity, multitask contract (IDIQ) to a single general contractor. The contract consists of detailed task specifications for a multitude of real property maintenance activities encountered within a specific geographic area.
Use of a job order contract (JOC) avoids separate design, specification, and construction contracting actions. Prepriced units of work are used to help streamline the process. The contracts are awarded by competitive procedures. Upon award, a contractor receives individual task orders, also called delivery orders, based on continued levels of high performance. This incentive mechanism is unique to JOCs.
JOCs are based on a proprietary or commercially available unit price book (UPB) that lists all tasks encompassed by a contract with a corresponding unit price. The vast majority of JOC contracts use RSMeans Cost Data in some manner. 4Clicks Solutions, LLC offers exclusively enhanced 400,000+ line item RSMeans Cost Data access inclusive of full line item descriptions and modifiers. This UPB can be localized and supplemented with client specific line items and place within a power, easy-to-use software solution that automates many aspects and helps to assure consistency of JOC implementations.
In making offers on the JOC contract, offerers propose multipliers or coefficients for work performed during normal working hours, and for work performed during other than normal hours.
Multiplying the UPBs unit prices by the appropriate coefficient determines the total price. Should the task order include supplemental items that the UPB does not identify, the contractor and the owner jointly determine a fair price for these items. These items are added to the UPB work for a total cost of completing a task order. The items that are not included in the UPB are called either non-prepriced items (NPIs) or non-prepriced work (NPP).
(above adapted from Logistics Management Institute – Improving the Army’s Job Order Contracting Program, via http://www.4Clicks.com)